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Indian Pediatrics. 2007 Oct 17; 44(10):792-793.Asia accounts for approximately 90% of all rabies fatalities. WHO surveys reveal that half of deaths occur in children and only one third of them receive post exposure treatment (PET) majority being males. Many of these exposures are never reported as a child may be alone with the dog/may not impart significance to few abrasions/may be scared of some painful injections following dog bite and not report it to his caretakers deliberately. Children are more vulnerable to get dog bites as they tend to play with/tease them frequently and can be easily overpowered by dogs. Incubation period also tends to be shorter due to their lesser body surface area and frequent bites on head and neck because of small physique. (excerpt)
Population and Environment. 2007 May; 28(4-5):274-282.Full transcript of Dr. Goodall's keynote address at the Bixby symposium on Population and Conservation, held at the University of California, Berkeley on May 6, 2006. Dr. Goodall contrasts population growth amongst chimpanzees and human beings and discusses current conservation efforts of the Jane Goodall Institute in the Gombe region of Tanzania and the development of the TACARE (take care) program. (author's)
Lancet. 2007 Jan; 369(9558):248.In September, 2006, WHO recommended wider use of indoor spraying with dichlorodiphenyltrichloro ethane (DDT)--once banned because of its toxic effects on the environment--and other insecticides to control malaria. Since then, a number of African countries have made their old foe DDT their new friend. Malawi is the latest, announcing last week that it would be introducing indoor residual spraying with DDT in its fight against malaria. WHO cited many reasons for making DDT a main intervention in malaria control, alongside insecticide-treated bednets. DDT has the potential to substantially reduce malaria transmission. The chemical is better than other insecticides, as it lasts longer, thereby reducing the number of times that houses need to be sprayed, is cheaper, and can repel mosquitoes from indoor environments, as well as kill those that land on sprayed surfaces. But DDT is far from problem-free. WHO, and countries that decide to adopt indoor residual spraying with the insecticide, need to monitor any negative effects of the chemical on health. They also need to ensure that DDT does not contaminate crops. (excerpt)
Nature. 2005 Jan 13; 433(7022):91.For Mrs Luat, the H5N1 avian flu virus could bring economic ruin. Three years ago, she and her husband borrowed US$12,500 to establish a small chicken farm in Hay Tay province, near the Vietnamese capital Hanoi. They raise 6,000 chickens at a time in their single shed, selling the entire stock every couple of months to a Thai company that distributes the meat within Vietnam. But last year, their shed lay empty for six months after H5N1 flu hit neighbouring farms. Mrs Luat estimates the couple's losses at $1,500. If it happens again, they may be unable to service their debts. While smallholders such as the Luats face the most immediate threat, the continuing presence of the H5N1 virus in Vietnam and neighbouring countries could spell a global disaster, in both economic and humanitarian terms. H5N1 is deadly to both chickens and people, but thankfully isn't easily transmitted from person to person. But if it exchanges genes with a mammalian flu virus, H5N1 could become a mass killer that would rapidly sweep the globe. If that happens, tens of millions of people could perish. (excerpt)
Nature. 2005 Jan 13; 433(7022):91.For Mrs Luat, the H5N1 avian flu virus could bring economic ruin. Three years ago, she and her husband borrowed US$12,500 to establish a small chicken farm in Hay Tay province, near the Vietnamese capital Hanoi. They raise 6,000 chickens at a time in their single shed, selling the entire stock every couple of months to a Thai company that distributes the meat within Vietnam. But last year, their shed lay empty for six months after H5N1 flu hit neighbouring farms. Mrs Luat estimates the couple's losses at $1,500. If it happens again, they maybe unable to service their debts. While smallholders such as the Luats face the most immediate threat, the continuing presence of the H5N1 virus in Vietnam and neighbouring countries could spell a global disaster, in both economic and humanitarian terms. H5N1 is deadly to both chickens and people, but thankfully isn't easily transmitted from person to person. But if it exchanges genes with a mammalian flu virus, H5N1 could become a mass killer that would rapidly sweep the globe. If that happens, tens of millions of people could perish. Since H5N1 starting spreading through Asian poultry flocks in 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) has been sounding the pandemic alarm. Two main actions are required. First, surveillance for human and animal flu viruses in affected countries needs to be stepped up, to provide an early warning of the emergence of a possible pandemic strain. Second, nations around the world must develop plans to protect their populations should this occur. This will require stringent quarantine procedures, plus the rapid deployment of vaccines and antiviral drugs. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control, 1998. 59 p. (WHO/EPI/GEN/98.09)Yellow fever is a viral haemorrhagic fever transmitted by mosquitos infected with the yellow fever virus. The disease is untreatable, and case fatality rates in severe cases can exceed 50%. Yellow fever can be prevented through immunization with the 17D yellow fever vaccine. The vaccine is safe, inexpensive and reliable. A single dose provides protection against the disease for at least 10 years and possibly life-long. There is high risk for an explosive outbreak in an unimmunized population—and children are especially vulnerable—if even one laboratory-confirmed case of yellow fever occurs in the population. Effective activities for disease surveillance remain the best tool for prompt detection and response to an outbreak of yellow fever especially in populations where coverage rates for yellow fever vaccine are not high enough to provide protection against yellow fever. The guidelines in this manual describe how to detect and confirm suspected cases of yellow fever. They also describe how to respond to an outbreak of yellow fever and prevent additional cases from occurring. The guidelines are intended for use at the district level. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2004 Apr; 82(4):317.The recent avian influenza outbreaks in Asia serve as stark reminders that another influenza pandemic is inevitable and possibly imminent, said WHO Director- General, Dr LEE Jong-wook, during a conference on influenza preparedness hosted by WHO on 16-18 March 2004. "We know another pandemic is "inevitable," said LEE. "It is coming. And when this happens, we also know that we are likely to have enough drugs, vaccines, health-care workers and hospital capacity to cope in an ideal way." Poultry culling and other measures may have reduced the likelihood of a human pandemic influenza strain emerging soon from Asia as a consequence of avian flu. However, experts believe that because these outbreaks come in cycles, a human influenza pandemic must be expected at some time in the future. (excerpt)
Transmission intensity index to monitor filariasis infection pressure in vectors for the evaluation of filariasis elimination programmes.
Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2003 Sep; 8(9):812-819.We conducted longitudinal studies on filariasis control in Villupuram district of Tamil Nadu, south India, between 1995 and 2000. Overall, 23 entomological (yearly) data sets were available from seven villages, on indoor resting collections [per man hour (PMH) density and transmission intensity index (TII)] and landing collections on human volunteers [PMH and annual transmission potential (ATP)]. All four indices decreased or increased hand-in-hand with interventions or withdrawal of inputs and remained at high levels without interventions under varied circumstances of experimental design. The correlation coefficients between parameters [PMH: resting vs. landing (r = 0.77); and TII vs. ATP (r = 0.81)] were highly significant (P < 0.001). The former indices from resting collections stand a chance of replacing the latter from landing collections in the evaluation of global filariasis elimination efforts. The TII would appear to serve the purpose of a parameter that can measure infection pressure per unit time in the immediate household surroundings of human beings and can reflect the success or otherwise of control/elimination efforts along with human infection parameters. Moreover, it will not pose any additional risk of new infection(s) and avoids infringement of human rights concerns by the experimental procedures of investigators, unlike ATP that poses such a risk to volunteers. (author's)
Global biodiversity strategy. Guidelines for action to save, study, and use Earth's biotic wealth sustainably and equitably.
Washington, D.C., WRI, 1992. vi, 244 p.Humanity depends on all other forms of life on Earth and its nonliving components including the atmosphere, ocean, bodies of freshwater, rocks, and soils. If humanity is to persist and to develop so that everyone enjoys the most basic of human rights, it must protect the structure, functions, and diversity of the world's natural systems. The World Resources Institute, the World Conservation Union, and the UN Environment Programme have joined together to prepare this strategy for global biodiversity. The first 2 chapters cover the nature and value of biodiversity and losses of biodiversity and their causes. The 3rd chapter presents the strategy for biodiversity conservation which includes the goal of such conservation and its contents and catalysts and 5 actions needed to establish biodiversity conservation. Establishment of a national policy framework for biodiversity conservation is the topic of the 4th chapter. It discusses 3 objectives with various actions to accomplish each objective. Integration of biodiversity conservation into international economic policy is 1 of the 3 objectives of the 5th chapter--creating an international policy environment that supports national biodiversity conservation. Correct imbalances in the control of land and resources is a clear objective in creating conditions and incentives for local biodiversity conservation--the topic of the 6th chapter. The next 3 chapters are devoted to managing biodiversity throughout the human environment; strengthening protected areas; and conserving species, populations, and genetic diversity. The last chapter provides specific actions to improve human capacity to conserve biodiversity including promotion of basic and applied research and assist institutions to disseminate biodiversity information.
In: Global biodiversity strategy: guidelines for action to save, study, and use Earth's biotic wealth sustainably and equitably, [compiled by] World Resources Institute [WRI], World Conservation Union [IUCN], United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP], in consultation with Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO], UNESCO. [Washington, D.C.], WRI, 1992. 117-32.There are 8163 protected areas worldwide covering 750 million hectares of marine and terrestrial ecosystems amounting to 5.1% of national land area. One objective is to identify national and international priorities for biodiversity conservation by national reviews of protected area systems; by immediate and longterm action for establishing protected areas (strictly protected areas of nature reserves, national parks and extractive areas of habitat and wildlife management areas and protected landscapes); by international assessment of requirements (authorization and funding of the IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas and use of the analyses of the 4th World Congress on National PArks and Protected Areas, February 1992, and the Parks in Peril program that identified 200 sites in Latin America); by promoting the establishment of private protected areas; and by international cooperation in area management (the International Council for Bird Preservation and the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network identified the habitat of migratory birds). Another objective is to ensure the sustainability of protected areas and to contribute to biodiversity conservation by more extensive participation in protected area management plans (internal management of each site, human use of protected areas, development and bioregion resource use policies, study of biodiversity, and financial needs); by expanded management objectives of protected areas; by increasing the ecological and social value of protected areas through external land purchase and zoning and conservation of adjacent private lands; by raising the ecological and social value of such areas through expanded benefits to people (nature tourism and employment related to protection); and by restoring degraded lands within protected areas and adjacent lands.
Conservation of West and Central African rainforests. Conservation de la foret dense en Afrique centrale et de l'Ouest.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. xi, 353 p. (World Bank Environment Paper No. 1)This World Bank publication is a collection of selected papers presented at the Conference on Conservation of West and Central African Rainforests in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, in November 1990. These rainforests are very important to the stability of the regional and global environment, yet human activity is destroying them at a rate of 2 million hectares/year. Causes of forest destruction are commercial logging for export, conversion of forests into farmland, cutting of forests for fuelwood, and open-access land tenure systems. Other than an introduction and conclusion, this document is divided into 8 broad topics: country strategies, agricultural nexus, natural forestry management, biodiversity and conservation, forest peoples and products, economic values, fiscal issues, and institutional and private participation issues. Countries addressed in the country strategies section include Zaire, Cameroon, Sao Tome and Principe, and Nigeria. The forest peoples and products section has the most papers: wood products and residual from forestry operations in the Congo; Kutafuta Maisha: searching for life on Zaire's Ituri forest frontier; development in the Central African rainforest: concern for forest peoples; concern for Africa's forest peoples: a touchstone of a sustainable development policy; Tropical Forestry Action Plans and indigenous people: the case of Cameroon; forest people and people in the forest: investing in local community development; and women and the forest: use and conservation of forestry resources other than wood. Topics in the economic values section range from debt-for-nature swaps to environmental labeling. Forestry taxation and forest revenue systems are discussed under fiscal issues. The conclusion discusses saving Africa's rainforests.
New York, New York, Basic Books, 1988. xii, 372 p.The US Environment Program has joined the World Resources Institute and the International Institute for Environment and Development to put together the periodic, objective, and current report of conditions and trends of the natural resources of the planet. The 1988-1989 report represents the first biennial report. One section of the report includes reviews on world resources. The last section is full of data tables and charts for those world resources. The world resources addressed range from population and health to global systems and cycles. The focus of the human settlements chapter is urban solid waste disposal and that of the wildlife and habitat chapter is on sustainable development and biological diversity. The policies and institutions chapter discusses agricultural, forestry, and livestock policies. Even though the focus of the population and health chapter is on pesticide use and health (3000-20,000 deaths from pesticide poisoning annually), it has not neglected the AIDS pandemic. Despite increasing per capita food production in every region except Africa, the numbers of hungry people are growing. The leading sources of energy in the world are fuelwood and oil. The middle section of the report centers on rehabilitating and restoring degraded lands, especially degraded mountains, drylands, and irrigated cropland. The report contains a detailed index to direct readers to their particular area of interest.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION. 1984 Summer; 11(2):167-9.People living in the area just south of the Sahara Desert in Africa face their 3rd major drought since 1900. This drought brings about famine. Drought and famine are only manifestations of more profound problems: soil erosion and degradation. They diminish land productivity which aggravates the population's poverty. Yet soil erosion and degradation occur due to an expanding population. Continued pressures on the land and soil degradation results in desertification. The UN Environment Programme's Assessment of the Status and Trend of Desertification shows that between 1978-84 desertification spread. Expanding deserts now endanger 35% of the world's land and 20% of the population. In the thorn bush savanna zone, most people are subsistence farmers or herdsmen and rely on the soils, forests, and rangelands. Even though the mean population density in the Sahel is low, it is overpopulated since people concentrate in areas where water is available. These areas tend to be cities where near or total deforestation has already occurred. Between 1959-84, the population in the Sahel doubled so farmers have extended cultivation into marginal areas which are vulnerable to desertification. The livestock populations have also grown tremendously resulting in overgrazing and deforestation. People must cook their food which involves cutting down trees for fuelwood. Mismanagement of the land is the key cause for desertification, but the growing poor populations have no choice but to eke out an existence on increasingly marginal lands. Long fallow periods would allow the land to regain its fertility, but with the ever-increasing population this is almost impossible. Humans caused desertification. We can improve land use and farming methods to stop it.
EARTHWATCH. 1991; (41):15.The National Audubon Society began a population program in 1979, set up a 5-year plan of public education, advocacy and coalition-building in 1985, and joined a broad-based coalition of the Sierra Club, the National Wildlife Federation, the Population Crisis Committee and the Planned Parenthood Federation of America in 1990. The 1985 impetus resulted in production of teaching materials and staging of focus groups across the U.S. The 1990 coalition has directed funds to the USAID Office of Population. Another project is the International Environment/Population Network, which organizes letter-writing, media programs and town meetings for ordinary citizens to press for sustainable development. Many of the Audubon's 510 local chapters have partnerships with similar groups in other countries, as do 8 wildlife sanctuaries have links to sanctuaries abroad. An example is the Indus River in Pakistan visited by the manager of Audubon's Platte River Sanctuary in Nebraska. The 2 rivers share the problem of reduced flow and vegetation overgrowth as a result of engineering projects upstream.