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In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 137-150.This volume chronicles the remarkable success -- indeed, the reproductive revolution -- that has taken place over the last thirty years, in which the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has played such a major role. Our purpose in this chapter is to contrast the situation at the century's end with the one that existed at the time of UNFPA's creation thirty years ago, and to project from the current situation to the new challenges that lie ahead. In many respects, the successful completion of the fertility transition that is now so far advanced will bring an entirely new set of challenges, and these will require a fundamental rethinking about the future mandate, structure, staffing and programme of UNFPA in the twenty-first century. Our purpose here is to identify those challenges and speculate about their implications. (author's)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2003 Aug. , 29 p. (Angola Vol. 15, No. 16(A))This short report is based on an investigation by Human Rights Watch conducted in March and April 2003. Our researchers interviewed over fifty internally displaced persons, refugees, and former combatants in the transit centers and the camps of Bengo, Bengo II and Kituma in the province of Uíge and Cazombo in the province of Moxico. Human Rights Watch researchers conducted twenty-one interviews with concerned U.N. agencies, NGOs and other organizations, including the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the U.N. Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP), Oxfam-GB, GOAL, African Humanitarian Aid (AHA), Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-Spain, MSF-Belgium, Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS), Lutheran World Federation (LWF), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, Trocaire, Associação Justiça, Paz e Democracia (AJPD), Liga da Mulher Angolana (LIMA) and Mulheres, Paz e Desenvolvimento. Human Rights Watch researchers also interviewed Angolan central government officials and police, and conducted six interviews with local Angolan authorities in three provinces. Where necessary, the names of those interviewed are withheld or changed in this short report to protect their confidentiality. (excerpt)
[Washington, D.C.], Interim Working Group on Reproductive Health Commodity Security, 2001 Apr. 4 p. (Meeting the Challenge: Securing Contraceptive Supplies)This paper was prepared by Population Action International for the UN Interim Working Group on Reproductive Health Commodity Security, which provides an overview of the need for security in reproductive health (RH) supplies. It notes that the last few decades have seen an enormous increase in the use of RH services around the world. However, as donors, nongovernmental organizations, private sector initiatives and program providers work to meet the need for all RH services, new demands continue to drain available resources. Four major factors contribute to the growing shortfall of contraceptive supplies: 1) growing interest in contraceptive use; 2) more people of reproductive age; 3) insufficient, poorly coordinated donor funding; and 4) inadequate logistics capacity in developing countries. Population projections indicate that in the coming decades, millions more men and women will need and want to use contraceptives. Thus, many actors in both the public and the private sectors, and both in-country and internationally, have important roles to play in attaining contraceptive commodity security throughout the developing world.
Gauging awareness, assessing concern: focus group findings on reactions to contraceptive supply shortages.
[Washington, D.C.], Interim Working Group on Reproductive Health Commodity Security, 2001 Apr. 8 p. (Meeting the Challenge: Securing Contraceptive Supplies)Population Action International held four focus groups on June 8, 2000 with 25 attendees of the UN Special Session known as Beijing +5: Women 2000. The objectives of these activities were: to gauge awareness of and concern about the impending shortage of donated and subsidized contraceptive supplies, and to explore ideas for addressing this shortage. This paper summarizes the focus group findings on reactions to contraceptive supply shortages. It notes that results revealed that almost none of the participants were aware of the impending shortage of contraceptive supplies. The reaction, in general, to this looming crisis was one of subdued resignation. Participants seemed to view contraceptive insecurity as just another challenge in the struggle to improve the lives of women in the developing world. In this perspective, nongovernmental organizations, donors, and advocates in developing and developed countries all have important roles to play in addressing the contraceptive supply crisis.
FAMILY PLANNING NEWS. 1994; 10(2):5.Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan, while noting her desire for all pregnancies to one day be planned and all children loved, publicly rejected abortion at the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development as a method of family planning. She stressed that serious flaws exist in the draft program of action and reaffirmed the Islamic principle of the sanctity of life and the emphasis of the family unit. Pakistan will be guided in its policies by the laws of Islam even though family planning is now being encouraged in the country. Norway's Prime Minister Gro Brundtland, a practicing doctor for 10 years, however, was more realistic on abortion. Women abort unwanted fetuses the world over through whatever means available and regardless of the legality of the procedure. Antiabortion legislation makes many of these abortions highly unsafe for the pregnant women. Prime Minister Brundtland called upon the leaders of all countries to provide legal and safe abortion services to women in need. After abortion became legal in Norway, the number of abortions remained the same and the country now has one of the lowest such rates in the world. Contrary to the claims of conservative and uninformed detractors in some countries, sex education does not promote promiscuity, but helps reduce levels of fertility. Brundtland pointed to the successes of programs in Thailand, Indonesia, and Italy as evidence. In Norway, sex education also promotes responsible sexual behavior and even abstinence. Finally, Prime Minister Brundtland encouraged governments to allocate much more of their budgets to family planning programs. Norway in 1991 allocated 4.55% of its official development assistance to family planning, the only country to surpass the 4% level in this area.
FAR EASTERN ECONOMIC REVIEW. 1992 Feb 20; 29-30.AIDS and HIV infection are in the early stages in Indonesia. 21 AIDS cases have been reported, and 30 persons have tested HIV-seropositive. Given the relatively low number of cases, and the presumed slow spread of HIV in the population, the government may yet be able to react in timely fashion to thwart epidemic spread. A rigorous education campaign and early detection of infected individuals are elements central to such intervention. The World Health Organization set a 1992 budget of US$500,000 for AIDS efforts in Indonesia. Research is young, awareness is minimal, and the campaign has barely commenced. AIDS cases have emerged in Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, and Denpasar. It is especially in cities that the government is concerned over checking the spread of AIDS. In these populations, many engage in extramarital sex, visible transvestite communities exist, and commercial sex districts thrive. Low condom use among sex workers, and relatively high rates of untreated STDs prevail in the general population. From March, blood donated in 15 cities, including these 4, will be compulsorily screened for HIV. Socially, moral and religious attitudes must be recognized and accommodated in mounting an effective AIDS prevention and education campaign in Indonesia. While religious sensibilities may be offended by the discussion of sex and sexual practices, such discussion is necessary and must be supported by the well-organized religious groups in this overwhelmingly Muslim country. Hopefully, Indonesia will bring to bear against AIDS the same cultural pragmatism exhibited to effect population control in the 1970s and 1980s.
Politics and population. U.S. assistance for international population programs in the Reagan Administration.
[Unpublished] .  p.US support for family planning programs in developing nations has become more and more controversial as the existing consensus on the rationale for these programs has been lost. This article discusses the major issues of the current debate on international family planning assistance and some of the reasons why bipartisan support for the program has eroded in recent years. During the 1960s, 2 factors contributed to the advent of the international family planning movement: the development of modern contraceptive technology in the form of the oral contraceptive (OC) and the IUD, technologies which, it was believed, could be made readily available and used easily, even in the poorest developing countries; and the growing realization that as mortality rates were declining rapidly due to improved health care in developing countries, the rate of population growth was increasing at a pace never before achieved. After some initial reluctance, efforts to stabilize population growth rates came to be accepted as in the US national interest, and by the 1970s both Republican and Democratic administrations and bipartisan congressional coalitions supported regular increases in funding for population programs as part of the foreign aid program. The US, together with several European countries, was instrumental in the development and early support for the UN Fund for Population Activities and the nongovernmental International Planned Parenthood Federation. In general, US support for international population programs was not a controversial issue in foreign aid debates until last year. Since President Reagan took office in January 1981, both the advocates and opponents of population programs have become more active and organized. Foreign aid in general and international family planning programs in particular are a favorite target for conservative groups, which include several antiabortion groups. Consequently, early in the Reagan administration efforts were made to slash the foreign aid budget. These efforts went so far as to propose eliminating all funding for international family planning programs. These efforts failed, and the US maintained its position as preeminent donor for family planning until 1984. In its final version, the US policy paper for the 1984 Mexico City Conference made 2 important revisions regarding US international population policy: the explanation of population growth as a "neutral phenomenon," caused by counterproductive, statist economic policies in poor countries, for which the suggested remedy is free market economic reform; and the assertion that the US does not consider abortion an acceptable element of family planning programs and will not contribute to nongovernmental organizations that perform or actively promote abortion as a family planning method in other nations. How this controversy over US International population policy is resolved depends largely on how Congress defines the issue.
Report on the evaluation of various family life education projects with particular emphasis on youth in the English-speaking Caribbean: general conclusions and recommendations.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Nov. xii, 39,  p.Most family life education (FLE) projects included in this evaluation have the longterm objectives of reducing the incidence of teenage prognancy, and promotion of self-reliance and positive, responsible behavior among youth. The immediate objectives and project strategies are also very similar across projects, e.g., in-school and out-of-school FLE, comprehensive youth services, including family planning (FP) and training. The evaluation shows that project design has improved over the years (clearer and measurable formulation of objectives, more comprehensive workplans and better explanation of budgetary items) and projects have moved from addressing a wide variety of broad issues to a more focused consideration of adolescent fertility. However, the Evaluation Mission in concerned that due to the similarities in project design, country-and-time-specific factors have not always been adequately taken into consideration. Other concerns include the lack of systematic needs assessment and use of baseline data to guide implementation. All the projects evaluated have contributed to the training in FLE/FP of a large number of family life educators, teachers and nurses and have thus significantly strengthened professional national capability. Nevertheless, training needs still exist in motivational/attitudinal variables, sex roles, teaching/learning technics. The projects have made a significant contribution to the introduction of FLE into schools and teacher training institutions. The focus at present should be the institutionalization of FLE within the in-school sector, including the development of a policy approving FLE in schools. The development of community-based health centers was often the central activity of the out-of-school FLE component of the projects. These centers have contributed to shaping the countries' attitudes by creating an awareness of teenage pregnancy, by developing an acceptable strategy, by providing a focal point for discussing sensitive issues, and by becoming a mechanism for community mobilization. The projects have also contributed to making FP services available and specialized services for adolescents are being established. The emphasis has been more on education and awareness creation than on contraceptive distribution to adolescents. At present the need is to strengthen the service delivery components. The limited availability of data suggests that adolescent pregnancy remains an urgent problem in the region. Sustained and more focused FLE/FP program efforts directed to adolescents continue to be needed in the region. The most important general lesson learnt from the programs is that programs in adolescent fertility can be started and implemented in countries even prior to declaration of policy by governments. However, at a certain stage of implementation the programs cannot be carried further without explicit government policies and control.
In: Key Issues in Population Policy: Problems, Options, and Recommendations for Action. E. Glassheim, C. Cargille and C. Hoffman, eds. Wash., D.C., University Press of America, 1978, pp. 49-58This paper traces the history of United Nations activity in the population field. In the late 1960's, the U.N.'s role was limited to demographic research, bringing population problems to the attention of member governments. As governments slowly became aware, some countries, notably the United States and Sweden, began to provide assistance to countries establishing population programs. However, bilateral foreign aid became unwelcome in the 1960's and Sweden, the United States and other countries suggested multilateral assistance coordinated through the United Nations. The United Nations was not prepared to take on this new role. A trust fund, the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), was established to help U.N. agencies with population work. But the agencies themselves were not eager to get involved; WHO did not consider population a health problem; UNESCO did not take a leadership position. UNFPA money now goes to support staff working on population in several agencies but there is no central coordination, funding or administration. The World Bank has made a definite commitment to population control but its record of success in this area is not impressive. The discussion centered on the reasons for the Bank's failure in the population field.
New York, N.Y., United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]  54 p. (Population Profiles No. 20)This review traces how various population programs in Africa have evolved since the 1960s. Before the establishment of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in the late 1960s, the efforts of private groups or non-governmental organizations in the areas of family planning, are highlighted. The vital contribution of private donors in facilitating the work of the Fund in Africa is given emphasis throughout the review. Early studies show that family planning activities in Africa, and governmental population policies fall into a definite pattern within the continent and that the distribution of colonial empires was a major determinant of that pattern. In most of Africa, the 1st stirrups of the family planning movement began during the colonial period. During the 1960s there was marked increase in the demand for family planning services. Lack of official government recognition and not enough assistancy from external sources made early family planning programs generally weak. The shortage of trained personnel, the unsureness of government support, opposition from the Roman Catholic Church to population control, and the logistics of supplying folk in remote rural areas who held traditional attitudes, all posed serious problems. The main sectors of the Fund's activities are brought into focus to illustrate the expansion of population-related programs and their relevance to economic and social development in Africa. The Fund's major sectors of activity in the African region include basic data collection on population dynamics and the formulation and implementation of policies and programs. Family planning, education and communication and other special programs are also important efforts within the Fund's multicector approach. The general principles applied by UNFPA in the allocation of its resources and the sources and levels of current finding are briefly discussed and the Fund's evaluation methodology is outlined. A number of significant goals have been achieved in the African region during the past 15 years through UNFPA programs, most prominently; population censuses, data collection and analysis, demographic training and reseaqrch, and policy formulation after identification of need. This monograph seeks to provide evidence for the compelling need for sustained commitment to population programs in Africa, and for continuing international support and assistance to meet the unmet needs of a continent whose demographic dynamism is incomparably greater than that of any other part of the world.
Evaluation of population education projects executed by the ILO in the Asia and Pacific region: general conclusions and recommendations.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983 Dec. xiii, 27,  p.The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has provided funds over the past decade to the International Labor Organization (ILO) or to Governments to undertake population education activities directed at the organized sector. About 44% of this assistance has gone to UNFPA-funded regional and country projects in the Asia and Pacific Region. In order to assess these projects, a review of 21 projects took place and 8 projects in 3 countries (Bangladesh, India, Nepal) were visited by Evalutation Missions. The Missions found that the main immediate objective for all projects was to stimulate awareness and interest in family planning and to support population education. All projects but one were directed at industrial workers, and the provision of family planning was explicitly stated as an objective in 2 projects. All projects had a goal to institutionalise population education as a part of the agency/ministry implementing the projects. The Mission concluded that the greatest effect of these types of projects had been in the change of attitude and behavior of top and middle level management toward family planning for their workers, as illustrated by conduct of in-plant classes for population education on company time and provision of incentives for family planning acceptors. At the worker level, as a result of the extensive training activities, there is now a large cadre of trained worker motivators in many industrial establishments who can influence fellow workers and potentially other members of the community to accept family planning. However, no information was available, except for 2 projects evaluated, to assess the effects of the projects on contraceptive use. It was noted that some projects had focused mainly on groups already motivated towards family planning; more emphasis should be put on reaching audiences not yet motivated for family planning. The institutionalization of population education within the implementing agents of the projects is likely to be achieved in most of the projects evaluated, although this objective cannot be fully evaluated at this point in time. General conclusions and recommendations were made in 4 areas: planning of projects, approach to reach the organized sector, implementation of projects and administration of projects.