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Your search found 22 Results

  1. 1
    322019

    Scaling up HIV / AIDS prevention, treatment and care: a report on WHO support to countries in implementing the “3 by 5” Initiative, 2004-2005.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Treat 3 Million by 2005 Initiative

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. 143 p.

    In September 2003, LEE Jong-wook, Director-General of WHO, and Peter Piot, Executive Director of UNAIDS, declared the lack of access to antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries to be a global health emergency. Shortly after this declaration, WHO and its partners launched a global initiative to scale up antiretroviral therapy with the objective of having 3 million people receiving antiretroviral therapy - representing half the total number of those globally in need - by the end of 2005 ("3 by 5"). Although the actual target of putting 3 million people on antiretroviral therapy was not reached by the end of 2005, countries have made significant progress in the past two years in expanding treatment coverage, strengthening prevention and building the capacity of health systems to deliver long-term, chronic care. Overall, in the two-year period, antiretroviral therapy coverage in low- and middle-income countries increased from 7% of those in need at the end of 2003 (400 000 people) to 20% of those in need at the end of 2005 (1.3 million people). Eighteen countries managed to increase antiretroviral therapy coverage to half or more of the people who needed it, consistent with the "3 by 5" target. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    321131

    Towards universal access: scaling up priority HIV / AIDS interventions in the health sector. Progress report, April 2007.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; UNICEF

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2007 Apr. 88 p.

    Drawing on lessons from the scale-up of HIV interventions over the last few years, WHO, as the UNAIDS cosponsor responsible for the health sector response to HIV/AIDS, has established priorities for its technical work and support to countries on the basis of the following five Strategic Directions, each of which represents a critical area where the health sector must invest if significant progress is to be made towards achieving universal access. Enabling people to know their HIV status; Maximizing the health sector's contribution to HIV prevention; Accelerating the scale-up of HIV/AIDS treatment and care; Strengthening and expanding health systems; Investing in strategic information to guide a more effective response. In this context, WHO undertook at the World Health Assembly in May 2006 to monitor and evaluate the global health sector response in scaling up towards universal access and to produce annual reports. This first report addresses progress in scaling up the following health sector interventions. Antiretroviral therapy; Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT); HIV testing and counseling; Interventions for injecting drug users (IDUs); Control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to prevent HIV transmission; Surveillance of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    316466

    Mapping of experiences of access to care, treatment and support -- Tanzania.

    Rwechungura L; Kayitare F

    London, England, International Community of Women Living with HIV / AIDS, 2006. [6] p.

    WHO supported ICW to map positive women's experiences of access to care and treatment in three countries - Namibia, Kenya and Tanzania. The findings will contribute to advocacy for increased political support and resources to address gendered barriers to care, treatment and support. The project complements a mapping and database of civil society organizations (CSOs) providing treatment by the French consortium - SIDACTION. This mapping presents results from three focus group discussions with HIV positive women conducted in two districts of Tanzania - Arusha and Moshi (2006). Women who participated in these focus group discussions were aged between 30 to 45. Most of them came from villages Munduli (Arusha) and Seliani (Moshi). Three focus groups were also conducted with men only in Arusha. A mixed-sex focus group was conducted in Chalinze in the Bagamoyo district (Dar es Salaam coastal area) with men and women aged between 35 and 42. There were between 12 - 15 participants in each group in Arusha and Mosh. However, in Chalinze there were only 8 people. Results from the mixed sex and men only focus groups are presented here but the main emphasis is on the results from the women only focus groups. Medical personnel were also interviewed and their experiences are included. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    309702

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Mozambique. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Mozambique has over one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (1.3 million as of the end of 2003). Although Mozambique's prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is lower than some of the hardest hit countries in the region, it is higher than the sub-Saharan African region overall and recent estimates suggest that the prevalence rate may be on the rise. The epidemic poses significant development challenges to this low-income country. The Government of Mozambique formed a National AIDS Council (NAC) in 2000, and is currently operating its National Strategic Plan to Combat HIV/AIDS for 2005-2009. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    309711

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Zimbabwe. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Zimbabwe has almost two million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (1.8 million as of the end of 2003), representing the third largest HIV/AIDS burden in sub-Saharan Africa. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) in Zimbabwe is among the highest in the world, although recent evidence suggests that prevalence may be starting to decline. The epidemic continues to pose significant development challenges to this low-income country, which faces additional complications including drought conditions, substantial internal migration and displacement, and other factors that exacerbate the epidemic's impact. The Government of Zimbabwe established a National AIDS Coordination Programme (NACP) in 1987. In 2000, the Government formed the National AIDS Council (NAC), and is currently developing its National AIDS Strategic Framework for 2005-2009. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    309710

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Zambia. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Zambia has almost one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (920,000 as of the end of 2003). Zambia's HIV prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is twice the rate in sub-Saharan Africa overall and the epidemic continues to pose one of the most significant development challenges to this low-income country. The Government of Zambia established a National AIDS Prevention and Control Programme in 1986. In 2000, the Government formed a National AIDS Council (NAC) and is currently implementing its National HIV/AIDS/STI/TB Implementation Plan for 2002-2005. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    309709

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Uganda. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Uganda has more than a half million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (530,000 as of the end of 2003). The country of Uganda is widely considered to be an HIV/AIDS success story, having reduced its HIV prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) significantly over time, from one of the most severe epidemics in the 1980s, with a peak in the early-1990s, to a rate lower than that of the sub-Saharan African region overall. However, the epidemic has already had a significant impact in Uganda, and continues to pose development challenges to this low-income country. The Government of Uganda established a National AIDS Control Program (NACP) in 1986, the first HIV/AIDS control program in the region. In 1992, the Government formed the Uganda AIDS Commission (UAC), and is currently operating its National Strategic Framework for 2000/2001-2005/2006. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    309708

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in the United Republic of Tanzania. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    The United Republic of Tanzania (mainland Tanzania and the island of Zanzibar), the largest country in East Africa, had an estimated 1.6 million people living with HIV/AIDS as of the end of 2003. Although Tanzania's prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is lower than some of the hardest hit countries in the sub-Saharan African region, it is higher than the prevalence rate of the region overall (8.8% compared to 7.5%). The epidemic poses significant development challenges to this low-income country. In 1985, the National AIDS Control Programme was established to respond to the epidemic. The Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) and the Zanzibar AIDS Commission (ZAC) were created in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Tanzania is currently operating its National Multi-Sectoral Strategic Framework on HIV/AIDS for 2003-2007. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    309707

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Swaziland. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Swaziland has the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) in the world, a much higher rate than the sub-Saharan African region overall (38.8% compared to 7.5%). Moreover, a recent survey suggests that HIV prevalence rates in Swaziland continue to increase. As of the end of 2003, there were an estimated 220,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Swaziland, or almost 4 in 10 adults. The epidemic has already had a profound effect in Swaziland, posing significant development challenges to this middle-income country. The Government of Swaziland created the Swaziland National AIDS Programme in 1987 to respond to the epidemic and declared HIV/AIDS a national disaster in 1999. In 2001, the National Emergency Response Council on HIV and AIDS (NERCHA) was established, and the National AIDS Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS 2006 - 2008 is currently under development. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    309706

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in South Africa. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    South Africa has the highest number of people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in the world (5.3 million as of the end of 2003) and is one of the countries hardest hit by the epidemic. South Africa's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is much higher than that of the sub-Saharan African region overall, and although prevalence rates have begun to stabilize, the South African Government's most recent surveillance study indicates that prevalence may still be on the rise. The epidemic has already had a profound impact on many aspects of South African society and is projected to affect the country's economic, education, and health sectors if more is not done to stem its tide. As a middle-income country of significant political and economic importance in the African continent, the future course of South Africa's HIV/AIDS epidemic will have broader implications for Africa overall. The Government of South Africa established the National AIDS Coordinating Committee of South Africa (NACOSA) in 1992 and created the South African National AIDS Council (SANAC) in 2000. The country's HIV/AIDS/STD Strategic Plan for South Africa: 2000-2005 is currently being implemented. (author's)
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  11. 11
    309705

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Seychelles. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with HIV/AIDS) in Seychelles remains fairly low, and significantly lower than other countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Estimated HIV/AIDS prevalence in Seychelles was 0.2% as of the end of 2002, or less than 200 people. However, the prevalence rate has increased over time, and data indicate that HIV/AIDS may be more widespread in this middle-income country than previously thought. The Seychelles Government began its response to the epidemic shortly after the first case of HIV was diagnosed in 1987, with an initial short-term plan; the following year, an AIDS-IEC Committee was formed within the Ministry of Health. The National AIDS Council (NAC) was launched in 2002. The Government also created a National AIDS Trust Fund in 2002 to help mobilize resources and coordinate prevention and care efforts. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    309704

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Nigeria has the third highest number of people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in the world (3.6 million as of the end of 2003), after South Africa and India. Although Nigeria's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is still relatively low compared to some countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria is considered to be a "next wave" country; that is, it stands at a critical point in its epidemic where increased prevention and treatment efforts today could help stem the tide of a much more significant epidemic in the future. As the most populous country in Africa and one of the most populous nations in the world, even a small increase in the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in this low-income country would represent a significant share of the global HIV/AIDS burden. The Government of Nigeria established the National AIDS Action Committee (NACA) in 2000 and has a National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan for the 2005-2009 period. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    309703

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Namibia. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Namibia has one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates (the percent of people living with the disease) in the world, a much higher rate than the sub-Saharan African region overall (21.3% compared to 7.5%). As of the end of 2003, there were 210,000 people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in Namibia, or more than one in five adults. Although recent evidence suggests that prevalence may be starting to decline, the epidemic already poses significant challenges to this middle-income country, and high levels of unemployment and income disparity may further the spread of diseases such as HIV/AIDS. The Government of Namibia established a National AIDS Committee (NAC) in 1990 and is currently implementing the third National Strategic Plan on HIV/AIDS (2004-2009). (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    309701

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Mauritius. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mauritius remains fairly concentrated. With fewer than one thousand people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (700 as of the end of 2001), Mauritius' HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is significantly lower than many of its neighboring countries and among the lowest in the sub-Saharan African region overall. However, there are signs of an increasing trend in HIV/AIDS cases in recent years in this middle-income country. In 1987, the Mauritius Ministry of Health and Quality of Life implemented a National AIDS Control and Prevention Programme. The Government of Mauritius also formed a National Coordinating Committee on HIV/AIDS and is currently operating under its National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS 2001-2005. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    309700

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Malawi. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Malawi has almost one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (900,000 as of the end of 2003). Malawi's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is almost twice the rate in sub-Saharan Africa overall (14.2% compared to 7.5% in 2003). The HIV/AIDS epidemic poses significant development challenges to this low-income country, which has been exacerbated by high levels of food insecurity. In 2001, the Government of Malawi formed a National AIDS Commission (NAC), which has been led by the Minister of State Responsible for HIV/AIDS Programmes since 2003. The Government developed a National HIV/AIDS Strategic Framework (2000-2004) to coordinate the country's response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and a new framework is being developed. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    309699

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Madagascar. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    As of the end of 2003, there were an estimated 140,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Madagascar, up from 100,000 in 2001.1 Recent studies suggest that the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in Madagascar has begun to increase. Although Madagascar's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is still relatively low (1.7%) compared to the sub-Saharan African region overall and to its neighboring countries, there is concern that high levels of sexually transmitted infections (STI's) such as syphilis, could fuel the HIV/AIDS epidemic in this low-income country, as could other factors such as poverty and limited access to health and social services. The Government of Madagascar formed a National AIDS Committee in 2002 and is currently operating a National Strategic Framework on HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    309698

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Lesotho. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Lesotho has one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates (the percent of people living with the disease) in the world, a much higher rate than the sub-Saharan African region overall (28.9% compared to 7.5%). As of the end of 2003, there were an estimated 320,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Lesotho, or almost 3 in 10 adults. The epidemic has already had a profound effect in Lesotho, posing significant development challenges to this very low-income country. The Government of Lesotho formed the Lesotho AIDS Programme Coordinating Authority (LAPCA) in 2001, and is currently developing a National AIDS Strategic Plan for 2005-2008. The Government has also established a National AIDS Commission (NAC) to coordinate the country's response to the epidemic. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    309697

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Kenya. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Kenya has more than one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (1.2 million as of the end of 2003). Kenya's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is just below that of the sub-Saharan African region overall (6.7% compared to 7.5%). Recent data indicate that the country's HIV prevalence rate may be on the decline in some areas. However, the HIV/AIDS epidemic poses significant challenges to this low-income country. The Government of Kenya first established a National AIDS Control Council (NACC) in 1999, and has a National Strategic Framework for HIV/AIDS for 2005-2010. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    309696

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Ghana. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    There were an estimated 350,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana as of the end of 2003. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) in Ghana is still relatively low compared to the sub-Saharan African region overall, and appears to be fairly stable, but there are an increasing number of people living with HIV/AIDS in this low-income country, posing challenges to both prevention and treatment efforts. The Government of Ghana created a National Advisory Commission on AIDS (NACA) in 1985 and established a National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in 1987. The Ghana AIDS Commission was inaugurated in 2000, followed by the implementation of the country's National Strategic Framework (NSF) on HIV/AIDS for 2001-2005. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    309695

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has more than one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (1.1 million as of the end of 2003). Although the DRC's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease), is still relatively low (4.2%) compared to the sub-Saharan African region overall and to some of the region's hardest hit countries, this low-income country is in a post-conflict period and faces numerous challenges including HIV/AIDS. The Government of the DRC established a National AIDS Control Programme in 1987 and has a National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan for 1999-2008. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    309694

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Botswana. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Botswana has the second highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) in the world (37.3%), a much higher rate than the sub-Saharan African region overall. As of the end of 2003, there were an estimated 350,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Botswana, or more than a third of the country's adult population. The epidemic has already had a profound effect in Botswana, posing significant development challenges to this middle-income country. The Government of Botswana created a National AIDS Coordinating Agency (NACA) in 1999, and is currently operating its National Strategic Plan on HIV/AIDS for 2003-2009. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    192008

    Fighting AIDS. HIV / AIDS prevention and care among armed forces and UN peacekeepers: the case of Eritrea.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Copenhagen, Denmark, UNAIDS, Office on AIDS, Security and Humanitarian Response, 2003 Aug. 40 p. (UNAIDS Series: Engaging Uniformed Services in the Fight against AIDS. Case Study No. 1; UNAIDS/03.44E)

    Uniformed services, including peacekeepers, frequently rank among the population groups most affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. Military personnel are two-to-five times more likely to contract STIs than the civilian population and, during conflict, this factor can increase significantly. However, soldiers may also become important agents for behavioural change in reversing the spread of HIV within the army and beyond. If equipped with the right information, knowledge and tools, the military can achieve lower HIV prevalence rates than the national average, as can be seen from the experiences among the armed forces of Ethiopia and Uganda. HIV/AIDS poses a particular threat to peacekeeping, which is a pillar of the international security system. Conflict and post-conflict situations represent high-risk environments for the spread of HIV/AIDS. One-third of the officers and soldiers under UN command are stationed in Africa, which is home to 70% of people living with HIV. As early as 1995, the US State Department noted, “worldwide peacekeeping operations may pose a danger of spreading HIV… peacekeepers could both be a source of HIV infection to local populations and be infected by them, thus becoming a source of the infection when they return home”. For example, the HIV infection rate was 11% among Nigerian peacekeepers who returned home from duty in Sierra Leone and Liberia in 2000, when the rate in the civilian adult population in Nigeria was5%. (excerpt)
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