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Challenges and priorities in the management of HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV coinfection in resource-limited settings.
Seminars In Liver Disease. 2012 May; 32(2):147-57.Liver disease due to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is now emerging as an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus- (HIV-) infected persons in resource-limited settings (RLS). Existing management guidelines have generally focused on care in tertiary level facilities in developed countries. Less than half of low-income countries have guidance, and in those that do, there are important omissions or disparities in recommendations. There are multiple challenges to delivery of effective hepatitis care in RLS, but the most important remains the limited access to antiviral drugs and diagnostic tests. In 2010, the World Health Assembly adopted a resolution calling for a comprehensive approach for the prevention, control, and management of viral hepatitis. We describe activities at the World Health Organization (WHO) in three key areas: the establishment of a global hepatitis Program and interim strategy; steps toward the development of global guidance on management of coinfection for RLS; and the WHO prequalification program of HBV and HCV diagnostic assays. We highlight key research gaps and the importance of applying the lessons learned from the public health scale-up of ART to hepatitis care. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Changes in antiretroviral therapy guidelines: implications for public health policy and public purses.
Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2010 Oct; 86(5):388-90.INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization (WHO) published a revision of the antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines and now recommends ART for all those with a CD4 cell count =350/mm(3), for people with HIV and active tuberculosis (TB) or chronic active hepatitis B irrespective of CD4 cell count and all HIV-positive pregnant women. A study was undertaken to estimate the impact of the new guidelines using four countries as examples. METHODS: The current WHO/UNAIDS country projections were accessed based on the 2007 estimates for Zambia, Kenya, Cameroon and Vietnam. New projections were created using Spectrum. CD4 progression rates to need for ART were modified and compared with the baseline projections. RESULTS: The pattern of increased need for treatment is similar across the four projections. Initiating treatment at a CD4 count <250/mm(3) will increase the need for treatment by a median of 22% immediately, initiating ART at a CD4 count <350/mm(3) increases the need for treatment by a median of 60%, and the need for treatment doubles if ART is commenced at a CD4 count <500/mm(3). Initiating ART at a CD4 cell count <250/mm(3) would increase the need for treatment by a median of around 15% in 2012; initiating treatment at a CD4 count <350/mm(3) increases the need for treatment by a median of 42% across the same projections and about 84% if CD4 <500/mm(3) was used. CONCLUSIONS: The projections indicate that initiating ART earlier in the course of the disease by increasing the threshold for the initiation of ART would increase the numbers of adults in need of treatment immediately and in the future.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2009 Nov. 25 p.Based on the latest scientific evidence, the World Health Organization (WHO) has released new recommendations on HIV treatment and prevention and infant feeding in the context of HIV. WHO now recommends earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy for adults and adolescents, the delivery of more patient-friendly antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), and prolonged use of ARVs to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. For the first time, WHO recommends that HIV-positive mothers or their infants take ARVs while breastfeeding to prevent HIV transmission.