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Washington, D.C., Heritage Foundation, 1984 Aug 27. 16 p. (Backgrounder No. 376)The United Nations' 2nd World Population Conference (Mexico City, 1984) called for greatly expanding funding for family planning assistance worldwide. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the conference's chief sponsor, will no doubt receive the largest portion of any assistance increase. UNFPA plays a critical role in population-related programs worldwide. The central debate on population policy should be over the extent and adequacy of the natural resources base and how countries can humanely and voluntarily change family size preferences. In countries like Singapore and South Korea, success has been achieved by combining social and economic incentives to discourage large families. Although couples in developing countries report wanting contraceptive service programs, they also want families of 4 to 6 children. So far UNFPA has been ineffective in changing the population situation. This overview of its activities reveals that UNFPA loses ultimate reponsibility for implementation of many of its own programs. UNFPA does not advocate a reduction in population growth within a single country, but rather helps couples have the number of children they desire. UNFPA's specific population and family programs are divided into functional areas: basic data collection, population change study, formulation and implementation of population policies, support for family planning/maternal child health programs and educational and communication programs. UNFPA stresses the importance of using contraceptives but not of achieving the small family norm. UNFPA's projects in some of the largest less developed nations are described, illustrating how the UN agency spends its assistance funds. From 1971 to 1982, the UNFPA spent almost US $230 million in the 10 largest less developed countries without any significant change in population growth. UNFPA program administrators are far from resolving the serious population problems facing developing countries and generally oblivious to new directions in which population policies should move. No progress will be made until UNFPA recognizes the need to approach the problem from a different perspective, working to change attitudes toward small families.
An evaluation of community based distribution (CBD) programmes of the International Planned Parenthood Federation.
London, England, Peat, Marwick, Mitchell, March 1978. 97 p.This is a report by a private managerial firm on the current status, successes and problems of the community based distribution (CBD) concept in family planning. The report is broken down into 9 chapters, each dealing with a specific facet of the study. The report begins with: 1) terms of reference; and, 2) an explanation of the methods used by the management consultants in this study; and continues with 3) the concept of CBD; 4) the history of CBD in the IPPF structure; 5) details on current management of CBD projects; 6) procedures used to evaluate current projects; 7) a description of CBD staffing and reporting systems; 8) the organization of CBD within the existing IPPF; 9) a discussion of other relevant topics involving the management and future of CBD. The managerial consultants outline difficulties with the system, such as the problem of adapting family planning programs to local customs, whether or not to charge for contraceptives, how effective field surveys are, and the role of CBD within a larger planned parenthood and world health context. The report provides detailed information on the current status of programs in 26 countries as well as a considerable amount of data on the actual implementation and operation of a CBD program, giving examples from various localities studied.
Humanist. 1983 Sep-Oct; 43(5):18-24, 34.The writer's purpose is to document why an American confrontation with the Vatican over its anti-family planning efforts is a prerequisite to removal of this obstruction. The role of the Roman Catholic Church is seen as an important factor in thwarting organized family planning efforts; it is a variable which must enter population scientists' search for the determinants of fertility. Reasons for which communication with the leadership of the Church will not occur are discussed. Among those is the introduction, under President Reagan, of an administration which is the most Catholic in American history. In addition, international agencies' "population moneys" are being spent for "general development" and not on family planning. It is argued that Catholics have been primarily responsible for propagating the strategy "development will take care of population growth". The decline of the world population growth control effort in the past couple of years has coincided with the activities of the Pope and his position that immoral contraception must be fought. It is claimed that until this stronghold on predominantly Catholic countries is reduced, and the Vatican's strong influence on international donor agencies is eliminated, very little improvement in world efforts to control population growth can be expected. The Vatican's control over governments in predominantly Catholic countries is illustrated by excerpts from a study by a Canadian sociologist who points out that the world is faced with Vatican imperialism to some extent. This article concludes that nothing significant is likely to happen in population control efforts until the United States confronts the Vatican on this issue as the weak governments of most nations would not survive such as effort.
New York, N.Y., United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]  54 p. (Population Profiles No. 20)This review traces how various population programs in Africa have evolved since the 1960s. Before the establishment of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in the late 1960s, the efforts of private groups or non-governmental organizations in the areas of family planning, are highlighted. The vital contribution of private donors in facilitating the work of the Fund in Africa is given emphasis throughout the review. Early studies show that family planning activities in Africa, and governmental population policies fall into a definite pattern within the continent and that the distribution of colonial empires was a major determinant of that pattern. In most of Africa, the 1st stirrups of the family planning movement began during the colonial period. During the 1960s there was marked increase in the demand for family planning services. Lack of official government recognition and not enough assistancy from external sources made early family planning programs generally weak. The shortage of trained personnel, the unsureness of government support, opposition from the Roman Catholic Church to population control, and the logistics of supplying folk in remote rural areas who held traditional attitudes, all posed serious problems. The main sectors of the Fund's activities are brought into focus to illustrate the expansion of population-related programs and their relevance to economic and social development in Africa. The Fund's major sectors of activity in the African region include basic data collection on population dynamics and the formulation and implementation of policies and programs. Family planning, education and communication and other special programs are also important efforts within the Fund's multicector approach. The general principles applied by UNFPA in the allocation of its resources and the sources and levels of current finding are briefly discussed and the Fund's evaluation methodology is outlined. A number of significant goals have been achieved in the African region during the past 15 years through UNFPA programs, most prominently; population censuses, data collection and analysis, demographic training and reseaqrch, and policy formulation after identification of need. This monograph seeks to provide evidence for the compelling need for sustained commitment to population programs in Africa, and for continuing international support and assistance to meet the unmet needs of a continent whose demographic dynamism is incomparably greater than that of any other part of the world.