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Kimberley, South Africa, South African San Institute, 2006. 85 p. (CLT-2006/WS/1)South Africa has one of the fastest growing HIV infection rates in the world. The epidemic, which has been making its way down the continent, is now well established in the urban areas and some rural areas. The migratory labour practices draw the viral infections into rural communities with devastating results. The high incidence of teenage pregnancies, lack of proper knowledge about the virus and methods of transmission and various cultural malpractice compounds the problem. Whereas there are specialized clinics, anti-retroviral programmes and other care and support programmes in the major metropolitan areas, the rural areas of South Africa are typically poorly serviced. The southern Kalahari region is one of the most remote areas of this country. It has a low density population of some 1000 adults covering a vast area of which a few hundred are resettled on reclaimed land and more are moving into the area. This project represents the first practical experience of the South African San Institute (SASI) in implementing the conceptual and methodological framework of the joint UNESCO/UNAIDS Project ?A Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care?, with a view to contribute to sustainable human development in South Africa. (excerpt)
Behavioral interventions for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV. [Intervenciones conductuales para la prevención de la transmisión sexual del VIH]
Washington, D.C., Institute of Medicine, International Forum for AIDS Research, . 8 p.The fourth meeting of the International Forum for AIDS Research was organized around three overall objectives: a) to consider a model for categorizing behavioral interventions; b)to share information about current behavioral intervention programs in which IFAR members are involved; and c) to foster discussion about the adequacy of present strategies. The meeting began with an analytical phase that explored aspects of methodology, followed with presentations on selected programs, and concluded with a generic case study exercise that highlighted different social scientific perspectives on producing change in human behavior. (excerpt)
Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 93 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this textbook in the social sciences, with an emphasis on population education, for 2ndary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origin, Development and Characteristics," describes Darwin's theory of evolution and explains how overproduction causes problems of rapid population growth and poor quality of life. Special attention is given to the problem of high infant mortality in Sierra Leone. Unit 2, "Man's Environment," discusses the interrelationships and interdependence among elements in the ecosystem, the food pyramid, and the effects of man's activities and numbers on the ecosystem. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," focuses on the processes of socialization and the different agents of socialization: the family, the group, the school, and the community. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," discusses human and natural resources as well as conservation measures. It also discusses the population composition, its effect on resources, and the uses and significance of population data. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man," covers land, water and air transport; the effects of transport developments in Sierra Leone; and implications for population of changes in transport activities. Unit 6, "Global Issues: Achievements and Problems," deals with the young population, characteristics of the adolescent, common social problems among young people, and the role of the family unit. National and international action is also discussed.
Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 80 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this textbook in the social sciences for secondary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origins, Development and Characteristics," presents the findings of archaeologists and anthropologists about the different periods of man's development. Man's mental development and population growth are also considered. Unit 2, "Man's Environment," discusses the physical and social environments of Sierra Leone, putting emphasis on the history of migrations into Sierra Leone and the effects of migration on population growth. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," deals with cultural traits related to marriage and family structure, different religions of the world, and traditional beliefs and population issues. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," covers population distribution and density and the effects of migration on resources. The unit also discusses land as a resource and the effects of the land tenure system, as well as farming systems, family size and the role of women in farming communities. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man", focuses on modern means of communication, especially mass media. Unit 6, "Global Issues: Achievements and Problems," discusses the identification of global issues, such as colonialism, the refugee problem, urbanization, and the population problems of towns and cities. The unit describes 4 organizations that have been formed in response to problems such as these: the UN, the Red Cross, the International Labor Organization, and the Co-operative for American Relief.
Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 80 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this text in social studies, with an emphasis on population education, for 2ndary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origins, Development and Characteristics," covers traditional, religious and scientific explanations of man's origin; man's characteristics and the effects of these characteristics; and the beginnings of population growth and the characteristics of human population. In Unit 2, "Man's Environment," the word environment is defined and geographical concepts are introduced. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," defines institution and discusses family types, roles and cycles, as well as traditional ceremonies and cultural beliefs about family size. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," primarily deals with how the family meets its needs for food, shelter and clothing. It also covers the effects of population growth. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man," discusses the means and growth of communication and collecting vital information about the population. The last unit defines global issues and discusses the interdependence of nations, issues affecting nations at the individual and world level, and the UN.
Developing a focused ethnographic study for the WHO acute respiratory infection (ARI) control programme.
In: RAP: Rapid Assessment Procedures. Qualitative methodologies for planning and evaluation of health related programmes, edited by Nevin S. Scrimshaw and Gary R. Gleason. Boston, Massachusetts, International Nutrition Foundation for Developing Countries, 1992. 215-25.The development process used to construct and test a protocol for conducting community-based, focused ethnographic studies of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children is described. The development of the Focused Ethnographic Study (FES) protocol is a component of the behavioral research activities of the ARI Program of the World Health Organization, which attempt to generate ethnographic data on beliefs and practices related to pneumonia and other respiratory conditions. The goal of this Program is to reduce mortality from ARI in children in developing countries. Some of the requirements of FES research are the distinction between lower vs. upper respiratory infections and research has to be completed in a relatively short period of time. The protocol on how to collect, analyze, and present data is the primary means of attaining the project objectives. The protocol consists of the overview of the project, guidelines on research management, specific research procedures, preparing the report, using the information from the study, and adapting the ARI household morbidity and mortality treatment survey. The program manager's questions are concerned with: 1) caretaker and household recognition and interpretation of ARI symptoms; 2) ARI household management practices; 3) patterns of care seeking; 4) maternal expectations concerning ARI treatment; 5) perspectives of practitioner on maternal care-seeking; and 6) recommendations concerning communication with mothers. Specific data-gathering techniques included: key informant interviews, free listing of illnesses and symptoms, narratives, hypothetical scenarios, and inventory of home medications. The first field study was carried out in July-August 1989 in Mindoro Oriente Province in the Philippines; the next round of studies took place in Turkey, Ghana, Honduras, Haiti, and Egypt. Common findings from ARI FES studies indicated: 1) peoples' explanatory models of ARI were complex, with differentiation of symptoms, but diagnoses varied; 2) milder conditions were perceived as likely to worsen if not treated; and 3) home remedies were universal.
Adaptation of anthropological methodologies to rapid assessment of nutrition and primary health care.
In: RAP: Rapid Assessment Procedures. Qualitative methodologies for planning and evaluation of health related programmes, edited by Nevin S. Scrimshaw and Gary R. Gleason. Boston, Massachusetts, International Nutrition Foundation for Developing Countries, 1992. 25-38.The history and current status of rapid assessment procedures (RAP) are reviewed from the perspective of one of the most well-known leaders of the methodological approach. Both the accomplishments of RAP to date and its limitations are described. The first methodology for rapid assessment came from rural sociology, called rapid rural appraisal, primarily applied to agriculture and rural development. Anthropologists working in public health also began to systematize their own practical approach to program planning, which led to the UN University 16 Country Study and to the development of the RAP field manuals. The objective of the 16 country health studies was to assess nutrition and primary health care programs from the household perspective and as rapidly as possible. The application of anthropology to program planning assumes that there are other tools than the large survey and field trips. These include observation, participant observation, formal and informal interviews, conversation, and group discussion (focus groups) to evaluate health programs. The traditional approach of one person or a team at a site for 1 year had to be altered for the evaluation of nutrition and primary health care programs. The UN study plan was contingent on 1) researchers already familiar with the language and the culture and 2) working with a limited list of objectives or data collection guidelines. The RAP guidelines were designed to allow anthropologists to spend 6 weeks in a community where primary health care was in place and to obtain household views on the health service. The beliefs and behaviors across 514 households in 42 communities in 16 countries were described, indicating that all used indigenous practitioners and various indigenous and Western biomedical health resources. The mother was the primary diagnostician of health-seeking behavior; and all used herbs for prevention and treatment. RAP does not replace traditional anthropology, it is an additional method.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1985. 52 p. (ST/ESA/SER.E/39)This monograph presents an overview of the content and direction of courses designed to prepare planning coordinators of developing nations to approach population and development policy making in a richly informed interdisciplinary manner. The conceptual framework for such a curriculum is presented 1st in a theoretical section on the links between the key concepts of population and development. Next, recommendations on curriculum design emphasize 2 main lines of focus: 1) understanding the cultural context in which developmental planning takes place; 2) exploring the available means of action in terms of strategies corresponding to explicit transitional goals in relation to the identified context. The emphasis, rather than on specific technical expertise, should be on providing information on the range of tools available for use in the field at a later stage. The 3rd section involves course orientation; the aim is to turn out planning coordinators capable of formulating integrated population policies. The curriculum should be geared to occupational groups, including senior management, middle-level staff, educators and researchers, and executing agents. Section 4 covers course admission requirements, criteria for teachers and locations. Section 5 presents recommendations for subject matter, presenting a 2 year curriculum, each year divided into 4 modules: 1) knowledge of the context; 2) the population component; 3) the instruments of change, involving developmental economics and planning; and 4) techniques of analysis, systems analysis, econometrics, forecasting and more. An outline of the curriculum detailing topics, course length, and general and specific goals for each course follows. A bibliography covering general works, works on economics, sociology, anthropology and systems concludes the document.
Current Anthropology. 1975 Jun; 16(2):264-266.Add to my documents.