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Arlington, Virginia, Camp Dresser and McKee International, Environmental Health Project, 2004 Mar. vi, 80 p. (Activity Report No. 128; USAID Contract No. HRN-I-00-99-00011-00)The tools presented in this report relate to technical support provided by USAID through the Environmental Health Project (EHP) to the Public Private Partnership (PPP) for Handwashing with Soap Initiative, which was started by UNICEF and implemented with financial assistance from USAID and the World Bank. As part of USAID/EHP’s technical support, EHP worked with Howard Delafield International (HDI) and prepared a series of program/planning tools used in the preparation of the first-phase of the Nepal Handwashing with Soap Initiative. These tools were based on a literature review of “lessons learned” from the Central American Handwashing Inititiative, as well as a review of other background material prepared for other handwashing with soap activities, and were developed in partnership with UNICEF /Nepal during 2003. The planning tools can be used and/or adapted by other organizations, public or private sector, interested in initiating a PPP in their country. For more information on PPP initiatives, please refer to www.globalhandwashing.org. (excerpt)
Psychoanalytic Review. 1998 Aug; 85(4):639-658.This article will explore some of the issues of resilience in the child population of Bosnia during the recent war there. It will also look at similar issues in the humanitarian aid workers who came from outside the country as representatives of relief agencies. I, myself, worked for UNICEF, and it was my job to train members of the local population to work with Bosnian children in an attempt to increase their resilience under intense wartime stress and to reduce the traumatic impact to those children already harmed. (author's)
HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1991 Aug; 17(4):20-3.Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease.
AIDS AND SOCIETY. 1991 Jan-Feb; 2(2):1, 6, 12-3.The political constraints slowing the battle against AIDS in Africa are getting AIDS on the public agenda, integrating the international community into the AIDS policy-making agenda and cultural barriers in national AIDS strategies. Policy making in most Africa is bureaucratic rather than democratic, so whether AIDS is a government priority depends largely on perception of AIDS risk by the leaders. In Zambia and Uganda, AIDS is a concern because it affects the ethnic group or family in power, while in Tanzania and Kenya, AIDS is associated with minority or "high risk" groups. The domination of AIDS agenda setting within nations in Africa by international donors and non-governmental organizations is a problem, made more severely severed by sensitivity of Africans who perceive research as a foreign effort to prove that AIDS originated there. Foreign domination is also detrimental because it prevents localities from becoming committed to AIDS interventions. Cultural barriers against effective interventions are similar to those in Western countries: AIDS is seen as a disease of shame affecting immoral people. In addition, the prevalent concept of fatalism defeats the Western insistence on intervention and strategies. Furthermore, women who are largely dependent on men cannot insist on preventive behavior, not do they have organizations in place to protect their rights. Finally, the concepts of behavioralism, and learning new behaviors for person-centered reasons, are foreign to much of Africa.
In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 467-76. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)This paper refers to the substantive collaboration that the UN Department of Technical Co-operation for Development (DTCD) has provided in the field of fertility and family. The objectives are: 1) to present, within the framework of the structure of its program, a review of the Department's experience in the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action; 2) to distill from this experience the major problems encountered as well as lessons learned; and 3) to synthesize from these a series of recommendations to improve technical co-operation activities. Within the the UN system, the DTCD is a major executing agency for projects funded by the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) at the country, intercountry and global levels. The Department's experience in the implementation of the Plan of Action is primarily to provide developing countries with support to develop or improve national capacities for data collection, evaluation, analyses and presenting the data in a form responsive to users. The long-term objective of this undertaking is to assist governments in creating the capacity for conducting all types of demographic data collection and analysis and to increase the capacity of governments to utilize effectively the data and analysis resulting from censuses, surveys and vital registration systems. The purpose of the UN program of training in population is to establish within developing countries a cadre of professionals capable of establishing a body of demographic knowledge within their own countries. The goal of the majority of the projects on population policy and development planning is to assist governments in the process of incorporating population variables into the national development planning process. The Department's program generates a process of development in such a way that training creates the ability to design and conduct fertility surveys, the analysis of which can be used in the formulation of policy to be incorporated into national development plans. Problems encountered during the last decade of experience include: 1) the lack of importance placed on the analysis of census, survey and vital registration results in the preparation of fertility studies; 2) government motivation; 3) countries that have clear-cut policies on fertility have often not implemented them as integral parts of the national development strategy; and 4) the lack of an infrastructure and other national counterpart support for population projects. Several recommendations are proposed with respect to the provision of future technical co-operation.