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International Conference on Indo-Chinese Refugees. Declaration and Comprehensive Plan of Action [14 June 1989, draft].
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REFUGEE LAW. 1989; 1(4):574-81.The International Conference on Indo-Chinese Refugees, held in Geneva in June of 1989, adopted a declaration and comprehensive plan of action. The plan of action calls for efforts to deter clandestine departures in favor of regular departure programs, particularly from Viet Nam. Measures are identified to give people the opportunity to seek asylum and refugee status. The continued resettlement of Vietnamese refugees benefiting from temporary refuge in Southeast Asia is addressed through a "Long-Stayers Resettlement Programme" and a "Resettlement Programme for Newly-Determined Refugees." Procedures are also outlined for the repatriation of persons who are found not to be refugees. The plan of action also indicates the intention of the international community to devise ways to deal with refugees from Laos. Implementation of this plan of action is regarded as a dynamic process requiring continued coordination and possible adaptation to changing situations. Therefore, a Steering Committee will be established under the UN High Commissioner for Refugees to implement the plan of action.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY. 1988 Jan; 158(1):80-3.The Maternal and Child Health Unit of the World Health Organization undertook a series of prospective studies in the early 1980s in Burma, China, Thailand, and Viet Nam to determine how much variation in the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy there was and how much of it reflected differences in baseline blood pressures. Pregnant women in 3 urban and 2 rural centers in Burma, a part of the city of Shanghai, 1 urban and 1 rural center in Thailand, and 1 urban and 2 rural centers in Viet Nam were enrolled. Each mother was given a card recording weight, signs of edema, proteinuria, and blood pressure with diastolic pressure based on the 4th Korotkoff sound. Gestation was calculated from the 1st day of the last menstrual period, and all the women were primigravidas. There was wide variation in the distribution of highest diastolic pressure before the onset of labor. The proportion of mothers whose diastolic pressure was greater than 89 mm mercury at any time during pregnancy varied from 33% in China to 26% in Thailand, 7% in Burma, and 5% in Viet Nam. There as very little variation in the numbers of mothers with proteinuria. China had the lowest rate of eclampsia but the highest prevalence of hypertensive disorders, presumably because preeclampsia was treated. Hypertensive disorders were diagnosed among 31% of Chinese women, 5% of Burmese women, and 1% of women in Viet Nam and Thailand. Blood pressure measurements were analyzed for each country by week of gestation, and the mean diastolic pressure in the 2nd trimester was constant across all 4 populations; the difference between the lowest and highest was only 3.5 mm mercury. Thereafter the differences increased, with the greatest increases in China and Thailand and very little increase in Burma and Viet Nam. The differences thus appear to be racial, but whether they are genetically or environmentally caused remains to be determined.
[Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 2 p.In this document a statement concerning the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) population for the years 1998-99 is presented. The work of ESCAP has focused on (1) the strengthening of monitoring and evaluation systems for measuring progress in reproductive health and family planning programs; (2) the strengthening of policy analysis and research on female migration, employment, family formation, and poverty; and (3) aging implications for Asian families and the elderly. ESCAP's programs constitute adequate strategies, policies and measures for problem solving in the area of population and development. They involve the organization of training courses, seminars and workshops in developing countries. ESCAP, with additional support from bilateral resources, has continued to implement a number of projects dealing with such issues as the effect of globalization on population change and poverty in rural areas.
In: The Fourteenth Asian Parliamentarians' Meeting on Population and Development, April 4-5 1998, New Delhi, India, [compiled by] Asian Population and Development Association. [Tokyo, Japan], Asian Population and Development Association, 1998. 155.This is an address by Dr. Hirofumi Ando, Deputy Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). It is essential that Asian countries' representatives should be politically committed to the implementation of ICPD Program of Action on population and sustainable development if population issues are to be dealt with. In addition, national governments should give priority to reproductive health programs including family planning rather than to armaments. The UNFPA is in the process of reviewing the achievement of the ICPD Program of Action. Thanks are due to Mr. Sat Paul Mittal, one of the founding members of the Asian Forum, the mother organization for parliamentarian activities in Asia. He has been one of the strongest supporters of the UNFPA and has made a significant global contribution to the work of the parliamentarians on population and development.
In: The Fourteenth Asian Parliamentarians' Meeting on Population and Development, April 4-5 1998, New Delhi, India, [compiled by] Asian Population and Development Association. [Tokyo, Japan], Asian Population and Development Association, 1998. 42-5.The Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (AFPPD) is one of the international organizations that organized the International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (ICPPD) in Cairo. This gathering of parliamentarians is part of the International Conference on Population and Development. The ICPPD is a milestone in mobilizing parliamentarians on population and development issues. Since the ICPPD, the AFPPD has collaborated with UN in conferences such as the UN Social Summit at Copenhagen, the UN Conference in Women in Beijing, and the World Food Summit in Rome. The AFPPD now has offices in several countries in Asia. It has also supported the establishment of the Forum of African and Arab Parliamentarians on Population and Development. In Europe, parliamentarians have supported the mobilization of resources for population programs. Indeed, there has in general been a significant increase in the involvement of parliamentarians in population and development concerns.
In: The Fourteenth Asian Parliamentarians' Meeting on Population and Development, April 4-5 1998, New Delhi, India, [compiled by] Asian Population and Development Association. [Tokyo, Japan], Asian Population and Development Association, 1998. 37-41.The population trends in Asia are examined in the context of the International Conference on Population and Development. Asia, home to over 61% of the world population, plays an important role on issues regarding population and sustainable development. High fertility rates remain a concern among countries in South-Central Asia. On the other end, Eastern Asia is doing well in terms of the demographic situation and the population and development situation. The eastern region of Asia has already met goals for total fertility and infant mortality rates set during the Cairo conference. All over Asia, there is an evident effort to achieve the demographic goals from the Cairo conference. However, more aggressive efforts among countries in Asia need to be seen in terms of gender equality and the issue of the empowerment of women. Political commitments toward these goals need to be translated for the benefit of women in Asia. One urgent issue is the high maternal mortality rate in countries such as India. Public health needs to address women's health issues as a rights issue. In many Asian countries, there is no effective lobby for women problems. There is a low female literacy rate across Asia. Population efforts in Asia need to address not only the large demographic issues but also the issues of women, reproductive health, and choices.
Are the WHO (1980) criteria for the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test appropriate for pregnant women?
BRITISH JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY. 1993 Jul; 100(7):645-8.To assess the normal response to the 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal pregnant women, healthy Chinese and Malay women who had been referred to the antenatal clinic of the Department of Reproductive Medicine, Kandang Kerbau Hospital, Singapore, were evaluated. The women were selected on the basis of having none of the generally accepted risk factors for diabetes mellitus: their age was < 35 years, they weighed < 80 kg, they did not have a personal history of diabetes or a family history of diabetes or a family history of diabetes in first degree relatives, nor did they have a history of babies weighing > 4000 gm at birth, still-births, neonatal deaths, congenital malformations, or recurrent miscarriages. All OGTTs were performed after 28 weeks of gestation. The fasting blood sample was taken from the antecubital vein. Further samples were taken 1 and 2 hours after the glucose drink. A glucose analyzer using 5 mcl of plasma was employed. The analytical method was based on the glucose oxidase/peroxidase/aminophenazone process. There was no significant difference in mean glucose levels at corresponding points of the OGTT in Chinese and Malay women. correlation calculations confirmed the absence of any influence of gestational age after 28 weeks on glucose tolerance. Of the 64 women, 47 were Chinese and 17 Malays; 20 wee nulliparous, and 44 were parous. Their mean age was 27.2 years (range 18-35). The mean birthweight of the infants was 3140 gm (range 2094-4240 gm). There were 33 female and 31 male infants. The mean apgar scores at 1 and 5 min were 8.8 (range 7-9) and 9.0 (range 6-10). The mean values and the proposed upper limits of normality for the 75 gm OGTT were 3.9 and 4.9 mmol/1, respectively. 6 women had abnormal OGTT results according to the WHO criteria (fasting glucose > 6 mmol/1; 2 hour glucose > 8 mmol/1).
WORLD HEALTH. 1989 Nov; 14-5.Diarrheal diseases continue to be the major causes of death for children in 4 Western Pacific Region nations: the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, and Viet Nam. They are also among the most frequent childhood illnesses in 18 of 35 countries and areas of the region. Many children die because physicians, health workers, and mothers do not know that oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is the single most effective treatment for diarrhea. All too often, older or hospital based physicians prescribe antidiarrheal drugs or antibiotics. ORT can successfully treat 90-95% of acute diarrheal cases. The oral rehydration salts (salt, glucose, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride) are mixed with potable water so the child with diarrhea can drink it. The mixture replaces the water and salts removed from the body during diarrheal episodes. The 1st Diarrhoeal Training Unit (DTU) of the WHO Global Diarrhoeal Diseases Control programme in the region was found in Manila, the Philippines in December 1985. Its purpose continues to be the provision of hands-on training for health professionals in hospitals to convince them that ORT is effective. In 1988, 12 DTUs existed in such countries as China, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, and Viet Nam. They will soon also operate out of medical, nursing, and midwifery schools. Even though 60% of the population in the Western Pacific Region has access to ORT packets, too many mothers still do no use them to treat their children with diarrhea. Further, they do not know that they should continue to feed them. In 1988 in the region, an estimated 50,000 children lived who would have died without ORT.
NUTRITION REVIEWS. 1987 Nov; 45(11):329-30.According to World Bank statistics, by the year 2000, there will be at least 25 urban areas whose population exceeds 10 million. Most of these areas will be within the Third World. Many of these areas are already faced with problems of malnutrition and poor health. Singapore has been identified as a rapidly developing country. Studies have been done on breast feeding among both poor and better-off Singaporean mothers. It was found that the percentage of poor mothers who chose breast feeding declined from 90% in 1951 to 49% in 1978. 2 follow-up studies interviewed women of Malay, Indian, and Chinese backgrounds. The studies found that at present approximately 36% of poor Singaporean mothers choose breast feeding. The Malays and the Indians were more likely to choose breast feeding. Other factors such as number of children, husband's attitude and doctor's advice were also studied. 202 well-to-do Singaporean mothers were surveyed in the 2nd study which found that 60% of the better-off mothers chose to breast feed. This figure, while higher than the percentage of poor Singaporean mothers who breast feed, is still lower than the breast feeding percentage of better-off mothers from the 50s.