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  1. 1
    311404
    Peer Reviewed

    Iron deficiency: Global prevalence and consequences.

    Stoltzfus RJ

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2003; 24 Suppl 4:S99-S103.

    Iron deficiency is considered to be one of most prevalent forms of malnutrition, yet there has been a lack of consensus about the nature and magnitude of the health consequences of iron deficiency in populations. This paper presents new estimates of the public health importance of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), which were made as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2000 project. Iron deficiency is considered to contribute to death and disability as a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality, and also through its direct contributions to cognitive impairment, decreased work productivity, and death from severe anemia. Based on meta-analysis of observational studies, mortality risk estimates for maternal and perinatal mortality are calculated as the decreased risk in mortality for each 1 g/dl increase in mean pregnancy hemoglobin concentration. On average, globally, 50% of the anemia is assumed to be attributable to iron deficiency. Globally, iron deficiency ranks number 9 among 26 risk factors included in the GBD 2000, and accounts for 841,000 deaths and 35,057,000 disability-adjusted life years lost. Africa and parts of Asia bear 71% of the global mortality burden and 65% of the disability-adjusted life years lost, whereas North America bears 1.4% of the global burden. There is an urgent need to develop effective and sustainable interventions to control iron-deficiency anemia. This will likely not be achieved without substantial involvement of the private sector. (author's)
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  2. 2
    106635

    Implementing the ICPD Plan of Action in Central Asian Republics and Kazakhstan (CARAK). Kyrgyzstan. Breast-feeding is best.

    Kushbakeeva A

    ENTRE NOUS. 1995 May; (28-29):11.

    The socioeconomic problems which began in Kyrgyzstan in 1990 have impacted on the health of the people living there. A major decline in income, living standards, and social security is reflected in the low fertility rate, high maternal and infant mortality, and shorter life expectancy. Tuberculosis, viral hepatitis, anemia, hypertrophy, and rachitis have become very common in young children. In order to remedy this situation, breast feeding has gained the importance of a national program. Other unresolved issues include the high neonatal mortality rate, and the increasing maternal mortality rate (from 76.4 per 100,000 live births in 1991 to 84.2 per 100,000 currently). There has been a functioning family planning service and a system of social patronage since 1989. In the latter system, a social worker takes charge of families at risk. One worker on average attends 30 families. The International Planned Parenthood Federation has financed 689 social patronage workers over the past year. International organizations have supported the supply of contraceptives through humanitarian aid. Because of this, the number of women accepting family planning is rising and the fertility rate is decreasing (from 28.2 per 1000 in 1991 to 26.9 in 1993).
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