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  1. 1

    HIV testing, treatment and prevention. Generic tools for operational research.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; Population Council

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2009. [66] p.

    As part of efforts to obtain evidence to inform the public health approach to HIV treatment and prevention, the Population Council collaborated with the HIV / AIDS Department of the World Health Organization to develop tools, "HIV Testing, Treatment and Prevention: Generic Tools for Operational Research" for operational research on topics that have relevance to programs. The tools include this main document that is intended to serve as a basis for formulating research questions and designing an operational research project to address them. The document includes four sections: HIV testing and counseling; HIV stigma and discrimination; Adherence to antiretrovirals; and HIV prevention in the context of scaled-up access to HIV treatment.
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  2. 2

    WHO consultation on technical and operational recommendations for scale-up of laboratory services and monitoring HIV antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings.

    World Health Organization [WHO] Consultation on Technical and Operational Recommendations for Scale-Up of Laboratory Services and Monitoring HIV Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-Limited Settings (2004: Geneva)

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2005. 42 p.

    The aim of the consultation was to obtain clear and realistic guidelines as to which diagnostic and monitoring schedules were optimal and how they could be delivered in order to assist decision-making on treatment and facilitate the implementation of strategies and necessary actions for scaling up diagnosis and monitoring at the local, regional and global levels, with particular emphasis on resource-constrained settings. It was required that the resulting recommendations would provide useful tools for the rational implementation of scaling-up processes, taking into consideration variations between developing countries in human resources, health structures and socioeconomic contexts. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Operational research for the 3 by 5 Initiative.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2003. [2] p.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes an evidence-based approach to public health. To date, most of the experience and evidence about the treatment of HIV/AIDS with combination drug therapy has been generated in industrialized countries, where physician-led, individual case management is the standard model of care. Unfortunately, relatively few of these data are of immediate relevance to the delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-constrained settings. UNAIDS and WHO have established the 3 by 5 target and announced that closing the treatment gap is a global health emergency. It is therefore clear that an incomplete evidence base on how to most effectively implement ART in resource-limited communities cannot be a constraint to emergency approaches to close the treatment gap in line with the 3 by 5 target. In contrast, lack of knowledge mandates “learning by doing”—the implementation of an operational research agenda of relevance and importance for ART programmes. As treatment programmes go to scale, it is critical to derive data about what works, and what does not work and why, as fast as possible. This is implicit in the 3 by 5 strategy, where one of the two strategic elements in Pillar 5 “The rapid identification and re-application of new knowledge and successes” is to continuously learn by doing—with ongoing evaluation and analysis of programme performance and a focused operational research (OR) agenda. (excerpt)
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