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  1. 1
    105105

    HIV / AIDS: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices.

    AIDS SURVEILLANCE REPORT. 1995 Jan; (4):3, 5-6.

    More than forty studies were reviewed in 1995 on the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of individuals with respect to HIV/AIDS in American Samoa, Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hong Kong, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu, and Vietnam. In all but one of the twenty studies which inquired, more than 80% of respondents had heard of AIDS. In a number of countries, correct knowledge about the sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS was found to be at least 80%. A similar level of knowledge was found about needle transmission of HIV/AIDS, although comparatively lower levels of knowledge about HIV transmission via sexual intercourse, needle use/reuse, and maternal-child exchange was, however, identified in Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia, Solomon Islands, and the high-risk populations of Vietnam and French Polynesia. Relatively high levels of incorrect answers were observed for the incorrect modes of HIV transmission. Moreover, 20% of respondents in each of the eight studies are in favor of exiling or isolating HIV-infected persons; in two countries, support for isolation or exile was 60% or greater. Overall, risk behaviors appear to exist at levels which will support an HIV epidemic in the countries studied. Levels of other sexually transmitted diseases and reported levels of extramarital and premarital sex, especially among males, support this conclusion. Commercial sex appears to occur at a substantial level in most of the societies studied, while condom use in casual and commercial sexual encounters seems to be the exception rather than the rule.
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  2. 2
    029774

    Women in national planning: false expectations.

    Mohammadi P

    Development: Seeds of Change. 1984; 4:80-1.

    A strategy, developed by the Women's Programme of the Social Development Division of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) to promote women's participation in the development process, is described. Although recommendations of international conferences invariably call for the inclusion of women in all levels of development planning, efforts to involve women in planning at the national level have met with little success. Even if women received sufficient training and education to qualify them as planners, their impact on development planning would be minimal due to deficiencies within the national planning process. Top planning units in most Asian and Pacific countries are composed of highly trained expatriots who lack an understanding of the needs of the population in general and of women in particular. The strategy developed by the Women's Programme is based on expanding the role of women in development planning at the local level and gradually sensitizing the planning hierarchy to women's needs and to women's abilities. This awareness building can be facilitated by developing links between government agencies and women's organizations. Application of this strategy revealed that it was much more difficult to build awareness among government officials and planners then to involve women in development at the local level. The planning process is constantly subject to personnel and policy changes because of changing political situations, and planners remain isolated from the public. At the community level, women's efforts to promote development are highly successful. Programs developed by women tend to benefit the entire community, and women's roles in these activities are highly visible. These successful efforts will contribute toward building an awareness of women's capacities to promote development. Conditions which are conducive to local level involvement of women include the political will to promote participation, the provision of appropriate training to prepare community members for participation, and the existence of an adequate infrastructure and sufficient resources to carry out programs.
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  3. 3
    745593

    Gilbert and Ellice Islands (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, January 1974. 5 p.

    All the demographic statistics and the cultural, economic, and geogr aphical situation of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, a British colony in the South Pacific, are presented. The history of interest in family planning and the current personnel of the Family Planning Association (FPA) are presented. The FPA was established in 1969 and the government is now integrating family planning into its Maternal and Child Health Services. Public opinion generally favors family planning and family planning education. Charts of services provided over a period of years by the FPA show increasing numbers of acceptors, with the IUD the contin ually increasing favorite. Current educational, research, and evaluation work is summarized. Other organizations have aided in the campaign for family planning.
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  4. 4
    048849

    Evaluation of population education projects executed by the ILO in the Asia and Pacific region: general conclusions and recommendations.

    Matthews P; Roque F; Valdivia L; McWilliam J

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983 Dec. xiii, 27, [8] p.

    The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has provided funds over the past decade to the International Labor Organization (ILO) or to Governments to undertake population education activities directed at the organized sector. About 44% of this assistance has gone to UNFPA-funded regional and country projects in the Asia and Pacific Region. In order to assess these projects, a review of 21 projects took place and 8 projects in 3 countries (Bangladesh, India, Nepal) were visited by Evalutation Missions. The Missions found that the main immediate objective for all projects was to stimulate awareness and interest in family planning and to support population education. All projects but one were directed at industrial workers, and the provision of family planning was explicitly stated as an objective in 2 projects. All projects had a goal to institutionalise population education as a part of the agency/ministry implementing the projects. The Mission concluded that the greatest effect of these types of projects had been in the change of attitude and behavior of top and middle level management toward family planning for their workers, as illustrated by conduct of in-plant classes for population education on company time and provision of incentives for family planning acceptors. At the worker level, as a result of the extensive training activities, there is now a large cadre of trained worker motivators in many industrial establishments who can influence fellow workers and potentially other members of the community to accept family planning. However, no information was available, except for 2 projects evaluated, to assess the effects of the projects on contraceptive use. It was noted that some projects had focused mainly on groups already motivated towards family planning; more emphasis should be put on reaching audiences not yet motivated for family planning. The institutionalization of population education within the implementing agents of the projects is likely to be achieved in most of the projects evaluated, although this objective cannot be fully evaluated at this point in time. General conclusions and recommendations were made in 4 areas: planning of projects, approach to reach the organized sector, implementation of projects and administration of projects.
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  5. 5
    039113

    Measles: summary of worldwide impact.

    Assaad F

    REVIEWS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 1983 May-Jun; 5(3):452-9.

    This summary of the worldwide impact of measles discusses epidemiology, reported incidence, clinical severity, community attitudes toward measles, and the impact of immunization programs on measles. Measles, 1 of the most ubiquitous and persistent of human viruses, occurs regularly everywhere in the world except in very remote and isolated areas. Strains of measles virus from different counties are indistinguishable, and serum antibodies from diverse population have identical specificity. Yet, the epidemic pattern, average age at infection, and mortality vary considerably from 1 area to another and provide a contrasting picture between the developing and the developed countries. In the populous areas of the world, measles causes epidemics every 2-5 years, but in the rapidly expanding urban conglomerations in the developing world, the continuous immigration from the rural population provides a constant influx of susceptible individuals and, in turn, a sustained occurrence of measles and unclear epidemic curves. In the economically advanced nations, measles epidemics are closely tied to the school year, building up to a peak in the late spring and ceasing abruptly after the summer recess begins. Maternal antibody usually confers protection against measles to infants during the 1st few months of life. The total number of cases of measles reported to WHO for 1980 is 2.9 million. Considering that in the developing world alone almost 100 million infants are born yearly, that less than 20% of them are immunized against measles, and that various studies indicate that almost all nonimmunized children get measles, less than 3 million cases of measles in 1980 is a gross underestimate. There was adecrease in the global number of reported cases of measles during the 1979-80 period due primarily to the reduction in the number of cases in the African continent and, to a lesser extent, in Europe. It is premature to conclude that such a reported decline is real and that it reflects the beginning of a longterm trend. The contrast between the developed and the developing worlds is most marked in relation to the severity and outcome of measles. Case fatality rates of more than 20% have been reported from West Africa. It has been estimated that 900,000 deaths occur yearly in the developing world because of measles, but data available to WHO indicate that the global case fatality rate in the developing world approaches 2% (in contrast to 2/10,000 cases in the US), and the actal mortality may be greater than 1.5 million deaths per year. The advent of WHO's Expanded Program on Immunization has brought about an awareness of the measles problem. Whenever and wherever measles vaccine has been used effectively on a large scale, a marked reduction in the number of cases has been recorded.
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