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Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 93 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this textbook in the social sciences, with an emphasis on population education, for 2ndary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origin, Development and Characteristics," describes Darwin's theory of evolution and explains how overproduction causes problems of rapid population growth and poor quality of life. Special attention is given to the problem of high infant mortality in Sierra Leone. Unit 2, "Man's Environment," discusses the interrelationships and interdependence among elements in the ecosystem, the food pyramid, and the effects of man's activities and numbers on the ecosystem. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," focuses on the processes of socialization and the different agents of socialization: the family, the group, the school, and the community. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," discusses human and natural resources as well as conservation measures. It also discusses the population composition, its effect on resources, and the uses and significance of population data. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man," covers land, water and air transport; the effects of transport developments in Sierra Leone; and implications for population of changes in transport activities. Unit 6, "Global Issues: Achievements and Problems," deals with the young population, characteristics of the adolescent, common social problems among young people, and the role of the family unit. National and international action is also discussed.
Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 80 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this textbook in the social sciences for secondary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origins, Development and Characteristics," presents the findings of archaeologists and anthropologists about the different periods of man's development. Man's mental development and population growth are also considered. Unit 2, "Man's Environment," discusses the physical and social environments of Sierra Leone, putting emphasis on the history of migrations into Sierra Leone and the effects of migration on population growth. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," deals with cultural traits related to marriage and family structure, different religions of the world, and traditional beliefs and population issues. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," covers population distribution and density and the effects of migration on resources. The unit also discusses land as a resource and the effects of the land tenure system, as well as farming systems, family size and the role of women in farming communities. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man", focuses on modern means of communication, especially mass media. Unit 6, "Global Issues: Achievements and Problems," discusses the identification of global issues, such as colonialism, the refugee problem, urbanization, and the population problems of towns and cities. The unit describes 4 organizations that have been formed in response to problems such as these: the UN, the Red Cross, the International Labor Organization, and the Co-operative for American Relief.
Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 80 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this text in social studies, with an emphasis on population education, for 2ndary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origins, Development and Characteristics," covers traditional, religious and scientific explanations of man's origin; man's characteristics and the effects of these characteristics; and the beginnings of population growth and the characteristics of human population. In Unit 2, "Man's Environment," the word environment is defined and geographical concepts are introduced. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," defines institution and discusses family types, roles and cycles, as well as traditional ceremonies and cultural beliefs about family size. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," primarily deals with how the family meets its needs for food, shelter and clothing. It also covers the effects of population growth. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man," discusses the means and growth of communication and collecting vital information about the population. The last unit defines global issues and discusses the interdependence of nations, issues affecting nations at the individual and world level, and the UN.
Social Science and Medicine. 1992 Sep; 35(5):645-8.A geographer addresses shortfalls of an article on elephantiasis as a disease of development in northeast Ghana in the same issue as this commentary. He praises the article for identifying the key ecological relationships which determine the local geography of elephantiasis. Yet the article does not deal with questions concerning why the disease continues and even increases in the area and why modern medicine has had little effect on the endemicity of the disease. For example, the other author did not address the possibility that the local name for elephantiasis may have other meanings and that the villagers believe it to be caused by a supernatural force. Perhaps the indifference of health workers to the disease is due to undependability or scarcity of key drugs to treat filariasis. The geographer objects that the other author places some blame for the persistence of filariasis on the victims since they have very little control over their conditions. Instead local leaders should be blamed. He agrees that the Ministry of Health should also be blamed, but another guilty party is international development agencies like USAID and the World Bank. Specifically they provide funding and technical assistance for rural development projects with little regard for health effects. The other author's conclusion that development planning must include the health dimension is not new. Instead the geographer suggests innovative research on health and disease via the political economy macroscale studies and studies of epidemiologic and ecological relationships. For example, research should examine the means by which World Bank agricultural development strategies influence farming practices and access to land and how the disparities affect health and nutrition. Research on disease and development should incorporate social, cultural, economic, and political factors. It should also actively involve the people affected by development strategies.
Rapid anthropologic assessment: applications to the measurement of maternal and child mortality, morbidity and health care.
[Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP] Committee on Population and Health and Cairo University Institute of Statistical Studies and Research, Center for Applied Demography Seminar on Measurement of Maternal and Child Mortality, Morbidity and Health Care: Interdisciplinary Approaches, Cairo, Egypt, November 4-7, 1991. 14 p.University Nations University (UNU) leaders requested rapid anthropological assessment procedures (RAP) guidelines in the early 1980s to examine health-seeking behavior in 16 developing countries. They were not content with the expense, time, and poor accuracy of standard survey techniques to study health care. UNU project researchers studies 42 communities in these countries. They used triangulation to assess the validity of their data and found the data to be accurate. RAP involves applied medical anthropologists and other social scientists with appropriate training to pass about 6 weeks in a community where a supposed effective primary health care (PHC) programs operates to learn the household and community perspective on PHC services. 6 weeks constitute a long time for health planners and policymakers, but for anthropologists this time period tends to be too. Yet the required time hinges on the amount and complexity of data needed. It is important that the anthropologists and/or other social scientists already know the language and the culture because they interview biomedical and indigenous health providers. RAP depends on limited objectives and on existing data and prior research. Research designers should modify the limited objectives or data collection guidelines to fit each culture and each project. RAP data collection techniques include formal and informal interviews, conversations, observation, participant observation, focus groups, and data collection from secondary sources. Indeed researchers should be able to adapt these various techniques during the project. Obstacles which RAP research designers must consider are: some anthropologists do not feel at ease with RAP; not all cultures are comfortable with an outsider coming into their community asking questions, thus highlighting the importance of using an anthropologist already known and trusted in the community; and the topic may not be appropriate for discussion in a community.