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Africa Renewal. 2004 Oct; 18(3): p..Since his appointment in January 2001 as UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan's Special Envoy for HIV/AIDS in Africa, Ambassador Stephen Lewis has earned a reputation as a fierce, plainspoken advocate for greater action against the HIV/AIDS pandemic sweeping the continent. He was an early - and often lonely - voice for a much stronger focus on the special challenges to and contributions from African women in the struggle against the disease. On 12 July, Mr. Lewis delivered the first of two major addresses on women and AIDS at the International AIDS Conference in Bangkok, drawing attention to the soaring HIV infection rates among young African women and calling for urgent action. The announcement that girls and young women now account for 75 per cent of all Africans aged 1524 living with HIV and AIDS, he said, "is unprecedented in the history of the pandemic and . . . perhaps the most ominous warning of what is yet to come." (excerpt)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2003 Aug. , 29 p. (Angola Vol. 15, No. 16(A))This short report is based on an investigation by Human Rights Watch conducted in March and April 2003. Our researchers interviewed over fifty internally displaced persons, refugees, and former combatants in the transit centers and the camps of Bengo, Bengo II and Kituma in the province of Uíge and Cazombo in the province of Moxico. Human Rights Watch researchers conducted twenty-one interviews with concerned U.N. agencies, NGOs and other organizations, including the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the U.N. Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP), Oxfam-GB, GOAL, African Humanitarian Aid (AHA), Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-Spain, MSF-Belgium, Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS), Lutheran World Federation (LWF), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, Trocaire, Associação Justiça, Paz e Democracia (AJPD), Liga da Mulher Angolana (LIMA) and Mulheres, Paz e Desenvolvimento. Human Rights Watch researchers also interviewed Angolan central government officials and police, and conducted six interviews with local Angolan authorities in three provinces. Where necessary, the names of those interviewed are withheld or changed in this short report to protect their confidentiality. (excerpt)
JOURNAL OF FAMILY WELFARE. 1993 Mar; 39(1):33-5.In 1960-70, right-wing, authoritarian governments in Latin America condoned the raping of female political prisoners, thereby setting the tone for civil police to do so. Police officers in Venezuela often rape sex crime victims who seek their help. Caracas' police chief has fired officers for being sexist and taking advantage of women. In 1984, a psychologist formed the Venezuelan Association for an Alternative Sexual Education (AVESA) to give rape victims somewhere to go for counseling. Its sex education programs target diverse groups. Funding from the UN Development Fund for Women launched AVESA's sex education program for police officers in April 1990, which attempts to sensitize police to rape victims. It has trained 450 police officers, 20% of whom are female police officers. A graduate claims that this AVESA training is responsible for him treating a rape victim with dignity which he would not have done before the course. A female police officer says that, before the AVESA course, she would have asked a rape victim what she did to provoke the rape. She credits the course for showing her how deeply ingrained sexism is in society. For example, men in the course blamed women for becoming less desirable after having children and for not wanting to have sexual intercourse anymore, thereby justifying their right to beat them. Statistics confirm that women are indeed afraid of reporting sex crimes to the police. In January-June 1990, there were 37 reported cases of sexual violence, but AVESA provided help to 146 rape victims. A mother of a 5-year old rape victim reported to the media the undignified way the police treated her, resulting in the arrest and conviction of the middle-aged physician who raped her daughter. AVESA also lobbies for changes in the inherently sexist legal system (e.g., it allows men to rape their wives).