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Your search found 7 Results

  1. 1
    322824

    Rabies vaccine: A case for optional childhood vaccination [letter]

    Harish R

    Indian Pediatrics. 2007 Oct 17; 44(10):792-793.

    Asia accounts for approximately 90% of all rabies fatalities. WHO surveys reveal that half of deaths occur in children and only one third of them receive post exposure treatment (PET) majority being males. Many of these exposures are never reported as a child may be alone with the dog/may not impart significance to few abrasions/may be scared of some painful injections following dog bite and not report it to his caretakers deliberately. Children are more vulnerable to get dog bites as they tend to play with/tease them frequently and can be easily overpowered by dogs. Incubation period also tends to be shorter due to their lesser body surface area and frequent bites on head and neck because of small physique. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    312115
    Peer Reviewed

    DDT for malaria control: the issue of trade.

    Lancet. 2007 Jan; 369(9558):248.

    In September, 2006, WHO recommended wider use of indoor spraying with dichlorodiphenyltrichloro ethane (DDT)--once banned because of its toxic effects on the environment--and other insecticides to control malaria. Since then, a number of African countries have made their old foe DDT their new friend. Malawi is the latest, announcing last week that it would be introducing indoor residual spraying with DDT in its fight against malaria. WHO cited many reasons for making DDT a main intervention in malaria control, alongside insecticide-treated bednets. DDT has the potential to substantially reduce malaria transmission. The chemical is better than other insecticides, as it lasts longer, thereby reducing the number of times that houses need to be sprayed, is cheaper, and can repel mosquitoes from indoor environments, as well as kill those that land on sprayed surfaces. But DDT is far from problem-free. WHO, and countries that decide to adopt indoor residual spraying with the insecticide, need to monitor any negative effects of the chemical on health. They also need to ensure that DDT does not contaminate crops. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    283325
    Peer Reviewed

    Dangerous state of denial.

    Nature. 2005 Jan 13; 433(7022):91.

    For Mrs Luat, the H5N1 avian flu virus could bring economic ruin. Three years ago, she and her husband borrowed US$12,500 to establish a small chicken farm in Hay Tay province, near the Vietnamese capital Hanoi. They raise 6,000 chickens at a time in their single shed, selling the entire stock every couple of months to a Thai company that distributes the meat within Vietnam. But last year, their shed lay empty for six months after H5N1 flu hit neighbouring farms. Mrs Luat estimates the couple's losses at $1,500. If it happens again, they may be unable to service their debts. While smallholders such as the Luats face the most immediate threat, the continuing presence of the H5N1 virus in Vietnam and neighbouring countries could spell a global disaster, in both economic and humanitarian terms. H5N1 is deadly to both chickens and people, but thankfully isn't easily transmitted from person to person. But if it exchanges genes with a mammalian flu virus, H5N1 could become a mass killer that would rapidly sweep the globe. If that happens, tens of millions of people could perish. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    282041
    Peer Reviewed

    Dangerous state of denial.

    Nature. 2005 Jan 13; 433(7022):91.

    For Mrs Luat, the H5N1 avian flu virus could bring economic ruin. Three years ago, she and her husband borrowed US$12,500 to establish a small chicken farm in Hay Tay province, near the Vietnamese capital Hanoi. They raise 6,000 chickens at a time in their single shed, selling the entire stock every couple of months to a Thai company that distributes the meat within Vietnam. But last year, their shed lay empty for six months after H5N1 flu hit neighbouring farms. Mrs Luat estimates the couple's losses at $1,500. If it happens again, they maybe unable to service their debts. While smallholders such as the Luats face the most immediate threat, the continuing presence of the H5N1 virus in Vietnam and neighbouring countries could spell a global disaster, in both economic and humanitarian terms. H5N1 is deadly to both chickens and people, but thankfully isn't easily transmitted from person to person. But if it exchanges genes with a mammalian flu virus, H5N1 could become a mass killer that would rapidly sweep the globe. If that happens, tens of millions of people could perish. Since H5N1 starting spreading through Asian poultry flocks in 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) has been sounding the pandemic alarm. Two main actions are required. First, surveillance for human and animal flu viruses in affected countries needs to be stepped up, to provide an early warning of the emergence of a possible pandemic strain. Second, nations around the world must develop plans to protect their populations should this occur. This will require stringent quarantine procedures, plus the rapid deployment of vaccines and antiviral drugs. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    274990

    District guidelines for yellow fever surveillance.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control; World Health Organization [WHO]. Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control, 1998. 59 p. (WHO/EPI/GEN/98.09)

    Yellow fever is a viral haemorrhagic fever transmitted by mosquitos infected with the yellow fever virus. The disease is untreatable, and case fatality rates in severe cases can exceed 50%. Yellow fever can be prevented through immunization with the 17D yellow fever vaccine. The vaccine is safe, inexpensive and reliable. A single dose provides protection against the disease for at least 10 years and possibly life-long. There is high risk for an explosive outbreak in an unimmunized population—and children are especially vulnerable—if even one laboratory-confirmed case of yellow fever occurs in the population. Effective activities for disease surveillance remain the best tool for prompt detection and response to an outbreak of yellow fever especially in populations where coverage rates for yellow fever vaccine are not high enough to provide protection against yellow fever. The guidelines in this manual describe how to detect and confirm suspected cases of yellow fever. They also describe how to respond to an outbreak of yellow fever and prevent additional cases from occurring. The guidelines are intended for use at the district level. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    187351
    Peer Reviewed

    World is ill-prepared for "inevitable" flu pandemic.

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2004 Apr; 82(4):317.

    The recent avian influenza outbreaks in Asia serve as stark reminders that another influenza pandemic is inevitable and possibly imminent, said WHO Director- General, Dr LEE Jong-wook, during a conference on influenza preparedness hosted by WHO on 16-18 March 2004. "We know another pandemic is "inevitable," said LEE. "It is coming. And when this happens, we also know that we are likely to have enough drugs, vaccines, health-care workers and hospital capacity to cope in an ideal way." Poultry culling and other measures may have reduced the likelihood of a human pandemic influenza strain emerging soon from Asia as a consequence of avian flu. However, experts believe that because these outbreaks come in cycles, a human influenza pandemic must be expected at some time in the future. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    184757
    Peer Reviewed

    Transmission intensity index to monitor filariasis infection pressure in vectors for the evaluation of filariasis elimination programmes.

    Sunish IP; Rajendran R; Mani TR; Munirathinam A; Tewari SC

    Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2003 Sep; 8(9):812-819.

    We conducted longitudinal studies on filariasis control in Villupuram district of Tamil Nadu, south India, between 1995 and 2000. Overall, 23 entomological (yearly) data sets were available from seven villages, on indoor resting collections [per man hour (PMH) density and transmission intensity index (TII)] and landing collections on human volunteers [PMH and annual transmission potential (ATP)]. All four indices decreased or increased hand-in-hand with interventions or withdrawal of inputs and remained at high levels without interventions under varied circumstances of experimental design. The correlation coefficients between parameters [PMH: resting vs. landing (r = 0.77); and TII vs. ATP (r = 0.81)] were highly significant (P < 0.001). The former indices from resting collections stand a chance of replacing the latter from landing collections in the evaluation of global filariasis elimination efforts. The TII would appear to serve the purpose of a parameter that can measure infection pressure per unit time in the immediate household surroundings of human beings and can reflect the success or otherwise of control/elimination efforts along with human infection parameters. Moreover, it will not pose any additional risk of new infection(s) and avoids infringement of human rights concerns by the experimental procedures of investigators, unlike ATP that poses such a risk to volunteers. (author's)
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