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Lancet. 2007 Sep 22; 370(9592):1013-1015.Although substantial progress has been made in addressing the burden of communicable and vaccine-preventable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries, the burden of diseases that are surgically treatable is increasing and has been neglected. Both morbidity and mortality from surgically preventable (eg, elective hernia repair) or treatable (eg, strangulated hernia) disorders can be greatly decreased through simple surgical interventions. Why should a child die from appendicitis, or a mother and child succumb to obstructed labour, when simple surgical procedures can save their lives? Why should patients suffer permanent disability because of congenital abnormalities, fractures, burns, or the sequelae of acute infections such as septic arthritis or osteomyelitis? Many complications of HIV infection (eg, abscesses, fistulas, Kaposi sarcoma) are also amenable to simple surgical interventions. Available epidemiological information and experiential evidence lend support to the conclusion that basic surgical and anaesthetic services should be integrated into primary health-care packages. (excerpt)
The promise of science. Today's innovations bring hope, but will they reach low-resource areas tomorrow?
Countdown 2015: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for All. 2004; (Spec No):103-104.This publication has shown that the ICPD’s Programme of Action covers cultural, behavioural, and policy issues that all favour a comprehensive approach to sexual and reproductive health and rights. Questions of equity— in access to information, education, technology, and services—lie at the heart of many of the goals. In getting to these goals, science has an immensely important role to play. We have already seen enormous scientific strides in global health during our lifetimes—in prevention, treatment and cure. New vaccines and better delivery systems have saved the lives and health of countless children. New ways to regulate fertility have expanded women’s reproductive health choices. Antiretroviral treatments are powerful tools for reducing or delaying the effects of HIV infection. New tests are helping us detect sexually transmitted infections (STIs) faster, cheaper, and more accurately, reducing complications and chances for further transmission. (excerpt)
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2001 Dec 28.  p.For the past 24 years, PATH has been developing, adapting, transferring, and introducing appropriate new health technologies for resource-poor populations. In 1987, USAID started funding PATH’s work in this area through a cooperative agreement with PATH called the Technologies for Child Health: HealthTech program. This agreement was renewed in 1990 and then again in 1996 as the Technologies for Health program (HealthTech III). This report primarily summarizes the activities under the program during the last agreement, but also reflects work under the entire term of HealthTech since so much of the work is a continuum. The primary goal of HealthTech has been to identify health needs that can be met with technology solutions, and then either identify existing technologies that need adapting to be affordable and appropriate, or develop new ones. This research and development phase includes design, development, scale-up, evaluation in the laboratory and field settings, and finally introduction of technologies for health, nutrition, and family planning. Over the last ten years, HealthTech has effectively scaled up these activities and developed a critical mass of in-house expertise in product and diagnostic design, engineering, evaluation, and introduction of developing world technologies. Multiple collaborations with private industry and global and local agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have been established. Under HealthTech and other similar programs, PATH to date has worked with 57 private-sector companies (21 U.S. firms, 14 additional industrial-world firms and 22 developing-world firms) and at least 40 public-sector partners (22 in the developed world and 18 in developing countries). The results of these collaborations have been to advance more than 30 economically sustainable technologies—17 of which are now in use in more than 25 developing countries. Six of these products are currently being (or have been) distributed worldwide by global agencies. (excerpt)
In: Feminism / postmodernism / development, edited by Marianne H. Marchand and Jane L. Parpart. London, England, Routledge, 1995. 204-220.This chapter has suggested several possible reasons for the difficulty in operationalizing GAD projects but it may be worthwhile to focus further on what constitutes agreed-upon approaches in the field of development studies and practice and on the language used to justify and popularize different perspectives. As we have seen, development discourse is largely based on assumptions that have not changed substantially during the past thirty years and that never have been questioned very closely. Development practice has generally involved a heavy infusion of resources from outside with a predilection towards the "technological fix." Development theorists and practitioners have learned little from past mistakes, nor have they fundamentally changed their way of thinking or their mode of operation. As a result, isolated knowledge in the form of case studies or academic papers generated in either the North or South has had relatively little impact on most development practice. At the same time, we tend to minimize the recognition that the major actors in the development arena are both politically and economically motivated. In development planning and theorizing we seldom take into account the fact that donors seldom act exclusively from a sense of shared concern for the improvement of living conditions for people of the Third World but out of a desire to improve their own position. New power affiliations emerging out of development assistance have destroyed or eroded many traditional human relationships and values in the South. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. xv, 57 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers No. 103)This paper proposes a series of operational guidelines on how to provide agricultural extension services in a cost-effective way to women farmers. All small-scale farmers, regardless of gender, face constraints, but the focus here is on women farmers in order to foster a better understanding of the particular gender-related barriers confronting women and the strategies needed to overcome them. Attention is concentrated on Sub-Saharan Africa in view of the crucial role of women in agriculture throughout the sub-continent. Worldwide operational guidelines for agricultural extension for women farmers are planned for later this year. The recommendations have been gleaned from the experiences of African governments, the World Bank and other donors, and researchers. Ongoing pilot programs have provided useful guidance about what can work to integrate women fully into the agricultural extension system and what problems are likely to emerge in different socioeconomic environments. This is, however, an ongoing process: it is a relatively new field and much remains to be learned. It will be especially important to test alternative approaches over the next few years. This paper will then be revised to incorporate new lessons of experience. This paper is organized as follows: Chapter 1 addresses the question of why women need help -- the role women have in agriculture, especially in Africa, and the particular constraints they face in terms of access to resources and information. Chapter 2 examines the information needed to modify extension systems to better reach women farmers, to modify the focus of research to address women's activities and constraints, and to monitor and evaluate programs. Ways to collect such data are also suggested. Chapter 3 deals with the transmission of the extension message to women farmers -- the role of the extension agents and the importance of gender, the use of home economists and subject matter specialists, and the use of contact farmers and groups. The final Chapter examines the formulation of the message to be delivered, and the linkage between extension and agricultural research and technology. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2003 Jul 9. 15 p.How can information and communication technologies (ICT) be used to promote gender equality in developing nations and to empower women? This essay seeks to deal with that issue, and with the gender effects of the “information revolution.” While obvious linkages will be mentioned, the essay seeks to go beyond the obvious to deal with some of the indirect causal paths of the information revolution on the power of women and equality between the sexes. This is the third1 in a series of essays dealing with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As such, it deals specifically with Goal 3: to promote gender equality and to empower women. It is published to coincide with the International Conference on Gender and Science and Technology. The essay will also deal with the specific targets and indicators for Goal 3. (excerpt)
Monitoring development progress: data collection needs and challenges. Background paper for the Fifth Asian and Pacific Population Conference, Senior Officials Segment, 11-14 December 2002, Bangkok.
Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, 2002 Nov 26. 9 p. (PRUDD/SAPPC/INF.9)Population-based data and indicators are crucial for national and sub-national policies and plans, for development frameworks, such as the United Nations' Common Country Assessment (CCAs) and the Poverty Reduction Strategies Papers (PRSPs), for national and global tracking of progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) derived from the global United Nations conferences and summits of the 1990s, for results based management, as well as for evidence based policy dialogue. The increased demand for indicators to measure development progress, has heightened national and international awareness of the need to build sustainable statistical capacity for the collection of timely and relevant statistics for policy formulation and programme management. The ability to provide timely indicators to measure development progress requires several data collection sources and instruments, as well as a well-resourced national statistical system. This paper reviews the data needs for monitoring development progress. (excerpt)