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London, England, IPPF, 1984. 3 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)Long term problems of population growth in China are indicated by the fact that 65% of the 1,024,950,000 1983 population is under 30 years of age; 50% is under 21. Although family planning was started in the 1950s, it was neglected during the 1960s Cultural Revolution, and did not become a national program until 1971. The one child per family policy, proposed in 1978, has since become the basis for government regulations which are strictly enforced. Family planning messages are conveyed through every possible type of media, and services are made available to the entire population. Various economic incentives and disincentives such as, monthly health care subsidies granted to couples who have only one child until he reaches the age of 14, grain allocations for an only child, and larger private plots, are used to help reward those who obey the family planning policy. All contraceptives are available free of charge: at the end of 1983, 69.5% of fertile couples were using some form of modern contraceptive method. The China Family Planning Association was formed in 1980 with the objective of assisting the government program by motivating people to accept family planning. The Association's 3 year plan for 1985-1987 is: 1) to strengthen family planning publicity; 2) to increase the management and professional skills of the personnel; 3) to strengthen the Association's organization at central and branch level; and 4) to participate in international conferences and other activities.
In: La explosion demografica y la regulacion de la natalidad, edited by Jose Botella Llusia and Salustiano del Campo Urbano. Madrid, Spain, Editorial Sintesis, 1997. 71-82.This work expresses strong disapproval of the antinatalist policies of the UN system, the nongovernmental organizations with which it cooperates, and the developed countries which support them. World population has grown at an unprecedentedly rapid rate in the latter half of the 20th century, with the greatest growth occurring in the poorest regions. Projections of huge future populations in poor regions are the pretext for population policies which rich countries, acting through the UN system, impose on poor ones. The author suggests that the UN has accomplished much in maintaining peace and fostering international collaboration in data collection, but he sees the UN primarily as a political system controlled by a few wealthy countries, whose main demographic export is an implacable antinatalist policy. On the other side of the "war against population," allied with the Vatican, are "millions of persons of all races and creeds" who are faithful to pronatalist traditions but disorganized, dispersed, and unaware of the dangers to future generations. The author suggests that any difficulty caused by population growth can be conquered by the talent and effort of the affected population, which will enable it to find new ways of exploiting resources and utilizing space to support higher population densities.
STUDIES IN FAMILY PLANNING. 1991 Jan-Feb; 22(1):1-18.A study investigative the pros and cons of financial payments for sterilizations to clients, medical personnel, and agents who motivate and refer clients was conducted by the government of Bangladesh in conjunction with the World Bank. Results indicate that Bangladeshi men and women opt to be sterilized both voluntarily and after consideration of the nature and implications of the procedure. Clients were also said to be knowledgeable of alternate methods of controlling fertility. A high degree of client satisfaction was noted overall with, however, 25% regret among those clients with less than 3 children. Money is a contributing factor in a large majority of cases, though dominating as motivation for a small minority. Financial payments to referrers have sparked a proliferation of many unofficial, self-employed agents, especially men recruiting male sterilization. Targeting especially poor potential clients, these agents focus upon sterilization at the expense of other fertility regulating methods, and tend to minimize the cons of the process. Examples of client cases and agents are included in the text along with discussion of implications from study findings.
INDOCHINA ISSUES. 1988 Jan; (78):1-7.A campaign promoting "1 or at most 2 children" was launched officially in 1982 in Vietnam, a country which ranked 12th most populous in the world in 1987, with the 7th largest annual growth rate. Although major municipalities have registered less than 1.7% annual growth rates, in rural areas, particularly in the southern provinces, the growth rate ranges from 2.3-3.4%; 80% of the population resides in such locales. In April 1986, the Hanoi City People's Committee issued regulations designed to encourage the practice of birth control. Cash awards were offered to couples with only 1 child and payments for sterilization after the birth of a 2nd child. The birth of a 3rd child triggers higher maternity clinic charges, and an escalating scale of birth registration fees has been introduced to discourage failure to practice family planning. The most significant statistic to emerge from the birth control program is the gradual increase in the number of family planning acceptors over the past 5 years, slightly over 1 million couples estimated in 1981 to 4.5 million acceptors estimated for 1987. Between 1981-87 there was more than a doubling of acceptors for sterilization and IUD insertion. The IUD is used by 75% of couples practicing birth control, followed in popularity by the condom. Agencies in a UN triumvirate with special population concerns in Vietnam include the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the 3 years preceding 1987, several new UNICEF-supported public information projects were implemented, including the creation of an extensive maternal and child care network. This network was used to train cadres from the Women's Union as family planning motivators. In mid-1986, an experimental and innovative pilot project on "family life" or "parenting information" was initiated by UNICEF, UNFPA, and the Vietnamese Committee for the Protection of Mothers and the Newborn (CPMN). The desired growth rate of 1.1% by 2000 will have to rely on a variety of current program innovations. Surveys now being conducted in various regions of Vietnam reveal attitudinal problems in promoting smaller families. A survey of the members of 300 farming cooperatives in various areas of Vietnam in 1986 found that 60% of those questioned believed that the more children they had the better it would be for their family economy. Cooperative Vietnamese and UN efforts, particularly the innovative surveys and field research, represent valuable approaches, but considerable need remains for improvement in birth control knowledge and application and in the means to reduce child morbidity and mortality rates.
POPULI. 1986; 13(4):14-22.The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and other concerned parties in the field of development see family planning as a vital and inherent part of development planning. In almost all countries, there exists a large proportion of women, particularly women in rural areas, whose need for access to family planning remains unmet. The UNFPA has supported efforts for the acceptability and adoption of voluntary family planning in 122 developing countries. For family planning programs to succeed, they must be responsive to the needs of the people and must win understanding and support. Uncontrolled, unwanted female fertility prevents women from being able to participate more fully in the development process of their communities and societies. To make a free and informed decision on family planning a woman must be aware of the powerful influence that her own fertility exerts on the family health and welfare. Inducements to reduce fertility range in degree of voluntarism from those that allow complete free choice to those that seem to place quite strong pressures on individuals. Governments have the responsibility to protect the interests of both individuals and society as a whole. Despite the problems that are faced in defining what specifically constitutes voluntarism, there is widespread agreement that couples' rights of choice should not be compromised.
Development Forum. 1986 Jan-Feb; 14(1):3.China has accelerated its family planning efforts. In 1979 a national policy of 1 child per couple was launched and has been vigorously pursued. Thus far, China's program has had remarkable success. The rate of natural increase was nearly halved in 10 years, from 23.4/1000 in 1972 to 12/1000 in 1982. The average annual population growth rate fell from 2.37% in 1970-75 to 1.17% in 1980-85. Yet, the crisis is far from over. The total population numbers 1.063 billion. The national target is to keep it to 1.2 billion by the end of the century, an increase of less than 20%. On July 1, 1982, after 3 years of intensive preparation, more than 5 million enumerators began the biggest and 1 of the most accurate censuses ever undertaken. The perception of growth which produced the 1 child policy was heightened by the results, which showed China to be the world's 1st "demographic billionaire." The census made it possible to prepare population monographs for each of the 29 provinces and autonomous regions of China. The information gathered has stimulated further development of skills in survey design and analysis, data processing, and publication of population information. 3 new training centers have been opened to supply the demographers and statisticians for further census work. The key to China's population strategy is voluntary family planning practice based on accurate information. The State Family Planning Commission and family planning organizations at national and local levels have mobilized hundreds of thousands of community-based workers in massive family planning publicity and education campaigns. In a country where only 2% of the population has television, face-to-face communication is the norm. An extensive network of trained community-level workers is the basis of China's famous primary health care and preventive medicine system which has been so important in improving the country's health and extending life expectancy from under 40 years in 1950-55 to over 65 in 1980-85. The approach links well with the family planning philosophy. Long before an active family planning program was begun, maternal and child health care had included family planning as 1 means of assuring the health of mothers and children. So vast is China and so great its need that the UN Fund for Population (UNFPA) assistance for family planning is concentrated either on pilot schemes or on a "training of trainers" approach. In the 1st phase of UNFPA assistance, 8 maternal and children's hospitals were selected for UNFPA support in advanced care and training. The biggest share of UNFPA assistance to China in its 2nd phase goes to contraceptive development and production.
Washington, D.C., Population Crisis Committee, 1985 Dec. 8 p. (Status Report on Population Problems and Programs)In 1985 Brazil's new civilian government took a potentially significant step towards political commitment to a national population program by appointing a national Commission for the Study of Human Reproductive Rights and by accepting large-scale external assistance to implement a nationwide maternal and child health program intended to include family planning services. Brazil's traditional pronatalist policy has been undergoing a change since 1974 and family planning is now viewed as an indispensable element of Brazil's development policy. Several laws which had long impeded the growth of family planning services have been revised or repealed. It is no longer illegal to advertise contraceptives, but abortion is only allowed in restricted circumstances. Approval for voluntary sterilization is easier to obtain. Brazilians who practice family planning obtain services primarily through commercial channels or the private sector. The government and private family planners are faced with a major problem of organizing family planning services for rural areas and the vast city slums. The estimated cost of a national family planning program for Brazil is between US$221 million for 1990 and US$182 to US$324 million for the year 2000. The various aspects of the government program are discussed. The private sector was instrumental in introducing family planning to Brazil. A private non-profit organization was established by a group of physicians to encourage the government to develop a national family planning program and to inform the public about responsible parenthood. This organization (BEMFAM) was given official recognition by the federal government and a number of states and declared a public convenience. Another organization (CPAIMC) was established to provide maternal and child health care in poor urban areas. The sources of external aid, accomplishments to date and remaining obstacles are discussed. Sources of external aid include: UNFPA, USAID, IPPF, the Pathfinder Fund and Columbia University's Center for Population and Family Health (CPFH). A change in popular and official pronatalist attitudes has been effected.
British Journal of Sexual Medicine. 1983 Jun; 10(97):27-32.Population education, including family life responsibility and some discrete sexual education, has been introduced for the 1st time in China to selected senior high school students in the 1981-82 academic year. The course covers units on Marxist population theory and the dynamics of population growth from a national and international perspective. Emphasis is placed on the interrelationship of China's 4 modernization programs and the basics of birth control. Particular emphasis is on the promotion of the 1-child family concept and the improvement of population quality through eugenic control. The new course is designed specifically for adolescents and is intended to lay the groundwork for acceptable social sexual behavior for senior high school students (16-17 years of age). The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has contributed significantly during the past 2 years to the development of population studies and demographic research within China. It has assisted with research, computer studies, and personnel training for the 1982 census. It also has trained demographers and assisted in the establishment of new population institutes at 10 key universities in various parts of China. The UNFPA program for high schools has earmarked funds for the training of some 8000 teachers in a series of month long workshops, 10 day orientation courses for administrators, the development of modern audiovisual facilities, and reference materials for 10 teacher training institutes, the production of instructional materials for 10 key or pilot middle school programs, and the development of a revised middle school curriculum in such fields as biology, geography, hygiene, physiology, and political study. The new text book, "Population Education," explores openly the many familial problems which will confront China's children in the future. The text rigorously promotes the 1 child family concept as the social and national ideal. The book includes straightforward information on human sexual reproduction and contraceptive knowledge which was previously unavailable in such detail in other Chinese secondary text books. The section on birth control principles is factual and makes no attempt to moralize. The prevention of pregnancy is discussed without reference to marriage, although in China it is tacitly understood that sexual relations should be fostered only within the bonds of marriage. Another section of the book includes a section devoted to the significance of marriage. Another section of the book includes a section devoted to the significance of eugenics. The book is written from a contemporary demographic and political perspective.
In: Population in the global arena; actors, values, policies, and futures, by Parker G. Marden, Terry L. McCoy and Dennis G. Hodgson. New York, N.Y., Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1982. 37-59.Add to my documents.