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[Washington, D.C.], MCSP, 2018 Mar. 6 p.In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) published Recommendations on Antenatal Care for a Positive Pregnancy Experience (WHO 2016), which outlines a new set of evidence-based global guidelines on recommended content and scheduling for antenatal care (ANC). These recommendations are the first set of ANC guidelines created under WHO’s current approved process for development of clinical guidelines. This FAQ addresses commonly asked questions about the implementation of IPTp programs in the context of the 2016 ANC recommendations, as well as reminders about technical considerations for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy programs.
Baltimore, Maryland, Jhpiego, 2018. 92 p. (USAID Award No. HRN-A-00-98-00043-00; USAID Leader with Associates Cooperative Agreement No.GHS-A-00-04-00002-00)The Malaria in Pregnancy reference manual and clinical learning materials are intended for skilled providers who provide antenatal care, including midwives, nurses, clinical officers, and medical assistants. The clinical learning materials can be used to conduct a 2-day workshop designed to provide learners with the knowledge and skills needed to prevent, recognize, and treat malaria in pregnancy as they provide focused antenatal care services.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 196 p.The World malaria report, published annually, provides a comprehensive update on global and regional malaria data and trends. The latest report, released on 29 November 2017, tracks investments in malaria programmes and research as well as progress across all intervention areas: prevention, diagnosis, treatment and surveillance. It also includes dedicated chapters on malaria elimination and on key threats in the fight against malaria. The report is based on information received from national malaria control programmes and other partners in endemic countries; most of the data presented is from 2016.
Implementing malaria in pregnancy programs in the context of World Health Organization recommendations on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience.
[Washington, D.C.], MCSP, 2017 Apr. 6 p.This technical brief highlights recommendations for the prevention and treatment of malaria in pregnancy (MiP) in the context of the World Health Organization (WHO) Recommendations on Antenatal Care for a Positive Pregnancy Experience, published in 2016. Also available in French and Portuguese.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016. 186 p.The World Health Organization’s (WHO) World Malaria Report 2016 reveals that children and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa have greater access to effective malaria control. Across the region, a steep increase in diagnostic testing for children and preventive treatment for pregnant women has been reported over the last five years. Among all populations at risk of malaria, the use of insecticide-treated nets has expanded rapidly. But in many countries in the region, substantial gaps in programme coverage remain. Funding shortfalls and fragile health systems are undermining overall progress, jeopardizing the attainment of global targets.
Global Call to Action: Maximize the public health impact of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa.
Malaria Journal. 2015; 14:207.Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy is a highly cost-effective intervention which significantly improves maternal and birth outcomes among mothers and their newborns who live in areas of moderate to high malaria transmission. However, coverage in sub-Saharan Africa remains unacceptably low, calling for urgent action to increase uptake dramatically and maximize its public health impact. The ‘Global Call to Action’ outlines priority actions that will pave the way to success in achieving national and international coverage targets. Immediate action is needed from national health institutions in malaria-endemic countries, the donor community, the research community, members of the pharmaceutical industry and private sector, along with technical partners at the global and local levels, to protect pregnant women and their babies from the preventable, adverse effects of malaria in pregnancy © 2015 Chico et al. Open Access.
Controlling maternal anemia and malaria. Ensuring pregnant women receive effective interventions to prevent malaria and anemia: What program managers and policymakers should know.
[Washington, D.C.], Maternal and Child Survival Program, 2015 Apr.  p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-14-00028)This brief describes WHO recommendations for IPTp (intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy) to prevent MIP (malaria in pregnancy) and iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation to prevent iron deficiency anemia in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries, with an emphasis on giving the correct dose of folic acid to maximize the effectiveness of interventions to prevent malaria. The brief is for program managers of health programs and policymakers to guide them in designing programs and developing policies. (Excerpts)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2013.  p.The World Malaria Report 2013 summarizes information received from malaria-endemic countries and other sources, and updates the analyses presented in the 2012 report. It highlights the progress made towards global malaria targets set for 2015, and describes current challenges for global malaria control and elimination.
Report of the Director General of the World Health Organization. Implementation of General Assembly resolution 66/289 on consolidating gains and accelerating efforts to control and eliminate malaria in developing countries, particularly in Africa, by 2015.
[New York, New York], United Nations, General Assembly, 2013 Apr 5.  p. (A/67/825)The present report is submitted in response to General Assembly resolution 66/289. It provides a review of progress in the implementation of that resolution, focusing on the adoption and scaling-up of interventions recommended by the World Health Organization in 99 countries with ongoing malaria transmission and key challenges impeding progress, including a shortfall in financing for malaria control globally. It provides an assessment of progress towards the 2015 global malaria targets, including Millennium Development Goal 6, targets set through the African Union and the World Health Assembly and goals set through the Global Malaria Action Plan of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. It elaborates on the challenges limiting the full achievement of the targets and provides recommendations to ensure that progress is accelerated up to and beyond 2015.
WHO policy brief for the implementation of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP).
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2013 Apr 11.  p.Malaria infection during pregnancy is a major public health problem, with substantial risks for the mother, her fetus and the newborn. In areas with moderate to high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a package of interventions for controlling malaria and its effects during pregnancy, which includes the promotion and use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), the administration during pregnancy of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP), and appropriate case management through prompt and effective treatment of malaria in pregnant women . During the last few years, WHO has observed a slowing of efforts to scale-up IPTp-SP in a number of countries in Africa. Although there may be several reasons for this, an important factor is confusion among health workers about sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine administration for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy. At a recent WHO evidence review, a meta-analysis of 7 trials evaluating IPTp-SP was undertaken. It showed that 3 or more doses of IPTp-SP were associated with higher mean birth weight and fewer low birth weight (LBW) births than 2 doses of IPTp-SP. The estimated relative risk reduction for LBW was 20% (95% CI 6-31). This effect was consistent across a wide range of SP resistance levels. The 3+ dose group also was found to have less placental malaria. There were no differences in serious adverse events between the two groups . Based on this evidence review, in October 2012, WHO updated the recommendations on IPTp-SP as outlined in this document, and urges national health authorities to disseminate this update widely and ensure its correct application. IPTp-SP is an integral part of WHO’s three-pronged approach to the prevention and treatment of malaria in pregnancy, which also includes the use of insecticide-treated nets and prompt and effective case management. (Excerpts)
Updated WHO policy recommendation (October 2012): Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP).
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, Global Malaria Programme, 2012 Oct.  p.Each year, 655,000 people die from malaria -- of these, 200,000 are newborns and 10,000 are mothers. Yet, recent evidence brings to light that use of bednets and intermittent preventive treatment by pregnant women, both powerful and cost-effective tools to prevent contracting malaria in areas of stable transmission, is associated with reductions in neonatal mortality and low-birth weight. The World Health Organization has updated its recommendations on the use of intermittent preventive treatment, urging countries to adapt their policies and practices to quickly scale-up this life-saving measure.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2010.  p.The World Health Organization Guidelines for the treatment of malaria provides evidence-based and up-to-date recommendations for countries on malaria diagnosis and treatment which help countries formulate their policies and strategies. In scope, the Guidelines cover the diagnosis and treatment of uncomplicated and severe malaria caused by all types of malaria, including in special groups (young children, pregnant women, HIV / AIDS), in travellers (from non-malaria endemic regions) and in epidemics and complex emergency situations. The first edition of the Guidelines for the treatment of malaria were published in 2006. The second edition introduces a new 5th ACT to the four already recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Furthermore, the Guidelines recommend a parasitological confirmation of diagnosis in all patients suspected of having malaria before treating. The move towards universal diagnostic testing of malaria is a critical step forward in the fight against malaria as it will allow for the targeted use of ACTs for those who actually have malaria. This will help to reduce the emergence and spread of drug resistance. It will also help identify patients who do not have malaria, so that alternative diagnoses can be made and appropriate treatment provided. The new Guidelines will therefore help improve the management of not only malaria, but other childhood febrile illnesses.
[Geneva, Switzerland], Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, 2010 Jan 12. 17 p.The AMFm is an innovative financing mechanism to expand access to affordable artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for malaria, thereby saving lives and reducing the use of inappropriate treatments. The AMFm aims to enable countries to increase the provision of affordable ACTs through the public, private not-for-profit (e.g. NGO) and private for-profit sectors. By increasing access to ACTs and displacing artemisinin monotherapies from the market, the AMFm also seeks to delay resistance to the active pharmaceutical ingredient, artemisinin.
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 2008; 87(7):693-6.Malarial infestation in pregnancy is a major public health concern in endemic countries and ranks high amongst the commonest complications of pregnancy, especially in large areas of Africa and Asia. It is an important preventable cause of significant maternal morbidity and mortality with associated fetal as well as perinatal wastage. The burden of malaria is greatest in sub-Saharan Africa where it contributes directly or indirectly to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The need for prompt and accurate diagnosis as well as prevention and treatment of malaria during pregnancy cannot, therefore, be overemphasized. This commentary focuses on the challenges of diagnosis and treatment of malaria in pregnancy.
Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 2008; 47(2):91-102.Malaria, a disease transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito, has had devastating effects on human populations for more than 4000 years. Treatment of the disease with single drugs, such as chloroquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine or mefloquine, has led to the emergence of resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites that lead to the most severe form of the illness. Artemisinin-based combination therapies are currently recommended by WHO for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Artemisinin and semisynthetic derivatives, including artesunate, artemether and dihydroartemisinin, are short-acting antimalarial agents that kill parasites more rapidly than conventional antimalarials, and are active against both the sexual and asexual stages of the parasite cycle. Artemisinin fever clearance time is shortened to 32 hours as compared with 2-3 days with older agents. To delay or prevent emergences of resistance, artermisinins are combined with one of several longer-acting drugs - amodiaquine, mefloquine, sulfadoxine/pyrmethamine or lumefantrine - which permit elimination of the residual malarial parasites. The clinical pharmacology of artemisinin-based combination therapies is highly complex. The short-acting artemisinins and their long-acting counterparts are metabolized and/or inhibit/induce cytochrome P450 enzymes, and may thus participate in drug-drug interactions with multiple drugs on the market. Alterations in antimalarial drug plasma concentrations may lead to either suboptimal efficacy or drug toxicity and may compromise treatment. (author's)
MJAFI. Medical Journal Armed Froces India. 2008; 64(1):57-60.World Health Organization (WHO) estimates 1.7-2.5 million deaths and 300-500 million cases of malaria each year globally. As an initiative WHO has announced Roll Back Malaria (RBM) programme aimed at 50% reduction in deaths due to malaria by 2010. The RBM strategy recommends combination approach with prevention, care, creating sustainable demand for insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and efficacious antimalarials in order to achieve sustainable malaria control. Malaria control in India has travelled a long way from National Malaria Control Programme launched in 1953 to National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme in 2003. In India, the malaria eradication concept was based on indoor residual spraying to interrupt transmission and mop up cases by vigilance. This programme was successful in reducing the malaria cases from 75 million in 1953 to 2 million but subsequently resulted in vector and parasite resistance as well as increase in P falciparum from 30-48%. In view of rapidly growing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to conventional monotherapies and its spread in newer areas, the programme was modified with inclusion of RBM interventions and revision of treatment guidelines for malaria. Early case detection and prompt treatment, selective vector control, promotion of personal protective measures including ITNs and information, education, communication to achieve wider community participation will be the key interventions in the revised programme. (author's)
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2007 Feb; 7(2):79.Malaria in pregnancy can have devastating consequences for the mother and the unborn child. This month's issue contains seven state of the art reviews on malaria in pregnancy, and a final paper describing a rational research strategy that could lead to substantial improvements in maternal and child health in malaria endemic settings. Supported by a Gates Foundation grant, the authors provide up-to-date knowledge of a wide range of issues that include, epidemiology and burden of disease, pathogenesis and immunity, case management, prevention, treatment, policy implementation and programme delivery, and economic impact. Clearly, effective interventions to prevent malaria in pregnancy have been woefully slow to translate into policy and practice, and there are many remaining gaps where research is urgently needed. Although the severity of malaria in pregnancy has been known for decades, the burden of malaria in pregnancy is not visible since most pregnant women are unaware of being infected. Historically reproductive health programmes, which at a country level are responsible for caring for women during pregnancy, did not see malaria control as part of their remit and the malaria programmes were reluctant to share their interventions. (excerpt)
Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus. Meeting of the Consultative Group on Engaging the Private Sector for Child Health and Malaria, April 1-2, 2004: trip report.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2005 Feb 11.  p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PD-ACH-010; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)As a partner of the Child Survival Partnership, RPM Plus, through support of the SO3 Child Survival portfolio, has continued to grow in support of exploring and promoting proven private sector interventions in support of child survival. RPM Plus' contributions have included participation in technical and advocacy meetings to develop and implement activities to further this agenda. Maria Miralles traveled to the London School of Tropical Hygiene and Health to attend a meeting of the Consultative Group on Engaging the Private Sector for Child Health and Malaria. The meeting took place April 1 and 2, 2004. The purpose of the meeting was to participate in drafting an agenda for an international conference to be held later in the year to raise the awareness of donors, Ministries of Health, NGOs and key private sector entities of the value of collaboration to fight basic child health and malaria health problems. (excerpt)