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(Description of the World Health Organization Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction.) (Statement, May 2, 1978))
In: United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Select Committee on Population. Population and development: research in population development: needs and capacities. Vol. 3. Hearings, May 2-4, 1978. Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978. p. 213-286The World Health Organization's Special Programme of research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction is supported by 150 member governments spending over 15 million dollars on 5 specific areas of research: 1) effectiveness of existing birth control methods; 2) development of new methods; 3) psychosocial factors and health service delivery; 4) health rationale for family planning; and 5) infertility. A primary goal of the program is to strengthen fertility research within the developing country. Some results of WHO research on specific contraceptive practices found the following. Depo-Provera was frequently discontinued because the amenorrhea percentage over 90 days increased from 13% to 35% during the 4th injection interval. Male contraceptives are acceptable to 50% of men in Fiji, India, Korea, Mexico and the United States with a daily pill more desirable than a monthly injection. A majority of women believe that menstruation is the removal of impure blood, and that intercourse should not occur at that time.
In: United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Select Committee on Population. Population and development; status and trends of family planning/population programs in developing countries. Vol. 2. Hearings, April 25-27, 1978. Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978. p. 355-384The Brazilian Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) became an IPPF affiliate in 1967, setting the objective of establishing a national family planning program able to provide medical-educational assistance to all layers of society, preferably under the auspices of the government, and to include the free distribution of contraceptives and the establishment of an education-training infrastructure to promote the concept of responsible parenthood. Political, church, and institutional leaders were reached through family planning seminars. Community programs now exist in 5 states and are based on respect for local traditions, use of indigenous human and material resources, and the collaboration of natural and institutional leaders. Despite opposition from Catholic priests, leftists, and nationalistic factions, public opinion polls indicate growing favorable attitudes toward family planning. A series of recognitions and exemptions at the federal, state, and municipal government levels have been obtained, and the government has moved from a stance of omission and neutrality toward one overtly favorable to family planning. The position taken by the Brazilian delegation at the 1974 World Population Conference and Brazil's 2nd National Development Plan both indicate that the government officially recognizes the right of couples to receive information and services enabling them to control their own fertility; only the existence of concrete measures for doing so under government sponsorship is lacking. Barriers to family planning implementation include the lack of previous effective experience in family planning programs, the scarcity of human and material resources, a time-lag between the position adopted by the national leadership and the actions undertaken by government agencies, other institutions which operate in the field without regard to national priorities, conditioning of family planning associations to the goals of donating institutions, and attempts by various international institutions to impose their own work methodology and control system on national associations. IPPF has recently projected certain priorities which do not meet the needs of many countries. Certain USAID requirements, such as that stipulating that countries receive contraceptives from the U.S., should be waived in accordance with the culture and self-determination of each country.