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SAfAIDS News. 2000 Mar; 8(1):9-10.In March this year in New Delhi, India, Dr Peter Piot, Executive Director of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), launched the 2000 World AIDS Campaign. The 2000 Campaign aims to involve men more fully in the effort against AIDS and to bring about a new, much-needed, focus on men in national responses to the epidemic. (author's)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Address by Mr Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), on the occasion of the Information Meeting with Permanent Delegates on HIV / AIDS, UNESCO, 10 May 2005.
[Paris, France], UNESCO, 2005.  p. (DG/2005/074)It is a pleasure to welcome you to this information session on UNESCO's role, aims and programme in the fight against HIV and AIDS. We are very lucky to have with us Dr Peter Piot, whose excellent work and results as the Executive Director of UNAIDS have recently been underscored by his re-appointment for a new five-year mandate from this year. I am also delighted to welcome Mrs Cristina Owen-Jones, UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador with a special brief for the fight against HIV/AIDS, who will also address you this afternoon. In my introductory remarks to you today, I would like to briefly outline the process through which UNESCO has engaged with the HIV/AIDS challenge during the past few years. That engagement has taken place within an overall context marked by three main features: first, the continuing spread of the epidemic; second, its devastating impact on whole societies and their key institutions (such as education systems) as well as upon communities and families; and, third, the emphasis upon treatment as the major response to HIV and AIDS. (excerpt)
[Berne], Switzerland, Aide Suisse contre le SIDA, 1988 Apr.  p. (Documentation 1)This document contains 12 brief and nontechnical articles by experts on different aspects of AIDS diagnosis and control. The 1st 3 articles, on AIDS information and communications, include a discussion of the international exchange of information on AIDS, an outline of worldwide activities of the World Health Organization Special Program Against AIDS, and a discussion of information policy on AIDS. The next several articles, on AIDS transmission, include articles explaining why mosquitoes do not transmit AIDS and why AIDS is not spread by kissing. An article calls for fighting AIDS instead of using it as a vehicle for social control or discrimination against marginal groups. 3 others call for greater understanding and compassion rather than fear in dealing with AIDS patients. A more detailed article on means of contamination and the unlikelihood of infection through casual contact is followed by a work suggesting that screening for HIV be limited primarily to blood donors and individuals with symptoms suggesting HIV infection. The final article analyzes why Switzerland has the highest per capita prevalence of AIDS in Europe and explores the epidemiology of AIDS in Switzerland.
In: Resource material on HIV / AIDS in Vietnam, [compiled by] Care International in Vietnam. Hanoi, Viet Nam, CARE International in Vietnam, . 58-65.Although acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is relatively new to Viet Nam, socioeconomic realities such as increasing urbanization, demand for commercial sex, low condom use, injecting dug use, and expanded transportation movements presage a future epidemic unless immediate steps are taken. Viet Nam's National AIDS Committee, established in 1989, targets commercial sex workers, sexually transmitted disease clients, injecting drug users, youth, and blood donors. Problematic have been the government's designation of prostitution and drug addiction as "social evils" and the tendency to view AIDS as a foreign disease rather than one related to specific behaviors of the Vietnamese people. CARE Viet Nam has developed a model of the cycle of AIDS-related culture, values, attitudes, and behaviors. The values of paternalism must be replaced by empowerment-related values, including self-reliance, compassion, and honesty. The hegemonic views that women must be submissive and passively accept men's behavior and that it is men's nature to have sex with multiple partners can be modified through IEC. A televised soap opera serial being developed by CARE Viet Nam seeks to catalyze such change in AIDS-related attitudes and behaviors.
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1992 Sep. 93 p.20 participants from 9 sub-Saharan countries and the UK discuss men's negative attitudes towards family planning (the leading obstacle to the success of family planning in Africa) at the November 1991 Workshop on Male Participation in Family Planning in The Gambia. Family planning programs have targeted women for 20 years, but they are starting to see the men's role in making fertility decisions and in transmitting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). They are trying to find ways to increase men's involvement in promoting family planning and STD prevention. Some recent research in Africa shows that many men already have a positive attitude towards family planning, but there is poor or no positive communication between husband and wife about fertility and sexuality. Some family planning programs (e.g., those in Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe) use information, education, and communication (IEC) activities (e.g., audiovisual material, print media, film, workshops, seminars, and songs) to promote men's sexual responsibility. IEC programs do increase knowledge, but do not necessarily change attitudes and practice. Some research indicates that awareness raising must be followed by counseling and peer promotion efforts to effect attitudinal and behavioral change. The sub-Saharan Africa programs must conduct baseline research on attitudes and a needs assessment to determine how to address men's needs. In Zambia, baseline research reveals that a man having 1 faithful partner for a lifetime is deemed negative. Common effective needs assessment methodologies are focus group discussions and individual interviews. Programs have identified various service delivery strategies to meet these needs. They are integration of family planning promotion efforts via AIDS prevention programs, income-generating schemes, employment-based programs, youth programs and peer counseling, male-to-male community-based distribution of condoms, and social marketing. Few programs have been evaluated, mainly because evaluation is not included in the planning process.
[Unpublished] 1990 Mar 6. vi, 71 p.Men may impede broader use of family planning methods by women in many countries. Efforts have therefore been made to reach men separately in order to promote greater acceptance and use of male or female contraceptive methods. Typically, programs may encourage men to allow partners to use contraception; persuade men to adopt a more active, communicative role in decision making on contraceptive use; and/or promote the use of male methods. This paper presents findings from male involvement program initiatives in 60 developing countries since 1980. Male involvement programs are clearly needed, and condom use should be encouraged for protection against both pregnancy and HIV infection. Given their relatively low cost per couple-year of protection, social marketing programs should be encouraged to promote condom sales. Employment-based programs, despite relatively high start-up costs, have also generated large increases in condom use. Both condom and vasectomy use have been increased through mass media campaigns, yet more campaigns should address AIDS. Clinic services and facilities should be made more attractive to men, and new print materials are warranted. Community-based distribution programs have been found to be great sources of information and supplies, especially in rural areas, and male adolescents are especially in favor of telephone hotlines. Little information exits on the effectiveness and costs of programs targeting organized groups. Further, youth-oriented programs generally reach their intended audiences, but are relatively expensive for the amount of contraceptive protection provided. Finally, a positive image must be promoted for the condom through coordinated media presentations, user and worker doubts of efficacy must be eliminated, and regular condom supplies ensured. Recommendations are included for policy, research, public education, the World Health Organization, national AIDS prevention programs, and family planning agencies.
FAR EASTERN ECONOMIC REVIEW. 1992 Feb 20; 29-30.AIDS and HIV infection are in the early stages in Indonesia. 21 AIDS cases have been reported, and 30 persons have tested HIV-seropositive. Given the relatively low number of cases, and the presumed slow spread of HIV in the population, the government may yet be able to react in timely fashion to thwart epidemic spread. A rigorous education campaign and early detection of infected individuals are elements central to such intervention. The World Health Organization set a 1992 budget of US$500,000 for AIDS efforts in Indonesia. Research is young, awareness is minimal, and the campaign has barely commenced. AIDS cases have emerged in Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, and Denpasar. It is especially in cities that the government is concerned over checking the spread of AIDS. In these populations, many engage in extramarital sex, visible transvestite communities exist, and commercial sex districts thrive. Low condom use among sex workers, and relatively high rates of untreated STDs prevail in the general population. From March, blood donated in 15 cities, including these 4, will be compulsorily screened for HIV. Socially, moral and religious attitudes must be recognized and accommodated in mounting an effective AIDS prevention and education campaign in Indonesia. While religious sensibilities may be offended by the discussion of sex and sexual practices, such discussion is necessary and must be supported by the well-organized religious groups in this overwhelmingly Muslim country. Hopefully, Indonesia will bring to bear against AIDS the same cultural pragmatism exhibited to effect population control in the 1970s and 1980s.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH SERVICES. 1991; 21(3):505-10.This article asks the reader to carefully consider the personal implications of AIDS were either he or close friends and relatives afflicted with the syndrome. We are urged to acknowledge the limited capabilities of personal and social response to the epidemic, and recognize the associated degree of social inequity and knowledge deficiency which exists. Summaries of 3 articles are discussed as highly integrated in their common call for global solidarity in the fight against HIV infections and AIDS. Pros and cons of Cuba's evolving response to AIDS are considered, paying attention to the country's recent abandonment of health policy which isolated those infected with HIV, in favor of renewed social integration of these individuals. Brazil's inadequate, untimely, and erred response to AIDS is then strongly criticized in the 2nd article summary. Finally, the 3rd article by Dr. Jonathan Mann, former head of the World Health Organization's Global program on AIDS, on AIDS prevention in the 1990s is discussed. Covering behavioral change and the critical role of political factors in AIDS prevention, Mann asserts the need to apply current concepts and strategies, while developing new ones, and to reassess values and concepts guiding work in the field. AIDS and its associated crises threaten the survival of humanity. It is not just a disease to be solved by information, but is intimately linked to issues of sexuality, health, and human behavior which are in turn shaped by social, political, economic, and cultural factors. Strong, concerted political resolve is essential in developing, implementing, and sustaining an action agenda against AIDS set by people with AIDS and those at risk of infection. Vision, resources, and leadership are called for in this war closely linked to the struggle for worldwide social justice.
SCIENCE. 1991 Oct 25; 254:511-2.The 1st Director of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Program on AIDS (GPA) abruptly resigned March, 1990. Jonathan Mann led the GPA in an innovative, aggressive, and comparatively non-bureaucratic style since its inception in 1986, building a staff of nearly 200 under an eventual 1990 budget of $90 million. Mann's non-conformist style and ever-growing budget, however, ran counter to the bureaucratic forces in WHO, causing him to leave for a position at Harvard University. A 12-year WHO veteran, Michael H. Merson succeeded Mann, and has since managed the GPA in a more conventional, bureaucratic manner. Senior staff have resigned, and the budget will drop to only $75 million for 1992. Staff replacements are used to the bureaucratic structure and demands of WHO, but lack experience in the field of AIDS. This paper discusses the markedly different management styles and approaches of Merson and Mann, with concern voiced over the future of the GPA. Critics are uncertain of GPA's present direction, and whether or not it is a necessary, positive change in the fight against the AIDS pandemic. As AIDS appears with less frequency and centrality i the world's media, the GPA is needed now even more than just a few years ago to inform the world of the dangers of AIDS. Merson is expected to promote relatively simple treatment options for AIDS, with some emphasis upon technological fixes like the condom. With cuts to the behavioral research budget, however, it is almost certain that inadequate steps will be taken to effect behavioral change for the prevention and control of HIV infection.
HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1991 Aug; 17(4):20-3.Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease.
[Unpublished] 1989.  p. (WHO/GPA/INF/89.21)In October 1989, WHO and the International Labour Office (ILO) organized a consultation on AIDS and seafarers. Participants included shipowners, public health professionals, physicians, seafarer organizations, and government representatives. They concluded that seafarers were not at particular risk since they work and live basically on ships for extended periods of time. Nevertheless conditions do exist that warrant special attention. For example, they are a geographically mobile young population living and working in a mixed cultural environment. This environment restricts their accessibility to health facilities and timely information and HIV and AIDS. Further, the nature of their profession limits social interaction on board ship and on shore. Therefore the consultation stated aims and objectives to help prevent HIV transmission and to promote the health of HIV positive seafarers on the job. Shipping owners and seafarer organizations should develop strategies together, and where appropriate, with governmental and other agencies to achieve these goals. The consultation recommended that WHO and ILO provide guidance AIDS health promotion, encourage its integration into overall health promotion, and support any regional pilot projects on AIDS health promotion. They should also establish a resource center and a network to disseminate resource packages with culturally sensitive material, such as video tapes and posters. In addition, these international organizations should reexamine current occupational health and safety regulations and medical guides for ships and the manner in which they are applied. Accordingly they should develop a seafarer's manual for physician use. WHO and ILO should widely distribute the consultation statement to relevant organizations. Finally, they should encourage national AIDS committees to tie in with individuals working on HIV/AIDS issues for seafarers.
AIDS WATCH. 1989; (8):8.The Chilean Red Cross Society and the family planning association--APROFA, International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, are joining forces to help prevent the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. APROFA established a working group to study the knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior of students at the National Training Institute, INACAP. 7000 students were sampled in 11 Chilean cities. The study found that 36% of the females, and 77% of males were sexually active before the age of 20. Nearly 1/2 of the women and 1/5 of the men did not know that condoms could protect them against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy. APROFA designed a program to increase students knowledge of AIDS, reduce promiscuity and increase knowledge of and use of condoms. In October, 1988 an educational package distributed, consisting of a training manual, slides, educational booklets, a poster, and a video of 3 films. It has proved so successful that APROFA has adapted it for community groups, educational institutions, and its youth program. APROFA/Red Cross nurses and Red Cross volunteers have participated in workshops and training with the package. The Red Cross has organized AIDS-related activities in Chile since 1986, including education campaigns, information for blood donors, and a telephone hotline to provide AIDS counseling. Goals are to target more poor areas and groups outside of society's mainstream in the next year for sex education and information on STDs.