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From camp to community: Liberia study on exploitation of children. Discussion paper on children's vulnerability to exploitation and abuse during the delivery of assistance in Liberia based on field studies carried out by Save the Children UK in Liberia.
Monrovia, Liberia, Save the Children UK, 2006. 20 p.The people of Liberia have experienced ongoing suffering over the past two decades as a result of war and displacement. Children have been drawn into this in many ways, such as recruitment into armed forces, separation from their families, witnessing atrocities, rape and torture. Thousands have been driven from their homes into exile into neighbouring countries or camps for internally displaced people (IDPs) within Liberia. This study focuses on children remaining in those camps and those who have recently been repatriated to their towns and villages of origin after the end of the war. Save the Children, along with many other non-governmental organisations, has been working alongside the Liberian government in the IDP camps. During the course of our work with children, Save the Children staff became aware that many children were agreeing to have sex with older men for money, food and other goods and favours. In order to document more closely the circumstances surrounding this issue, and to look at ways to improve Save the Children's delivery of assistance to better protect children against such exploitation, we instigated a study in four IDP camps and four communities with a high population of people returning from the camps. (excerpt)
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1992 Sep. 93 p.20 participants from 9 sub-Saharan countries and the UK discuss men's negative attitudes towards family planning (the leading obstacle to the success of family planning in Africa) at the November 1991 Workshop on Male Participation in Family Planning in The Gambia. Family planning programs have targeted women for 20 years, but they are starting to see the men's role in making fertility decisions and in transmitting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). They are trying to find ways to increase men's involvement in promoting family planning and STD prevention. Some recent research in Africa shows that many men already have a positive attitude towards family planning, but there is poor or no positive communication between husband and wife about fertility and sexuality. Some family planning programs (e.g., those in Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe) use information, education, and communication (IEC) activities (e.g., audiovisual material, print media, film, workshops, seminars, and songs) to promote men's sexual responsibility. IEC programs do increase knowledge, but do not necessarily change attitudes and practice. Some research indicates that awareness raising must be followed by counseling and peer promotion efforts to effect attitudinal and behavioral change. The sub-Saharan Africa programs must conduct baseline research on attitudes and a needs assessment to determine how to address men's needs. In Zambia, baseline research reveals that a man having 1 faithful partner for a lifetime is deemed negative. Common effective needs assessment methodologies are focus group discussions and individual interviews. Programs have identified various service delivery strategies to meet these needs. They are integration of family planning promotion efforts via AIDS prevention programs, income-generating schemes, employment-based programs, youth programs and peer counseling, male-to-male community-based distribution of condoms, and social marketing. Few programs have been evaluated, mainly because evaluation is not included in the planning process.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, Technologies for Primary Health Care [PRITECH], 1991 Jun.  p. (Occasional Operations Papers; USAID Contract No. DPE-5969-Z-00-7064-00)The paper presents results from diarrheal disease control (CDD) activities in Kenya. A World Health Organization Diarrheal Diseases Household Case Management Survey of 23,884 children under 5 years of age indicates a high use of recommended fluids before and during episodes of diarrheal illness. ORT use was high, while ORS use and volume were low, with better diarrheal management practiced in Western Kenya. Children with diarrhea in districts with CDD communication program are more likely to receive proper care. For home treatment of diarrhea, the Kenyan Food and Fluids Panel recommends mothers to use uji, a locally available porridge, liberal quantities of plain water, fresh fruit juices, fermented milk, and coconut water; exclusive breastfeeding for the 1st 4 months of life; continued feeding of at least 5 times/day during diarrhea; and improved, targeted communication for behavior change especially among mothers of at-risk children. Additional research on food, feeding, communications, and marketing ORS was also recommended. Principal research findings of the survey are discussed in detail. Messages most effective in improving the management of diarrhea include emphasizing feeding during diarrhea, stressing the use of nutritional fluids, continued hesitation of ORS promotion until 1.2- liter packets become generally available through the health system, and emphasizing the rare need for drug therapy of diarrhea. Recognizing signs suggesting the need for health facility treatment should be reinforced.
[Unpublished] 1990. , 6,  p.Final plans for the Cote d'Ivoire Central Region Family Planning Promotion Project were reviewed during a visit by the Johns Hopkins University Population Communication Services Senior Program Officer who visited Abidjan, September 17-21, 1990. The purpose of the visit was to review the project proposal with officials of the Ivorian Family Welfare Association and of the Regional Economic Development Services Office for West and Central Africa (REDSO/WCA); to meet with officials of Dialogue Production who will produce a video involving students in Bouake; and to discuss with REDSO/WCA the prospects for information, education and communication (IEC) and family planning service delivery. The family planning policy of Cote d'Ivoire changed from pro-natalist to pro-family planning in 1989. Changes in policy, budget, strategy and organization were therefore reviewed. It was suggested that emphasis on male attitude and spousal communication be dropped in favor of concentration on women and school-going adolescents. Some of the recommendations were to complete and distribute the project document; to arrange for Mr. Dahily, the Project Coordinator-Designate, to participate in the JHU Advances in Family Health Communication Workshop scheduled in Tunis in November 1991; to obtain quotes form Dialogue Productions and other video production firms; to choose candidates for Assistant Project Coordinator and Administrative Secretary for interviews in October, and to contact the University of Abidjan Center for Communication Training and Research, the National Public Health Institute, and other subcontractors also by October 1990.
Report of the Task Force II on research inventory and analysis of family planning communication research in Bangladesh.
[Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting] Oct. 1976. 85 p.Topics relevant to family planning such as interpersonal relationships, communication patterns, local personnel, mass media, and educational aids, have been studied for this report. The central theme is the dissemination of family planning knowledge. The methodology of education and communication are major factors and are emphasized in the studies. While the object was to raise the effectiveness of approaches, the direct concern of some studies was to examine a few basic aspects of communication dynamics and different human relationship structures. Interspouse communication assumes an important place in the family planning program and a couple's concurrence is an essential precondition of family planning practice. Communication between husband and wife varies with the given social system. A study of couple concurrence and empathy on family planning motivation was undertaken; there was virtually no empathy between the spouses. A probable conclusion is that there was no interspouse communication on contraception and that some village women tend to practice birth control without their husband's knowledge. Communication and personal influence in the village community provide a leverage for the diffusion of innovative ideas and practices, including family planning. Influence pattern and flow of communication were empirically studied in a village which was situated 10 miles away from the nearest district town. The village was found to have linkage with outside systems (towns, other villages, extra village communication network) through an influence mechanism operative in the form of receiving or delivering some information. Local agents--midwives, "dais," and female village organizers are in a position to use interpersonal relations in information motivation work if such agents are systematically involved in the family planning program and are given proper orientation and support by program authorities. These people usually have to be trained. 7 findings are worth noting in regard to the use of radio for family planning: folksongs are effective and popular; evening hours draw more listeners; the broadcast can stimulate interspouse communication; the younger groups can be stimulated by group discussions; a high correlation exists between radio listening and newspaper reading; most people listen to the radio if it is accessible to them; approximately 60% of the population is reached by radio. A positive relationship was found to exist between exposure to printed family planning publicity materials and respondents' opinions toward contraception and family planning. The use of the educational aid is construed as an essential element to educating and motivating people's actions.