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The evaluation of comprehensive sexuality education programmes: a focus on the gender and empowerment outcomes.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2015. 64 p.Repeated evaluations have demonstrated that comprehensive sexuality education does not foster earlier sexual debut or unsafe sexual activity. By contrast, programmes that teach only abstinence have not proved to be effective. Additionally, recent research demonstrates that gender norms are a “gateway factor” for a range of adolescent health outcomes. Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that emphasize critical thinking about gender and power – the empowerment approach – are far more effective than conventional “gender-blind” programmes at reducing rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended early pregnancy. These studies also indicate that young people who adopt more egalitarian attitudes about gender roles, compared to their peers, are more likely to delay sexual debut, use condoms and practise contraception. They are also less likely to be in relationships characterized by violence. This report, The Evaluation of Comprehensive Sexuality Education Programmes: A Focus on the Gender and Empowerment Outcomes, represents an important milestone in our understanding of advances in the field of comprehensive sexuality education evaluation. It offers an extensive review and analysis of a wide range of evaluation studies of different comprehensive sexuality education programmes, at different stages of development and from different contexts and setting across the globe. It enriches our knowledge of new methodologies, available questionnaires and instruments that can be applied in future assessments and evaluations, most particularly to measure the gender empowerment outcome of comprehensive sexuality education programmes. It addresses the adaptation of the methodology to various contexts and age-specific groups of young people and children. This report is co-sponsored by UNFPA, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the World Health Organization and the International Planned Parenthood Federation.
[Knowledge, attitudes and condom use skills among youth in Burkina Faso] Utilisation du preservatif masculin : connaissances, attitudes et competences de jeunes burkinabè.
Sante Publique. 2017 Mar 06; 29(1):95-103.Introduction: Condom use is recognized by the WHO as the only contraceptive that protects against both HIV / AIDS and unwanted pregnancies. But to be effective, condoms must be used consistently and correctly. The objective of this study was to assess young people's skills in male condom used, to identify the challenges faced by them when using condoms to better guide future interventions.Methods: Based on a two-level sampling representing 94,947 households within Bobo-Dioulasso municipality, 573 youth aged between 15 and 24 were interviewed. This data collection was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015 in the three districts of the municipality. A questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes of the youth.Results: Only 24% of surveyed know how to accurately use condoms despite their knowledge of condom effectiveness and although some of them are exposed to awareness-raising and information campaigns. Indeed, various handling errors and usage problems (breakage, slippage, leakage and loss of erection) had been identified during the oral demonstration performed by the surveyed. The older youth and with the highest level of education were the most likely to demonstrate increased skills in condom use. Moreover, girls were less competent than boys in terms of condom use.Conclusion: It is important to increase awareness-raising and information campaigns, adapting the content to the real needs of young people so as to transmit the skills required for effective prevention particularly in regard to condom use.
Criminal prosecution of a male partner for sexual transmission of infectious diseases: the views of educated people living in Togo.
Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2013 Jun; 89(4):290-4.OBJECTIVE: To examine the views of educated people in Togo on the acceptability of criminal prosecution of a male partner for sexual transmission of infectious diseases (STIDs) to his female partner. METHODS: 199 adults living in Kara, Togo judged acceptability of criminal prosecution for STID in 45 scenarios composed of combinations of five factors: (a) severity of disease; (b) awareness and communication of one's serological status; (c) partners' marital status; (d) number of sexual partners the female partner has and (e) male partner's subsequent attitude (supportive or not). RESULTS: Acceptability was lower (a) when the male partner decided to take care of his female partner he had infected than when he decided to leave, (b) when both partners were informed but decided not to take precautions than when none of them was informed or when only the male partner was informed and (c) when the female partner has had several male sexual partners than when she has had only one. Two qualitatively different views were identified. For 66% of participants, when the male partner accepts to take care of his partner, he should not be sued, except when he did not disclose his serological status. For 34%, when both partners were informed, the male partner should not be sued, irrespective of other circumstances. CONCLUSIONS: Regarding criminal prosecution for STID, most people in the sample endorsed the position of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS that urges governments not to apply criminal law to cases where sexual partners disclosed their status or were not informed of it.
Journal of Women's Health. 2011 Nov; 20(11):1655-1661.Background: The practice of female genital cutting (FGC) is widespread in Nigeria and varies from one ethnic group to another. In 1994, Nigeria joined members of the 47th World Health Assembly in a resolution to eliminate the practice, and since then, several steps has been taken to achieve this objective. Methods: Nigeria joined members of the 47th World Health Assembly sixteen years ago in a resolution to eliminate female genital mutilation. This study uses data from 420 women aged 15-49 years who had at least one surviving daughter to investigate changes in FGC prevalence among mothers and daughters. The sample was systematically selected through stratified random sampling across the six states of southwest Nigeria. Focus group discussion, and an in-depth interview with fourteen women considered to be specialist in FGC were also held to compliment data generated from the interview. Results: The analysis indicated an FGC prevalence rate of 75% and 71% for mothers and daughters, respectively. It further indicated that the practice is rooted in tradition despite the fact that 52% of the respondents are aware of the health hazards of FGC. Educated mothers were found to be less likely to favor the cutting of their daughters. Conclusions: It is suggested that educational campaigns aimed toward parents should be intensified. Legal recourse, prohibition of operations, improvement in women's status, and sex education are also suggested as means of eradicating the practice.
The sexual and reproductive health of young people in Latin America: Evidence from WHO case studies.
Salud Publica de Mexico. 2008 Jan-Feb; 50(1):10-16.This original article addresses the sexual and reproductive health needs of young people aged 15 to 24 in Latin America. It introduces five articles from original research projects in three countries: Argentina, Brazil, and Peru. These projects were funded by the World Health Organization. This article explains the importance of studies that address the sexual and reproductive health of young people in developing countries. It provides an overview of sexual and reproductive health issues in Latin America and a discussion these issues in the three study countries. The five articles deal with difficult and challenging issues, including: knowledge of STIs and HIV/ AIDS; pregnancy related practices; quality of care; the role of young men in couple formation, pregnancy and adoption of contraceptive practice; and, the role of obstetricians and gynecologists in public policy debate about family planning and abortion. The four articles in this special section help to improve our understanding of the factors that contribute to risky sexual behavior and negative reproductive health outcomes among youth in Latin America. The findings are useful to help inform and improve health care interventions in various contexts. (author's)
Generations and Gender Survey (GGS): Towards a better understanding of relationships and processes in the life course.
Demographic Research. 2007 Nov 30; 17(14):389-440.The Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) is one of the two pillars of the Generations and Gender Programme designed to improve understanding of demographic and social development and of the factors that influence these developments. This article describes how the theoretical perspectives applied in the survey, the survey design and the questionnaire are related to this objective. The key features of the survey include panel design, multidisciplinarity, comparability, context-sensitivity, inter-generational and gender relationships. The survey applies the life course approach, focussing on the processes of childbearing, partnership dynamics, home leaving, and retiring. The selection of topics for data collection mainly follows the criterion of theoretically grounded relevance to explaining one or more of the mentioned processes. A large portion of the survey deals with economic aspects of life, such as economic activity, income, and economic well-being; a comparably large section is devoted to values and attitudes. Other domains covered by the survey include gender relationships, household composition and housing, residential mobility, social networks and private transfers, education, health, and public transfers. The third chapter of the article describes the motivations for their inclusion. The GGS questionnaire is designed for a face-to-face interview. It includes the core that each participating country needs to implement in full, and four optional submodules on nationality and ethnicity, on previous partners, on intentions of breaking up, and on housing, respectively. The participating countries are encouraged to include also the optional sub-modules to facilitate comparative research on these topics. (author's)
Knowledge, perceptions and attitudes of Islamic scholars towards reproductive health programs in Borno State, Nigeria.
African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2007; 11(1):98-106.Some reproductive health policies and activities of international development organizations continued to be criticized by some religious groups. Such criticisms can be serious obstacles in the provision of reproductive health and rights information and services in many communities. This study was conducted to find the knowledge, perception and attitude of Islamic scholars on reproductive health programs and to get some suggestions on the scholars' role in the planning and implementation of reproductive health advocacy and programming. The data were collected by in-depth interview with representative sample of selected Muslim scholars in and around Maiduguri town in Borno State, Nigeria. All the scholars had vague or no idea of what reproductive health is all about. When they were explaining reproductive health, most of the scholars mentioned some of the rights of women especially the need for maintaining the good health of women and their children as reproductive health. Even though they have poorknowledge, all the Muslim scholars interviewed believed that reproductive health is an essential component of healthy living and the programs of the international development organizations are mostly good, but they have reservations and concern to certain campaigns and programs. Scholars that promised their contributions in enhancing reproductive health have a common condition for their continuous support to any international development organization or reproductive health program. Conformity to Islamic norms and principles are prerequisites to their loyalties. The scholars also advised the international development organizations on the need to identify themselves clearly, so that people know from where they are coming, what are their background, and the program that they want to do and the reasons for doing the program in the community. (author's)
Differences between international recommendations on breastfeeding in the presence of HIV and the attitudes and counselling messages of health workers in Lilongwe, Malawi.
International Breastfeeding Journal. 2006 Mar 9; 1(1):2.To prevent postnatal transmission of HIV in settings where safe alternatives to breastfeeding are unavailable, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding followed by early, rapid cessation of breastfeeding. Only limited data are available on the attitudes of health workers toward this recommendation and the impact of these attitudes on infant feeding counselling messages given to mothers. As part of the Breastfeeding, Antiretroviral, and Nutrition (BAN) clinical trial, we carried out an in-depth qualitative study of the attitudes, beliefs, and counselling messages of 19 health workers in Lilongwe, Malawi. Although none of the workers had received formal training, several reported having counseled HIV-positive mothers about infant feeding. Health workers with counselling experience believed that HIV-infected mothers should breastfeed exclusively, rather than infant formula feed, citing poverty as the primary reason. Because of high levels of malnutrition, all the workershad concerns about early cessation of breastfeeding. Important differences were observed between the WHO recommendations and the attitudes and practices of the health workers. Understanding these differences is important for designing effective interventions. (author's)
From camp to community: Liberia study on exploitation of children. Discussion paper on children's vulnerability to exploitation and abuse during the delivery of assistance in Liberia based on field studies carried out by Save the Children UK in Liberia.
Monrovia, Liberia, Save the Children UK, 2006. 20 p.The people of Liberia have experienced ongoing suffering over the past two decades as a result of war and displacement. Children have been drawn into this in many ways, such as recruitment into armed forces, separation from their families, witnessing atrocities, rape and torture. Thousands have been driven from their homes into exile into neighbouring countries or camps for internally displaced people (IDPs) within Liberia. This study focuses on children remaining in those camps and those who have recently been repatriated to their towns and villages of origin after the end of the war. Save the Children, along with many other non-governmental organisations, has been working alongside the Liberian government in the IDP camps. During the course of our work with children, Save the Children staff became aware that many children were agreeing to have sex with older men for money, food and other goods and favours. In order to document more closely the circumstances surrounding this issue, and to look at ways to improve Save the Children's delivery of assistance to better protect children against such exploitation, we instigated a study in four IDP camps and four communities with a high population of people returning from the camps. (excerpt)
SAfAIDS News. 2000 Mar; 8(1):9-10.In March this year in New Delhi, India, Dr Peter Piot, Executive Director of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), launched the 2000 World AIDS Campaign. The 2000 Campaign aims to involve men more fully in the effort against AIDS and to bring about a new, much-needed, focus on men in national responses to the epidemic. (author's)
Acta Pædiatrica. Supplement. 1999 Aug; 88(430):1-6.The prevalence of breastfeeding varies very much throughout the world. In some countries, such as in Scandinavia, it is extremely high, whereas it is rather low in many industrialized countries such as northern Italy. In urban areas of many developing countries the prevalence is extremely low, although it may be high in rural areas. For instance, in rural Guinea-Bissau in West Africa it is reported to be 100% at 3 mo of age, and this high prevalence may be explained by the fact that infants who have not been breastfed die before this age. In Sweden the prevalence at 2 mo of age was around 95% in 1945 (including infants fed by milk-mothers) but then gradually dropped until 1972, when it was as low as 20%. However, during the following 10-y period the prevalence gradually increased to around 80%. The main reasons for the decline most probably were that infant formulae, then considered to be safe, became available, that an increasing number of women started to work outside their homes, making formula feeding part of the feminist movement, and finally that no real attempts were made to promote breastfeeding in the maternity wards and well-baby clinics. The reverse trend started in 1972, when the attitude towards breastfeeding changed completely. Well-educated mothers became aware of the new discoveries of the importance of breastfeeding from immunological and nutritional points of view, and organized campaigns. Within a few years, the Swedish parliament passed a law which guaranteed all mothers paid leave from their work (80% of their salary) for 9 mo after childbirth, which has now been increased to 12 mo. The WHO/UNICEF code from 1980, which regulates the marketing of infant formula, has also probably played an important role. After a plateau for the prevalence of breastfeeding between 1982 and 1990, a further increase has taken place, particularly between 6 and 9 mo of age. Whereas the first phase in the increase of the prevalence of breastfeeding was, to a certain extent, the result of the concern of well-educated mothers, the second phase (1990-1998) may, at least partly, be explained by the fact that Swedish maternity wards then implemented the suggestion, launched by WHO/UNICEF, to create "baby-friendly" maternity hospitals with the aim of enabling all women to practise exclusive breastfeeding immediately after birth. Methods to stimulate lactation and proper nutritional suckling behaviour of the newborn were then developed. (author's)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Address by Mr Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), on the occasion of the Information Meeting with Permanent Delegates on HIV / AIDS, UNESCO, 10 May 2005.
[Paris, France], UNESCO, 2005.  p. (DG/2005/074)It is a pleasure to welcome you to this information session on UNESCO's role, aims and programme in the fight against HIV and AIDS. We are very lucky to have with us Dr Peter Piot, whose excellent work and results as the Executive Director of UNAIDS have recently been underscored by his re-appointment for a new five-year mandate from this year. I am also delighted to welcome Mrs Cristina Owen-Jones, UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador with a special brief for the fight against HIV/AIDS, who will also address you this afternoon. In my introductory remarks to you today, I would like to briefly outline the process through which UNESCO has engaged with the HIV/AIDS challenge during the past few years. That engagement has taken place within an overall context marked by three main features: first, the continuing spread of the epidemic; second, its devastating impact on whole societies and their key institutions (such as education systems) as well as upon communities and families; and, third, the emphasis upon treatment as the major response to HIV and AIDS. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2005 Nov.  p.FGM/C is a fundamental violation of human rights. In the absence of any perceived medical necessity, it subjects girls and women to health risks and has life-threatening consequences. Among those rights violated are the right to the highest attainable standard of health and to bodily integrity. Furthermore, it could be argued that girls (under 18) cannot be said to give informed consent to such a potentially damaging practice as FGM/C. FGM/C is, further, an extreme example of discrimination based on sex. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women defines discrimination as "any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field." Used as a way to control women's sexuality, FGM/C is a main manifestation of gender inequality and discrimination "related to the historical suppression and subjugation of women," denying girls and women the full enjoyment of their rights and liberties. (excerpt)
Testing the effectiveness of integrating community-based approaches for encouraging abandonment of female genital cutting into CARE's reproductive health programs in Ethiopia and Kenya.
Washington, D.C., Population Council, Frontiers in Reproductive Health, 2004 Dec.  p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-98-00012-00; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-98-00023-00)Between 2000 and 2002, CARE International, with technical support from the Frontiers in Reproductive Health Program of the Population Council, implemented an operations research (OR) project among the Afar people of Ethiopia and Somali refugees in Daadab camps in Kenya. The OR project aimed to assess the effectiveness of community-based female genital cutting (FGC) strategies in increasing the knowledge of harmful FGC effects and positive FGC related attitudes and intended behaviour among the intervention communities. Both communities are predominantly of Islamic faith and practice infibulation, the most severe form of FGC. In both Ethiopia and Kenya, CARE integrated FGC interventions into existing community-based reproductive and primary health care information and service delivery activities. The study in Ethiopia was designed to test the effectiveness of education activities using behaviour change communication (BCC) approaches and advocacy activities by religious and other key leaders in the intervention site. No interventions occurred in the control sites. In Kenya, both the intervention and comparison sites had education/BCC activities. The intervention site had advocacy activities in addition to education/BCC activities. The OR study assessed the effectiveness of BCC and advocacy activities versus no interventions in Ethiopia, while in Kenya the comparison was between BCC strategies alone and the combination of BCC and advocacy activities. (excerpt)
Africa Renewal. 2004 Oct; 18(3): p..Since his appointment in January 2001 as UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan's Special Envoy for HIV/AIDS in Africa, Ambassador Stephen Lewis has earned a reputation as a fierce, plainspoken advocate for greater action against the HIV/AIDS pandemic sweeping the continent. He was an early - and often lonely - voice for a much stronger focus on the special challenges to and contributions from African women in the struggle against the disease. On 12 July, Mr. Lewis delivered the first of two major addresses on women and AIDS at the International AIDS Conference in Bangkok, drawing attention to the soaring HIV infection rates among young African women and calling for urgent action. The announcement that girls and young women now account for 75 per cent of all Africans aged 1524 living with HIV and AIDS, he said, "is unprecedented in the history of the pandemic and . . . perhaps the most ominous warning of what is yet to come." (excerpt)
The Planned Parenthood Association of Thailand: prevention of domestic violence against women and children in Thailand through the promotion of reproductive health.
Innovations: Innovative Approaches to Population Programme Management. 2001; 9:73-100.Thailand is the third largest country among the Southeast Asian nations with an area of approximately 513,000 square kilometres. It has a total population of about 62 million with 95 percent of the population embracing Buddhism. Known for having a soft-spoken society rich in culture and high in spirituality, the general assumption is that domestic violence is rare. Yet such a state of security does not exist regardless of the culture that one belongs to. On many occasions domestic violence not only involves women, but children usually suffer the consequences as well. It is not unusual that such acts of violence are considered a family affair and thus many cases go unreported or unpublicised, perhaps out of the victims’ fear or simply from ignorance of their rights. The Thai government has come a long way in countering the prevalence of domestic violence through on-going efforts to amend its legal system and constitution. Demonstrating commitment to protect women and children from discrimination and violence, it has acknowledged various international treaties and even incorporated the rights and welfare of women and children in its National Plan framework. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Diarrhoeal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control, 1994 Aug.  p. (Update No. 14)Health workers can play a key role in the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding. Their presence at the time of delivery and their subsequent contacts with mothers and infants provide them with unique opportunities to help mother and baby to establish and maintain lactation. In the past two decades, there has been a rapid increase in our understanding, not only of the scientific basis of lactation and suckling, but also of effective management and prevention of breast-feeding problems, including the use of basic counselling skills. Research has shown that if health workers' attitudes and practices are supportive, it is more likely that mothers will breastfeed successfully and for a longer period. Unfortunately, breastfeeding has been neglected in the training of most health workers, leaving a serious gap in both their knowledge and skills. Training is urgently needed at all levels in up-to-date and effective breastfeeding management. The CDD Programme in collaboration with UNICEF has developed the package "Breast-feeding counselling: A training course" to help to fill the gap. (excerpt)
Global AIDSLink. 2003 Apr-May; (79):12-13.The media plays a unique role within society either to denounce or to perpetuate the bias and moral judgments against people with HIV/AIDS. Sometimes journalists can underestimate how influential their portrayal of HIV/AIDS is in shaping people's attitudes, especially when society fails to distinguish between people and the disease they suffer from; when denial is so pervasive that the infected are ostracized by their families. In addition, reporters, editors and producers constantly grapple with ways to find fresh angles to discuss HIV, and ensure their viewers and readers remain engaged by a topic that never appears to grow old. To address these and other key topics concerning the media and its treatment of HIV/AIDS, the World Bank organized a distance-learning course from June to November 2002 that simultaneously brought together journalists and HIV/AIDS project managers from Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Nigeria and Malawi. The course, entitled Fighting the HIV/AIDS Pandemic through Information and Strategic Communication, recognizes the role that successful communication campaigns can play in increasing understanding of the disease and promoting life-saving behaviors. Each program stream consisted of eight video-conferenced modules, which were followed up through in-country work. (excerpt)
Tuberculosis control in resource-poor countries: have we reached the limits of the universal paradigm?
Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2004 Jul; 9(7):833-841.The aim of TB control is to break the cycle of transmission by treating TB cases as early and efficiently as possible. In its efforts to promote a model of worldwide TB control, WHO defined specific targets and launched the ‘Directly Observed Therapy, Short-course’ (DOTS) strategy as the main tool to reach them. However, the diversity of patients’ attitudes towards the disease and the extreme variability of access to care, especially in resource-poor countries, are amongst the many factors of social context that profoundly affect the ability of control programmes to implement this policy effectively. There are multiple reports of TB control programmes using various types of intervention to promote adherence and enhance case-holding, but most of these interventions depend on external funding, which bring into question their long-term sustainability. In this paper, we address the problems related to operational variabilities in the implementation of the DOTS strategy in resource-poor countries and question the appropriateness of a universal paradigm for global TB control. This analysis is of particular importance as programmers consider using this model in the delivery of anti-retroviral therapies for the treatment of HIV in resource-limited settings. (author's)
Arlington, Virginia, Camp Dresser and McKee International, Environmental Health Project, 2004 Mar. vi, 80 p. (Activity Report No. 128; USAID Contract No. HRN-I-00-99-00011-00)The tools presented in this report relate to technical support provided by USAID through the Environmental Health Project (EHP) to the Public Private Partnership (PPP) for Handwashing with Soap Initiative, which was started by UNICEF and implemented with financial assistance from USAID and the World Bank. As part of USAID/EHP’s technical support, EHP worked with Howard Delafield International (HDI) and prepared a series of program/planning tools used in the preparation of the first-phase of the Nepal Handwashing with Soap Initiative. These tools were based on a literature review of “lessons learned” from the Central American Handwashing Inititiative, as well as a review of other background material prepared for other handwashing with soap activities, and were developed in partnership with UNICEF /Nepal during 2003. The planning tools can be used and/or adapted by other organizations, public or private sector, interested in initiating a PPP in their country. For more information on PPP initiatives, please refer to www.globalhandwashing.org. (excerpt)
Strengthening the provision of adolescent-friendly health services to meet the health and development needs of adolescents in Africa. A consensus statement emanating from a regional consultation on strengthening the provision of adolescent-friendly health services to meet the health and development needs of adolescents in Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe, 17-21 October 2000.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2001.  p. (WHO/FCH/CAH/01.16; AFR/ADH/01.3)Health ministers in the WHO African Region at the 45th regional Committee for Africa (1995) requested WHO to assist Member States in their efforts to address the health problems of adolescents in an integrated manner. In addition, the WHO reproductive-health strategy for the African Region includes a framework which provides for equitable access to quality health services through the establishment of youth-friendly services and counselling for all adolescents. There have been many initiatives, largely donor-driven, in many African countries to provide health services to adolescents. On the other hand, there is ample evidence that even when health services are available adolescents do not utilize them for various reasons, ranging from the organization of services; the attitude of health workers, and community acceptance of services for adolescents. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 137-150.This volume chronicles the remarkable success -- indeed, the reproductive revolution -- that has taken place over the last thirty years, in which the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has played such a major role. Our purpose in this chapter is to contrast the situation at the century's end with the one that existed at the time of UNFPA's creation thirty years ago, and to project from the current situation to the new challenges that lie ahead. In many respects, the successful completion of the fertility transition that is now so far advanced will bring an entirely new set of challenges, and these will require a fundamental rethinking about the future mandate, structure, staffing and programme of UNFPA in the twenty-first century. Our purpose here is to identify those challenges and speculate about their implications. (author's)
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2002 Feb; 56(2):73-78.Tuberculosis remains a global problem inspite of the excellent drugs available to cure it. According to an estimate in 1995 there were 9 million cases of tuberculosis worldwide and 3 million deaths. Tuberculosis was declared a global emergency by WHO in 1990 as it had reemerged in countries where it was supposed to be on a decline. Global explosion of HIV infection coupled with chaotic treatment of tuberculosis, the world today is threatened with untreatable epidemic of tuberculosis. Inappropriate and inadequate treatment leads to acquired drug resistance, which may result in treatment failure and spread of resistant organisms to other persons. The only way to prevent this is uniformity in the treatment of such patients both in governmental programs and private practice. In India under national tuberculosis control program 1.5 million cases are detected every year but still 1200 cases die due to it daily. The reason for this could be lack of compliance by the patients, faulty drug distribution, emergence of MDR-TB and inappropriate prescriptions of anti TB drugs due to lack of knowledge regarding the guidelines. Our study was aimed at finding out the knowledge, attitude and practice of resident doctors and consultants treating tuberculosis in two medical institutes in two different states of India. (author's)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2003 Aug. , 29 p. (Angola Vol. 15, No. 16(A))This short report is based on an investigation by Human Rights Watch conducted in March and April 2003. Our researchers interviewed over fifty internally displaced persons, refugees, and former combatants in the transit centers and the camps of Bengo, Bengo II and Kituma in the province of Uíge and Cazombo in the province of Moxico. Human Rights Watch researchers conducted twenty-one interviews with concerned U.N. agencies, NGOs and other organizations, including the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the U.N. Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP), Oxfam-GB, GOAL, African Humanitarian Aid (AHA), Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-Spain, MSF-Belgium, Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS), Lutheran World Federation (LWF), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, Trocaire, Associação Justiça, Paz e Democracia (AJPD), Liga da Mulher Angolana (LIMA) and Mulheres, Paz e Desenvolvimento. Human Rights Watch researchers also interviewed Angolan central government officials and police, and conducted six interviews with local Angolan authorities in three provinces. Where necessary, the names of those interviewed are withheld or changed in this short report to protect their confidentiality. (excerpt)
Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO, Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education, 2003. ix, 69 p.This document focuses on what research says is the impact of peer education in promoting the necessary changes among adolescents in attitudes and behaviour with regard to reproductive and sexual health. There is an increasing effort in countries in the region and elsewhere to employ a peer approach in their adolescent programmes and activities to facilitate delivery of the message and acceptance. From these initiatives, experiences in the use of peer approach have grown which has in turn generated a number of materials that document key strategies and lessons learned. This particular booklet synthesises these experiences and shares lessons learned, as well as offering guidelines to enable policy makers and programme implementers to learn from others and possibly to adopt/adapt those strategies that will have the great at potential to succeed in their own setting. (excerpt)