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[Unpublished] 1990 Oct. iii, 29 p.This summary provides key background information for the design and development of a contraceptive social marketing (CSM) project in Venezuela. The country situation is described by providing a map; graphs illustrating population growth, age structure, total fertility rate, and infant mortality rate; the demographic characteristics of the population; the social situation; and leading economic indicators and factors. The population/family planning (FP) environment is then described in terms of the national population policy and goals, the legal and regulatory environment, the media, other international donor agencies and nongovernmental organizations active in the field of population, and the commercial contraceptive market. Available data are then presented on contraceptive usage by methods, the most available methods in the country, discontinuation, abortion, maternal age, needs, desired family size, and contraceptive awareness. The summary lists the following implications for project design from the point of view of the consumer: 1) the most recent data (1977) indicated an unmet need for FP, but more recent data must be obtained to access current demand; 2) more data are needed on the benefits and barriers to oral contraceptive and condom use; 3) data are needed on current use rates, sources of supply, and knowledge of correct use of oral contraceptives (OCs); 4) a significant target population exists for OCs and condoms; 5) marketing strategies should influence women to use modern contraceptives instead of abortion to limit family size. Project implications resulting from the market situation are that 1) despite the fact that commercial distribution networks within urban centers (83% of the population) are well-developed, contraceptives are not widely available at the retail level and are expensive; 2) obstacles to the commercial contraceptive industry exist at the importer, retailer, and consumer levels; and 3) most homes have radios and televisions, but all advertising must be government-approved, and the government has never approved contraceptive advertising. Appended to this document are charts showing 1) fertility rates by region, 2) urban and rural population growth, 3) an analysis of the urban population, 4) the incidence of abortion among current contraceptive users, 5) an analysis of the female population of reproductive age, 6) the age breakdown of women who desire no more children, 7) the contraceptive method used by women who desire no more children, and 8) desired family size.
[Unpublished] 1990 Mar 6. vi, 71 p.Men may impede broader use of family planning methods by women in many countries. Efforts have therefore been made to reach men separately in order to promote greater acceptance and use of male or female contraceptive methods. Typically, programs may encourage men to allow partners to use contraception; persuade men to adopt a more active, communicative role in decision making on contraceptive use; and/or promote the use of male methods. This paper presents findings from male involvement program initiatives in 60 developing countries since 1980. Male involvement programs are clearly needed, and condom use should be encouraged for protection against both pregnancy and HIV infection. Given their relatively low cost per couple-year of protection, social marketing programs should be encouraged to promote condom sales. Employment-based programs, despite relatively high start-up costs, have also generated large increases in condom use. Both condom and vasectomy use have been increased through mass media campaigns, yet more campaigns should address AIDS. Clinic services and facilities should be made more attractive to men, and new print materials are warranted. Community-based distribution programs have been found to be great sources of information and supplies, especially in rural areas, and male adolescents are especially in favor of telephone hotlines. Little information exits on the effectiveness and costs of programs targeting organized groups. Further, youth-oriented programs generally reach their intended audiences, but are relatively expensive for the amount of contraceptive protection provided. Finally, a positive image must be promoted for the condom through coordinated media presentations, user and worker doubts of efficacy must be eliminated, and regular condom supplies ensured. Recommendations are included for policy, research, public education, the World Health Organization, national AIDS prevention programs, and family planning agencies.
FAR EASTERN ECONOMIC REVIEW. 1992 Feb 20; 29-30.AIDS and HIV infection are in the early stages in Indonesia. 21 AIDS cases have been reported, and 30 persons have tested HIV-seropositive. Given the relatively low number of cases, and the presumed slow spread of HIV in the population, the government may yet be able to react in timely fashion to thwart epidemic spread. A rigorous education campaign and early detection of infected individuals are elements central to such intervention. The World Health Organization set a 1992 budget of US$500,000 for AIDS efforts in Indonesia. Research is young, awareness is minimal, and the campaign has barely commenced. AIDS cases have emerged in Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, and Denpasar. It is especially in cities that the government is concerned over checking the spread of AIDS. In these populations, many engage in extramarital sex, visible transvestite communities exist, and commercial sex districts thrive. Low condom use among sex workers, and relatively high rates of untreated STDs prevail in the general population. From March, blood donated in 15 cities, including these 4, will be compulsorily screened for HIV. Socially, moral and religious attitudes must be recognized and accommodated in mounting an effective AIDS prevention and education campaign in Indonesia. While religious sensibilities may be offended by the discussion of sex and sexual practices, such discussion is necessary and must be supported by the well-organized religious groups in this overwhelmingly Muslim country. Hopefully, Indonesia will bring to bear against AIDS the same cultural pragmatism exhibited to effect population control in the 1970s and 1980s.
In: African research studies in population information, education and communication, compiled and edited by Tony Johnston, Aart de Zeeuw, and Waithira Gikonyo. Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991. 83-100.Researchers studied 62 pregnant women intending to not terminate their pregnancy and to continue their studies and 27 nonpregnant women to learn about female student fertility related behavior. They were all enrolled at the University of Zambia either during the 1987-1988 or 1989-1990 academic years. Methodology consisted of interviews, questionnaires, and focus group discussions. 68% of all women were single with 40% of them having at least 1 child. 75% of the women were sexually active. 42.7% knew traditional family planning methods with friends, grandmothers, and social aunts telling 25.9% of all the women about such methods. Yet mass media provided most women (49.4%) with knowledge about modern methods. 50.6% thought the pill to be the most effective method. >65% considered the 24-26 as the ideal age at marriage. The mean ideal family size was 3.5, somewhat less than family size for urban women in Zambia. 71.9% considered children to be assets since children are a means to social security (33%), self fulfillment (8%), and companionship (7%). 94.4% approved of family planning mainly for purposes of child spacing (29.2%), limiting (23.6), and spacing and limiting (32.6%). Even though they knew about and approved of family planning and claimed modern attitudes concerning ideal age at marriage and ideal family size, 62% of single pregnant students and 59% of married pregnant students did not use or regularly use contraception. This suggested that they considered early childbearing to be an asset. The leading reasons for contraception nonuse included perception of low pregnancy risk (40%) and desire for a child (28%). Only 3.2% claimed method failure. 64% of all women said partners did not approve of contraceptive use. Access to family planning and cost were not a problem. Only 22% of pregnant students said pregnancy would reduce their chances of marriage. In conclusion, many women became pregnant surreptitiously.
Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, 1988. , 16, 31 p. (Asian Population Studies Series, No. 86-A; ST/ESCAP/648)In China, grassroots family planning workers were surveyed on their attitudes toward contraceptive methods. The project was supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and was organized by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). India, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Viet Nam were included in the project. The primary objective of the survey was to better understand family planning workers' attitudes about contraceptives, to better inform the workers on the advantages and disadvantages of various contraceptive methods. Although China offers a large variety of choices, certain methods such as the IUD and sterilization have been predominantly used. Choices vary greatly among regions. The study design, a profile of the respondents, and a discussion of knowledge and attitudes are explored. Charts representing the respondents' choices are presented; the choices demonstrate both knowledge and unsubstantiated bias. Also found, are misconceptions about certain method choices such as the pill and the injectable. The condom and the methods of rhythm and withdrawal were more commonly understood. The reasons for a good general knowledge of contraceptive methods among China's grassroots family planning workers are given. An English translation of the questionnaire used is appended to the text.
Healthright. 1985 Aug; 4(4):9-12.The pattern of reproductive activity displayed by early hunter-gatherer ancestors, before the dawn of civilization, must have been vastly different from today's pattern. In the absence of contraception such women would have spent the greater part of their reproductive lives either pregnant or in lactational amenorrhea. In developing these ideas further it was estimated that a hunter-gatherer woman would have spent about 15 years in lactational amenorrhea, whereas just under 4 years would have been occupied by her 5 pregnancies, and she would only have had about 4 years of menstrual cycles. The total number of menstrual cycles she would experience in her entire life would be no more than about 50. This is in marked contrast to the situation today in a typical Western woman using contraceptives and experiencing menarche at 13 and the menopause at 50. Allowing her 2 years' respite from cycles during her 2 pregnancies, each followed by only a token period of breastfeeding, this leaves 35 years during which she would experience about 420 menstrual cycles. The conclusion is that an excessive number of menstrual cycles is an iatrogenic disorder of communities practicing any form of contraception. Thus, it is important to note that even the condom or vasectomy have important repercussions on the female's reproductive cycle. Since 99.9% of human existence has been spent living a nomadic hunter-gatherer life, this high frequency of menstrual cycles is a new experience, one that humans may be genetically ill-adapted to cope with. In fact, there are a number of "diseases of nulliparity" whose incidence is markedly increased in women with few or no children and who are therefore experiencing an increased number of menstrual cycles. These diseases include carcinoma of the breast, endometrium and ovaries, and endometriosis. As part of the effort to develop contraceptives that promote a healthy state of fertility, it is necessary to ask the question, "is a period really necessary?" To learn if women women accept a contraceptive method that reduced the frequency of menstruation, a clinical trial of an oral contraceptive was conducted. The OC was administered in such a way as to produce a withdrawal bleed only once every 3 months. This was termed the tricycle pill regimen. 196 women attending a family planning clinic in Edinburgh, Scotland, volunteered to participate, although 89 of them subsequently withdrew from the trial for a variety of reasons before it was completed at the end of a year. Overall, 82% of the women positvely welcomed the reduction in the number of periods; 91% of the women who completed the trial even refused to revert to a standard monthly OC regimen thereafter. The findings were in complete contrast to the results of a World Health Organization survey of patterns and perceptions of menstruation. But the WHO sample was highly biased in favor of women having regular menstrual cycles, and hence quite unrepresentative of the population as a whole. In sum, even the most pessimistic estimate of the WHO's menstruation survey shows that a proportion of women in every country investigated were prepared to accept amenorhea as a by-product of contraception. Reversible amenorrhea might become an increasingly popular form of contraception, and it might also confer significant health benefits.
Socio-economic development and fertility decline in Costa Rica. Background paper prepared for the project on socio-economic development and fertility decline.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1985. 118 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/55)This summary of information on the development process in Costa Rica and its relation to fertility from 1950-70 is a revision of a study prepared for the Workshop on Socioeconomic Development and Fertility Decline held in Costa Rica in April 1982 as part of a UN comparative study of 5 developing countries. The report contains chapters on background information on fertility and the family, historical facts, and political organization of Costa Rica; the development strategy and its consequences vis a vis the composition of the gross domestic product, balance of trade, investment trends, the structure of the labor force, educational levels, and income; the allocation of public resources in public employment, public investment, credit, public expenditures, and the impact of resource allocation policies; changes in land tenure patterns; cultural factors affecting fertility, including education, women and their family roles, behavior in the home, women and politics, work and social security, and race and religion; changes in demographic variables, including nuptiality patterns, marital fertility, and natural fertility and birth control; characteristics and determining factors of the decline in fertility, including levels and trends, decline by age group, decline in terms of birth order, differences among population groups, how fertility declined, and history and role of family planning programs; and a discussion of the modernization process in Costa Rica and the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables. Beginning with the 1948 civil war, Costa Rica underwent drastic changes which were still reflected in national life as late as 1970. The industrial sector and the government bureaucracy have become decisive forces in development and the government has become the major employer. The state plays a key role in economic life, and state participation is a determining factor in extending medical and educational resources in the social field. The economically active population declined from 64% in 1960 to 55% in 1975 due to urbanization and migration from rural to urban areas, but there was an increase in economic participation of women, especially in urban areas. Increased educational level of the population in general and women in particular created changes in traditional attitudes and behavior. Although there is no specific explanation of why Costa Rica's fertility decline occurred, some observations about its determining factors and mechanisms can be made: the considerable economic development of the 1950s and 1960s brought about a rapid rise in per capita income and changes in the structure of production as well as substantial social development, increased opportunities for self-improvement for some social groups, and a rise in expectations. The size of the family became an aspect of conflict between rising expectations and increasing expenses. The National Family Planning Program helped accelerate the fertility decline.
Report of the Task Force II on research inventory and analysis of family planning communication research in Bangladesh.
[Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting] Oct. 1976. 85 p.Topics relevant to family planning such as interpersonal relationships, communication patterns, local personnel, mass media, and educational aids, have been studied for this report. The central theme is the dissemination of family planning knowledge. The methodology of education and communication are major factors and are emphasized in the studies. While the object was to raise the effectiveness of approaches, the direct concern of some studies was to examine a few basic aspects of communication dynamics and different human relationship structures. Interspouse communication assumes an important place in the family planning program and a couple's concurrence is an essential precondition of family planning practice. Communication between husband and wife varies with the given social system. A study of couple concurrence and empathy on family planning motivation was undertaken; there was virtually no empathy between the spouses. A probable conclusion is that there was no interspouse communication on contraception and that some village women tend to practice birth control without their husband's knowledge. Communication and personal influence in the village community provide a leverage for the diffusion of innovative ideas and practices, including family planning. Influence pattern and flow of communication were empirically studied in a village which was situated 10 miles away from the nearest district town. The village was found to have linkage with outside systems (towns, other villages, extra village communication network) through an influence mechanism operative in the form of receiving or delivering some information. Local agents--midwives, "dais," and female village organizers are in a position to use interpersonal relations in information motivation work if such agents are systematically involved in the family planning program and are given proper orientation and support by program authorities. These people usually have to be trained. 7 findings are worth noting in regard to the use of radio for family planning: folksongs are effective and popular; evening hours draw more listeners; the broadcast can stimulate interspouse communication; the younger groups can be stimulated by group discussions; a high correlation exists between radio listening and newspaper reading; most people listen to the radio if it is accessible to them; approximately 60% of the population is reached by radio. A positive relationship was found to exist between exposure to printed family planning publicity materials and respondents' opinions toward contraception and family planning. The use of the educational aid is construed as an essential element to educating and motivating people's actions.
[Unpublished] July, 1979. 49 p.This study assesses the effectiveness of family planning education in the Republic of Korea over the past 2 decades. Target populations in various metropolitan areas were studied regarding attitudes toward family planning knowledge, contraceptive behavior, media and personal contacts on family planning, number and gender preferences, and spacing preferences. Socioeconomic and demographic factors were taken into account. Statistics were compiled by area and analyses are presented. Use of more mass media is suggested to get information on family planning across to more people. It is important to extend the range and quality of family planning services, most especially to provide the best information about contraceptive methods.
In: Molnos A, ed. Social sciences in family planning. (Proceedings of the Meeting of the IPPF Social Science Working Party, Colombo, Sri Lanka, June 10-13, 1977) London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1978 Dec. 43-5.Thailand's first 5-year family planning program for the 1972-1976 period has been acclaimed as 1 of the most successful. New program acceptors exceeded the target by 26.2%. The program's goal of reducing the annual population growth rate from over 3% in 1972 to about 2.5% has been more or less achieved. The National Family Planning Program now has as its objective the recruitment of 3 million new acceptors for the 1977-1981 period. In an effort to achieve the various goals, a series of new methods of service delivery and new contraceptive methods along with a more intensive campaign has been devised. At this stage it is important to learn why people practice family planning, why they use particular programs, why some remain in programs for a long time, and why others drop out. The experience of Thailand's family planning programs indicates that information and motivation from trusted individuals is 1 of the most decisive factors for use of a particular family planning program. Several studies have shown that users and friends can account for up to 50% of the reasons given for using particular family planning programs. The face-to-face form of contact seems to be the most effective means of inducing people to enter a family planning program. A strong desire to avoid pregnancy or another birth appears to be the most important reason for continuing in the program. Studies of women who have dropped out of programs tend to show that side effects of the particular contraceptive method used are the primary reason, with the 2nd most cited cause being the desire for another child.
In: Molnos A, ed. Social sciences in family planning. (Proceedings of the Meeting of the IPPF Social Science Working Party, Colombo, Sri Lanka, June 10-13, 1977) London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1978 Dec. 37-42.An approach is outlined which should help to explain some of the implications of family planning in a country like Mexico. Since the new official family planning programs have been introduced, reproductive patterns in Mexico have been changing. In Mexico contraception appears to be advantageous and acceptable in the following cases of existing fmaily structure: 1) urbanized middle-class families of the nuclear type; 2) highly integrated and egalitarian families; 3) families in extreme situations which are highly integrated and egalitarian or are on the verge of disintegrating; 4) families at the advanced or final stage of their procreative cycle; and 5) families who are within a social security system which protects them from the contingencies of life. The following types of families will not spontaneously recognize contraception as being to their advantage: families belonging to the traditional or folk culture which are not yet urbanized; marginal working class families; families of the extended type; families with a strong imbalance between the sexes; families in the initial or middle stages of the procreative cycles; families lacking any institutional social security; and families which function as a unit of economic production. Until this time the direct and indirect effects of contraception on family and community life have not been adequately studied. It is important to study family planning in relation to the family unit. Programs need to be designed with full knowledge of the type of families to which potential clients belong and established accordingly. Programs should distinguish between families at various stages of their procreative cycles and offer them various contraceptive methods.
In: Molnos A, ed. Social sciences in family planning. (Proceedings of the Meeting of the IPPF Social Science Working Party, Colombo, Sri Lanka, June 10-13, 1977). London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1978 Dec. 15-21.It is argued that in Pakistan the more children (particularly sons) families have the better the chances that the parents can export them to urban markets and to the middle East for lucrative work, and the better the chances that the extra labor force can handle the family's business of the family so that they can conduct their daily business. In societies like Pakistan the answer to the question as to why people practice or fail to practice family planning needs to be analyzed in the context of kinship structure. The motives, ideologies and exchange relationships are assumed to be derivatives of such systems. Focus is on social and economic factors affecting family planning decisions (education, family income, socioeconomic status, family type, age at marriage, ideal number of children, fate orientation of wife, and egalitarianism), social structural factors affecting family planning decisions, and social and economic exchange factors. In addition to these social and economic considerations the issues of the nature and scope of contraceptive technology itself needs to be considered. The family planning program in Pakistan is a little over 10 years old, and the birthrate of the country has not declined. This fact should not be depressing, for it is the administrative enthusiasm of the planners in the early phase that is partly responsible for the current disappointment. The 10 years has been used to do the ground work. Program planning should consider the type of kinship structure to which potential clients belong, and the programs should be designed to encourage the adoption of a complex package of changes rather than to combat the resistance against contraception.
In: Molnos A, ed. Social sciences in family planning. (Proceedings of the Meeting of the IPPF Social Science Working Party, Colombo, Sri Lanka, June 10-13, 1977). London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1978 Dec. 9-14.Kenya has a fairly well developed family planning program at the official government level along with an active voluntary Association. It is estimated that over 50,000 women are visiting family planning clinics annually, but as many women drop out of the program in each given month as are recruited. This discontinuation rate presents a major problem for family planning programs, and the underlying causes need to be determined. It is believed that, with the exception of those women who are highly motivated to use contraceptives on a continuous basis, the majority of women, particularly in rural areas, will fail to use contraceptives for long periods of time if the significant others in their lives do not support the idea. It is also probable that many women drop out of family planning programs due to the lack of reliable transport, high transport costs, varying weather conditions, and the family planning program policy which, with the exception of the IUD, provides only sufficient contraceptives to last for 3 months. There are several other reasons why a woman might want to stop using contraceptives: 1) a desire to become pregnant; 2) social pressure to withdraw from the family planning program; 3) the side effects of her method and without a suitable alternative method; 4) difficulty in obtaining contraceptive supplies; and 5) reaching menopause. A family planning campaign which ignores the men is destined for failure in Africa, for the women do not make many of the important decisions. The male must be persuaded to participate in decision-making concerning the use and non-use of contraceptives. Family planning programs should deliberately reduce their drop-out rates even if that means lowering acceptor rates.
Integrating nutritional and family planning education with food services in Korean day care centers--an evaluation.
Public Health Reports. 1978 Mar-Apr; 93(2):177-185.The Integrated Day Care Program (IDCP) was established in Korea with the aid of international organizations in 1973. The IDCP aimed to provide services in the following areas: 1) nutritional food services for the children; 2) nutrition education for the mothers; and 3) family planning education. A survey was conducted in 1975 among a random sampling of 30 day care centers participating in the IDCP and 15 nonparticipating centers. The survey results show consistent differences in favor of the IDCP centers. Acceptability of the food service being provided was higher. Mothers from the participating centers had better nutrition knowledge than the other mothers. Among the IDCP mothers, the knowledge of, attitudes toward, and practice of family planning was much higher. In the 2-year period since initiation of the IDCP, there had been increases in the following indices: child's weight, mother's assessment of the child's general health, age when the child began to be fed baby food, and practice of family planning. It is recommended that the IDCP be extended to more day care centers.
(Description of the World Health Organization Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction.) (Statement, May 2, 1978))
In: United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Select Committee on Population. Population and development: research in population development: needs and capacities. Vol. 3. Hearings, May 2-4, 1978. Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978. p. 213-286The World Health Organization's Special Programme of research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction is supported by 150 member governments spending over 15 million dollars on 5 specific areas of research: 1) effectiveness of existing birth control methods; 2) development of new methods; 3) psychosocial factors and health service delivery; 4) health rationale for family planning; and 5) infertility. A primary goal of the program is to strengthen fertility research within the developing country. Some results of WHO research on specific contraceptive practices found the following. Depo-Provera was frequently discontinued because the amenorrhea percentage over 90 days increased from 13% to 35% during the 4th injection interval. Male contraceptives are acceptable to 50% of men in Fiji, India, Korea, Mexico and the United States with a daily pill more desirable than a monthly injection. A majority of women believe that menstruation is the removal of impure blood, and that intercourse should not occur at that time.
London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Community Based Distribution Department, October 31, 1976. 75 pFocus is on the progress and accomplishments to date of the various community-based distribution projects, particularly their impact and effectiveness. The only community-based distribution projects to which this report refers are those funded directly by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The report is organized in two parts: 1) Central Office Community-Based Distribution Projects; and 2) other IPPF community-based distribution projects. Effectiveness as used in this report refers to the nature and extent to which given community-based distribution projects have achieved their previously stated objectives and will be measured along three dimensions: l) the extent to which projects have been successful in recruiting participants; 2) the extent to which projects have improved method acceptability; and 3) the nature and extent of contraceptive use of effectiveness among the populations served by the projects. Impact refers to changes in prevailing community attitudes and conditions brought about by and consequent to community-based distribution activities. The data presented concerning the community-based distribution projects in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Korea, Barbados, and Lebanon show a high level of initial interest in family planning, relatively high initial method awareness and acceptability, and growing but still low practice rates, continuation rates, and use effectiveness. The collected evidence also demonstrated the importance of initial efforts to build a base of a large number of interested and motivated clients before allowing significantly reduced informational, educational and promotional efforts and prior to reliance on natural diffusion to promote further growth. Experiential information also suggests the importance of initial and continued support and encouragement from government officials, religious leaders, medical officers, and clinically oriented family planning workers.
San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.
Country Profiles. 1972 Oct; 19.The estimated population of Iran in 1972 was 31,000,000, with an estimated rate of natural increase of 3.2% per year. In 1966 61% of the population lived in rural areas, male literacy was 41% and female literacy 18%. Coitus interruptus is the most common form of contraception used in Iran, followed by condoms. Because of the rapid rate of population growth, the government has taken a strong stand in support of family planning. The Ministry of Health coordinates family planning activities through the Family Planning Division. Contraceptive supplies are delivered free of charge through clinics. The national family planning program also is involved in postpartum programs, training of auxiliary personnel, communication and motivation for family planning population education, evaluation and research. The overall goal of the program is to reduce the growth rate of 2.4% by 1978, and to 1% by 1990.
In: Diczfalusy, E. and Borel, U., eds. Control of human fertility. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Nobel Symposium, Sodergarn, Lidingo, Sweden, May 27-29, 1970. New York, Wiley, 1971. 39-51.A drug delivery system providing for a controlled release of progestogen and affecting ovulation and steroidogenesis minimally would deal effectively with some of the problems associated with contraception. 2 systems being developed which fit these criteria are the primary topics of discourse in this article. In 1 system an implant consists of a polymer membrane of polydimethylsiloxane (PDS) and contains the progestogen in crystalline form. Major problems with the PDS implants include a lack of intraindividual constance of release and interindividual variation in the slope of the decay in release. In the second system the implant consists of a lipid-steroid membrane containing a steroid. In this implant the concentration of the steroid in the membrane and the nature of the lipid phase may be important in determining the pattern of release. In vivo metabolic studies with lipid-steroid pellets are limited, but the patterns of output may be similar to those seen with PDS implants. Because of rate problems, a shorter regime slow-release implant seems more feasible than a longer lasting system. Surgical difficulties associated with the implantation and removal of the PDS implant make the choice of a lipid-steroid micropellet preparation more feasible for a short-term regimen. The discussion, following the main body of the article, focuses primarily on problems associated with implants.
Country Profiles. 1970 Oct; 1-12.The report gives population trends and the status of family planning projects in Ghana. A general background account of Ghana's demographics (size and growth patterns, redistribution trends, urban/rural distribution, religious and ethnic composition, economic status, literacy, future trends, and social/economic groups and attitudes) is discussed. The relationships of national income, size and quality of the labor force, agricultural labor and productivity, public education, and health to the population's growth is summarized. Development of a population policy is described along with major recommendations for a national policy. The organization and structure of the national family planning program is set forth along with a table of "planning targets for increasing the use of contraceptives". Current practices of birth control are reviewed; supportive state and international agencies' roles are discussed; a prognosis of population planning efforts concludes the report.
Kwaluseni, Swaziland, University College of Swaziland Department of Law, Law and Population Project, 1982. 75 p.This report describes the findings of a 2-year research project conducted principally by the Law Department of the University College of Swaziland with input from the Geography Department and the Ministry of Health, funded by UNFPA. The study questions the extent to which the legal system can be used as an instrument of population policy and development. In this context population policy and development can be characterized as processes which increase approximation to the goal of an optimum population. The different essays dealing with the various aspects of law and population underline the multidimensional and complex character of the population problem. The monograph is divided into 3 parts. Part 1 describes the population including spatial distribution, age-sex distribution and the implications of population growth for development in the area. Part 2 describes the institutions governing family growth and planning including traditional methods of birth control and attitudes towards contraception. The laws of marriage, illegitimacy, and adoption are discussed including the Common Law and Statutory Position, and the Income Tax Law is described. Part 3 contains discussions on the uses of the resources of the country from a legal point of view. This includes theory of property law, the morphogenesis of property regimes and 4 alternatives suggested for the future of property law in Swaziland. Population and development is an interactive process because what can be achieved through access to land affects what can be achieved in social investment, education, and health. This study attempts to deal with the larger social setting, the socioeconomic matrix, than with technical legal provisions in order to avoid the narrow analyses of the past.
[Unpublished] Dec. 1982. 44 p. (UNFPA Project no. BGD/80/PO1)The Population Education Program started in July, 1976 in the Formal Education System of Bangladesh, funded by UNFPA is reviewed. The study was designed to find out how the students and teachers have conceptualized the seriousness of the present rate of growth of population at their own levels, and how that has affected their perception about family size and other population issues; the case of married teachers, their contraceptive behavior, present family size and additional number of children desired by them. Recommendations for the 2nd phase of the program were made and most were accepted. This report is based on discussions with the officials of the ministry of Education, PEP project personnel, Population Control and Family Planning Division, NIEAER, Universal Primary Education Project, interviews with teachers and headmasters of primary, secondary and teacher training schools, DPEO's and Education officers. Analyses of textbooks, teacher guides and other documents and reports are included. The report includes a review of relevant research projects, an overview of the status of project activities, the integration of population education content in Bengali arithmetic, social studies and science textbooks, training workshops for teachers, and program management concerns including personnel, workload, monitoring supervision and financial problems. 10 appendices giving very specific information in such areas as the content of Population Education in training modules, interview schedule for teachers and resource persons and the list of persons met are included.
Evaluation of population education projects executed by the ILO in the Asia and Pacific region: general conclusions and recommendations.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983 Dec. xiii, 27,  p.The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has provided funds over the past decade to the International Labor Organization (ILO) or to Governments to undertake population education activities directed at the organized sector. About 44% of this assistance has gone to UNFPA-funded regional and country projects in the Asia and Pacific Region. In order to assess these projects, a review of 21 projects took place and 8 projects in 3 countries (Bangladesh, India, Nepal) were visited by Evalutation Missions. The Missions found that the main immediate objective for all projects was to stimulate awareness and interest in family planning and to support population education. All projects but one were directed at industrial workers, and the provision of family planning was explicitly stated as an objective in 2 projects. All projects had a goal to institutionalise population education as a part of the agency/ministry implementing the projects. The Mission concluded that the greatest effect of these types of projects had been in the change of attitude and behavior of top and middle level management toward family planning for their workers, as illustrated by conduct of in-plant classes for population education on company time and provision of incentives for family planning acceptors. At the worker level, as a result of the extensive training activities, there is now a large cadre of trained worker motivators in many industrial establishments who can influence fellow workers and potentially other members of the community to accept family planning. However, no information was available, except for 2 projects evaluated, to assess the effects of the projects on contraceptive use. It was noted that some projects had focused mainly on groups already motivated towards family planning; more emphasis should be put on reaching audiences not yet motivated for family planning. The institutionalization of population education within the implementing agents of the projects is likely to be achieved in most of the projects evaluated, although this objective cannot be fully evaluated at this point in time. General conclusions and recommendations were made in 4 areas: planning of projects, approach to reach the organized sector, implementation of projects and administration of projects.
[Needs of youth in family planning: the problem in Latin America. A equivocal policy: putting the cart before the horse] Necesidades de los jovenes en planificacion familiar: el problema en America Latina. Una politica equivocada: poner la carreta delante de los bueyes.
[Unpublished] May 1983. Presented at the Meeting of the Regional Council of the FIPF-RHO, Mexico City, May 14, 1983. 9 p.The increasingly young ages at which sexual activity begins and the rising rates of adolescent pregnancy with its severe physical, social, and economic problems are by now well known in Latin America. The explanation of the problem and the near impossibility of resolving it stem from the social unacceptability of contraceptive use by adolescents, a factor which foredooms to failure most programs to curb adolescent pregnancy. The unacceptability of contraceptive use by adolescents should, therefore, be defined as the problem and struggled against. The lack of acceptability of contraceptive use is the practical expression of a repressive ideology which condones sexual discrimination against women. Latin American society, which has always validated recreational sex for males of any age and is recently permitting recreational sex for adult women, roundly refuses to permit it for young women. Such a double standard shows how far discrimination against women has survived, despite all the rhetoric about equality of rights and opportunities. Young women will not use contraception until their social and cultural surroundings validate contraceptive usage. The required policy for dealing with adolescent pregnancy will move from recognizing the fact of early sexual experience, to acceptance of the fact, to social validation of the fact. Only when the undeniable and unchangeable fact of early sexual experience is recognized, accepted, and socially validated will contraceptive programs for adolescents become viable. The task of the International Planned Parenthood Federation should be to do everything possible to promote this decisive ideological change from repression of sexuality in young women to validation of it. The priority of programs to prevent adolescent pregnancy is part of a larger priority: that of struggling on all fronts for an effective liberation of women, questioning of traditional roles and achieving for women the same status and personal dignity enjoyed by males in their sexual and procreative lives.