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Human rights in conflict resolution: the role of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in UN Peacemaking and Peacebuilding.
Human Rights Quarterly. 2006 Feb; 28(1):1-85.This study focuses on the UN work during actual conflicts, or periods of heightened tension, and during the short-term, post-conflict phase of peacekeeping and peacebuilding. It considers only tangentially techniques of conflict prevention or long-term peacebuilding operations (although it is clear that prevention, peacemaking, peacekeeping, and peacebuilding lie on a continuum rather than being clearly distinct from one another). This decision is guided, in part, by the widespread recognition that the promotion and protection of human rights is crucial in preventing the escalation of conflict into serious violence, as well as in establishing a basis for long-term stability and development. In addition, DPA is less likely to be involved in peacemaking or conflict resolution efforts when there are periods of relative calm before conflict ensues or when the goal is the consolidation of peace and democracy following the successful resolution of a conflict. (excerpt)
IAEN: Current Issues in the Economics of HIV / AIDS. Contrasts and comparisons of simulation modeling exercises and their use in analysis of policy options and interventions, Thursday, April 24, 2003. Transcript.
[Palo Alto, California], Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003. 61 p.The problem that we were addressing with this model was the fact that most countries now have strategic plans for organizing the national HIV/AIDS effort. But, that there’s very little strategic analysis of the funding that goes into that plan. In fact, the costing (unintelligible) after the goals are already set. This creates a variety of problems, but the major one is that the funding and the goals are not linked in any way that allows you to see how changes in the funding, either in the total amount or in the allocation, effects the goals you can achieve. It means, it makes it difficult to set reasonable goals. It also makes it difficult to do strategic allocation funding. (excerpt)
Nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous adolescent girls. [Estado nutricional de adolescentes vegetarianas y omnívoras]
Nutrition Research. 2001 May; 21(5):689-702.This study compared the dietary and anthropometric profile of 24 ovo-lacto-vegetarian and 36 omnivorous female adolescents, between 15 and 18 years old. Weight, height and skinfolds were measured. Food frequency questionnaires and a three day food record were used for dietary assessment. Vegetarians presented subscapular, suprailiac and midaxillary skinfolds statistically higher than omnivores, but the percent body fat was not different. The vegetarian diet provided smaller amounts of energy than that of the omnivores ( p < 0.05) and only 17% of the vegetarians was able to reach the recommended allowance for protein. Regarding calcium, 83% of the vegetarians and 69% of the omnivores ate less than 2/3 of the recommended allowances and a significantly higher percentage of vegetarians presented low ingestion of iron, riboflavin, and niacin than omnivores ( p < 0.05). It was concluded that the intake of vegetarians was lower in fat and cholesterol, and less adequate in micronutrients than the omnivores ones. (author's)
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2000 Apr; 6(2):127-129.In recognition of the fact that local communities afflicted by malaria typically use local herbal treatments (Bitahwa et al., 1997 Willcox, 1999)-either with or instead of conventional drugs-this type of new research thinking underpins the agenda of the newly formed Research Initiative for Traditional Antimalarial Methods (RITAM) (Bodeker & Willcox, 2000b). WHO is promoting new drug cocktails, many that are derived from single ingredients of plants, as the new way to combat drug-resistant malaria. The absurd situation has arisen in which synthetic synergism is being sought after it has been rejected in its natural state. The cost of antimalarial cocktails is estimated to be up to seven times that of the already-expensive existing antimalarials. Clearly, a local, sustainable, and affordable response to malaria is called for-one that recognizes that this is where the fight against malaria began and where it continues. (excerpt)
Geneva, WHO, 1973. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 520) 34 p.After summarizing current WHO research directed at the control of male fertility focusing on 1) gametogenesis and ultrastructure of the testis; 2) cytogenetic aspects; 3) hormonal regulation; 4) epididymal function (the maturation and preservation of spermatozoa); 5) vas deferens; and 6) semen analysis; recommendations for further research in the area are made. Studies are required on the following aspects of reproductive function in the male: 1) structural and cytochemical organization of the various classes of germ cells in humans and nonhuman primates; 2) interstitial tissues and the components of the blood-testis barrier and their role in the regulation of gametogenic function of the testis; 3) structural and functional state of the testis during growth and development, during aging, and in most histopathological conditions leading to partial or complete sterility; 4) the role of meiotic chromosome aberration in degeneration of germ cells; 5) role of abnormal chromosomes as an etiological factor in male infertility; 6) binding and metabolism of androgens and their effects on the seminiferous tubule; 7) role of gonadotropins, particularly follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), in regulation of spermatogenesis; 8) identification of tubular factors involved in regulation of FSH secretion; 9) elucidation of epididymal function in a number of species; 10) characteristics of sperm surface; 11) nature of epididymal plasma and the factors that control it; 12) anatomy, physiology, and functional role of human vas deferens, with emphasis on blood supply; 13) effect of vasectomy on male reproductive function and possible immunological sequelae of this operation; 14) relationship between fertility and such characteristics of sperm as number, motility, and morphology; 15) biochemical characteristics of the nucleus, acrosome, and midpiece of sperm, and their relationship to sperm motility and fertility; 16) chemical nature of substances secreted specifically in different accessory sex organs; 17) the possible relationship between autoimmune phenomenoa and testicular disease; and 18) immunological sequelae of vasectomy. In addition, studies on the cryobiology of human and animal sperm are expected to yield information on the biology of sperm.
BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1993; 71(5):641.Oral fluids are a mixture of saliva and oral mucosal transudates (OMT). Saliva is a product of the salivary glands and contains mostly IgA, while OMT is mostly fluid in the subgingival space derived from the passive transport of plasma and contains mostly IgG. The IgG concentration, however, is much lower than that in serum. Testing for antibodies to HIV in oral fluids has been proposed as an alternative to antibody testing in blood. The fluids may be collected directly by dribbling into a receptacle and via absorption onto pads using specially designed collection devices. Only one commercially available HIV antibody test is, however, specifically designed for use with oral fluid samples. Some existing commercial tests designed to detect antibody to HIV in blood samples have been modified for use with oral fluids, but only limited information is available on their performance. Several studies suggest that using tests to detect HIV antibodies in oral fluids may be adequate for some situations, but a number of issues remain to be addressed. WHO therefore recommends that a full evaluation of the detection of HIV antibody in oral fluids be undertaken to address the issues before recommendations on HIV antibody testing using oral fluids are made. Such evaluation would gather information on the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of testing oral fluids. Ethical considerations when performing HIV testing using oral fluids would be the same as those for blood: non-coercion, informed consent, counseling, and confidentiality.
WHO international quality assessment scheme for HIV antibody testing: results from the second distribution of sera.
BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1992; 70(5):605-13.The WHO international quality assessment scheme for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing has been established to monitor the quality of laboratory performance in testing for antibodies to HIV. Following a small trial distribution of specimens early in 1989, the second distribution was made in February 1990. A total of 20 specimens of sera, 10 of which contained antibodies to HIV-1, were sent to 103 laboratories located in the 6 WHO Regions. Participants were asked to report to WHO their findings on each specimen for each diagnostic assay used and their interpretation of the HIV antibody status of each specimen. For the antibody-positive specimens; 98.2% of the results were interpreted as positive and 1.8% as indeterminate; no false-negative interpretations were reported. For their antibody-negative specimens, 90.3% of the results were interpreted as negative, 1.3% as positive, and 8.4% as indeterminate. Most of the indeterminate reports were associated with one particular specimen. A wide variety of diagnostic assays and combinations of assays were used. In terms of the technical results obtained rather than their interpretation, the assays appeared extremely reliable for the positive specimens, with 99.5% of assay results being recorded as positive, 0.17% as negative, and 0/34% as indeterminate. There were more errors associated with the negative specimens: 93.5% of assay results were recorded as negative, 3.5% as positive, and 3% as indeterminate. However, ;61% of the false-positive and indeterminate assay results obtained with the negative specimens were associated with only 2 specimens. There were considerable variations in the Western blot patterns reported and a variety of different interpretative criteria were applied to them. (author's)
ANNALS OF TROPICAL PAEDIATRICS. 1989 Mar; 9(1):1-5.A total of 177 children seen at 2 hospitals in Kampala are described who were strongly suspected of having acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), either on clinical grounds or because they fulfilled WHO case- definition criteria for diagnosis of pediatric AIDS. Blood was taken from the 177 children and 154 of their mothers and tested for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Altogether, 119 (67%) children were seropositive, but only 85 (71%) fulfilled the WHO case-definition criteria, and they were significantly older than the 34 who did not fulfill the criteria. A further 58 children were seronegative but fulfilled the WHO criteria. Of the 119 seropositive children, only 3 had a history of previous blood transfusion, but 103 (98%) of 105 mothers were HIV seropositive: consequently, their children were considered to have been infected in utero or perinatally. 13 (26%) of 49 mothers of seronegative children were seropositive. 80% of HIV-infected children were under 2 years of age at diagnosis and 23% died within 3 months of diagnosis. None of the parents was known to be an intravenous drug user, a prostitute, or bisexual. The difficulty of accurate diagnosis of AIDS presents a major problem in Africa, as the WHO clinical case-definition criteria alone are clearly not adequate. (author's)
CONTRACEPTION. 1988 Aug; 38(2):157-63.A microcomputer software program called the Menstrual Diary System (MDS) is described which analyzes menstrual diaries by the reference period method, according to WHO guidelines. An IBM compatible microcomputer with floppy or hard disk, at least 256K of memory, and an MS-DOS 2.0 or later operating system is used. Menstrual data consist of entries labeling vaginal bleeding as absent, bleeding or spotting. There are optional parameters for the drive, path, and printer used by the system; user-defined symbols for bleeding patterns; screen characteristics; file management by date and length of data collection (maximum 380 days); and subject identifying information. A data management section permits data entry. The data analysis section follows the reference period method, allowing for within-subject analysis and between-subject analysis. Diary data entered in MDS can be transferred onto standard ASCII file to be used by other packages. Examples of output are provided.
Nutritional anemia: its understanding and control with special reference to the work of the World Health Organization.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1979 Feb; 32(2):368-417.Since 1949, the World Health Organization, recognizing the public health importance of nutritional anemia, has sponsored efforts directed towards its understanding and control. During this period, often as a result of the work of the Organization, advances have been made in many areas. Basic understanding of iron, folate, and vitamin B12 nutrition, and the various factors which may influence the availability and requirements of these factors, has greatly increased. Surveys in a number of countries have highlighted the widespread prevalence of nutritional anemia, particularly in developing countries. The major factor responsible is a deficiency of iron, with folate deficiency also playing a role in some population groups, especially in pregnant women. There is increasing evidence that anemia adversely affects the health of individuals and may have profound socioeconomic consequences. Control of nutritonal anemia is possible by providing the deficient nutrient(s) either as therapeutic supplements or by fortification of commonly used foodstuffs. Some control programs are reviewed and suggestions for further action are outlined. The Organization still has an important role to play in this field, encouraging the development of control programs and providing advice and technical assistance to member countries. (author's)
MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA. 1979 Oct 20; 2(8):406-7.Drug toxicity testing is required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in bitches of beagle dogs for 7 years and in female rhesus monkeys for 10 years at 25-50 times the human dosage. Progesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megesterol acetate, chlormadinone acetate, chloroethynl norethisterone and chloroethynyl norgestrel are some compounds which have induced tumors in beagle dogs. However, the endocrinology of the beagles is unlike that of a woman and binding affinity of synthetic progestogens to breast cytoplasmic progesterone receptors of the beagle and women have striking differences. Some progestogen compounds which do not produce neoplasia in dogs because of too low a dose are most potent in women. Both the WHO and the Committee on Safety of Medicines concluded that progestogen-induced breast tumors in beagles are unhelpful in predicting possible breast cancer in women who use oral contraceptives.
Contraception. 1979 Jan; 19(1):39-45.The metabolism rate of orally administered norethisterone (Nor) was compared in 14 WHO Collaborating Centres by measuring plasma steroid levels by radioimmunoassay at varying times after a 1-mg oral dose. Peak plasma concentration was reached between 1 and 2 hours after ingestion in all Centres except Singapore and Seoul. After the peak, a marked decrease in serum Nor concentration occurred, but even after 24 hours, significant amounts were still present in serum, with mean values ranging from 275 pg (Stockholm) to 935 pg/ml (Mexico). As expected, a highly significant decrease (p < .001) of serum Nor values occurred with time, the mean correlation coefficient varying from .8 (Los Angeles) to .96 (Stockholm). Ratios of Nor metabolism were compared in different Centres; mean value for Stockholm was significantly higher than that of all other Centres, and that for Canada (.048) was significantly higher than that of Bangkok and other Centres with a value less than .043. Calculated steroid half-lives for the period 8-24 postadministration were within a range from 9.7-18.9, more consistent than values for the 2-8 hour period. In general, inter-Centre differences were of the same order as the intra-Centre ones. Variations in steroid metabolism did not appear to be caused by body size variations.
London, IPPF/Europe, February 17, 1978. (Report No. 5 78/1) 3 p.Batch No. 524-013 of C-Film spermicide was tested for spermicidal activity by the IPPF in February 1973, and it was proven satisfactory in the IPPF Agreed Test for Total Spermicidal Power. The semen requirements, apparatus, and testing procedure are presented in outline form. In addition, the Test for Foaming Capacity is enumerated step-by-step.
In: Diczfalusy, E., ed. Regulation of human fertility. (Proceedings of the WHO Symposium on Advances in Fertility Regulation, Moscow, USSR, November 16-19, 1976) Copenhagan, Denmark, Scriptor, 1977. p. 111-134A 6-month regimen for managing infertile men and/or women ideally forms 4 stages: 1) history and examination of the couple; 2) confirmation of ovulation, compatibility of sperm and mucus, and seminology; 3) tests for tubal patency; and 4) detailed endocrine tests for abnormalities found in Stages 1-3. Medical history should include emotional stress and work pressures, if any. Ovulation confirmation requires 2 tests combined from these 4: 1) basal body temperature; 2) endometrial biopsy; 3) blood progesterone levels; and 4) urinary pregnanediol. These procedures are outlined in detail, and figures chart body temperature variations and expected progesterone and pregnanediol levels. Assessment of cervical mucus and measurement of sperm penetration combine in vitro and in vivo tests. The Sims-Huhner test (postcoital test), though not standardized, is used to analyze sperm-mucus interaction by quantitative scoring of sperm count and motility. Other in vitro tests are the sperm-mucus match test and the fractional postcoital test (both described). Tubal patency is investigated by tubal insufflation with CO2, hysterosalpingography, endoscopy, and laparoscopy. Additional Stage 4 tests include vaginal cytology and assessment of estrogen and progesterone effects.
Cyproterone acetate (CPA) a potential male contraceptive: further studies on the interactions with endocrine parameters.
Berlin, Germany, WHO-CCCR, . 11 p.This unpublished paper is the transcript of a conference proceeding, but the figures referred to textually are not included in the document. This study evaluated the effects of medium dose cyproterone acetate (CPA), 10-30 mg/day, on gonadotropin and peripheral androgen levels. On the average, luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations were about 35% lower during CPA administration; similar observations were made for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). CPA medication resulted in a significant reduction of LH response to LH-releasing hormone (RH); FSH increments following LH-RH stimulation were considerably smaller than those of LH and were hardly distinguishable from spontaneous FSH fluctuations. LH-RH double stimulation resulted in a slow but continuous rise of T without distinct peaks of borderline significance. CPA administration caused a highly significant elevation of serum prolactin in 7/10 males. In summary, medium dose CPA exerted the following effects on the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis during the 1st 12 weeks of administration: 1) suppression of basal LH, FSH, T, and dihydroT; 2) abolition of the spiking phenomenon of androgen secretion; 3) suppression of LH-RH mediated secretion of LH and FSH; and 4) elevation of basal prolactin.
Indian Journal of Medical Research. October 1978; 68(Suppl):80-87.Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were made to assess vitamin nutritional status of women using oral contraceptives (OCs). In the cross-sectional study, data obtained on 20 women, who had used Ovulen 50 for 6-12 months, were compared with data obtained on matched controls who had never used OCs. In the longitudinal study, 23 women were examined initially (before OC use) and again at 1 or more points during the next 6 months of OC use. Changes were found in several parameters of nutrition tested. 1) OC use produced a highly significant rise in plasma vitamin A within 1 month of treatment. 2) Thiamine activity measurements showed a slight fall, but did not affect the TPP effect, suggesting that OCs did not seriously alter thiamine status. 3) Erythrocyte riboflavin concentration showed a fall, revealing a very high incidence (> 80%) of biochemical riboflavin deficiency in women before starting OCs which was further reduced after treatment. 4) There was a marked rise in urinary excretion of xanthuremic and kynurenic acids after a standard tryptophan load, indicating impaired tryptophan metabolism due to pyridoxine deficiency. 5) Erythrocyte folate levels showed a small but significant fall. These observations on Indian women belonging to low income groups show clearly that OC use does affect the vitamin economy of the body adversely. Biochemical evidence presented argues that OCs alter vitamin economy through rise in levels of some proteins which bind vitamins. Vitamin supplements are recommended not only for patient benefit but for program acceptability.