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Public Health Nutrition. 2005 Oct; 8(7A):932-939.This background paper considers the extent to which the development of new recommendations for dietary energy requirements needs to account for the macronutrient (fat, carbohydrate, protein and alcohol) profiles of different diets. The issues are discussed from the dual perspectives of avoiding under-nutrition and obesity. It is shown that, in practice, human metabolic processes can adapt to a wide range of fuel supply by altering fuel selection. It is concluded that, at the metabolic level, only diets with the most extreme macronutrient composition would have any consequences by exceeding the natural ability to modify fuel selection. However, diets of different macronutrient composition and energy density can have profound implications for innate appetite regulation and hence overall energy consumption. (author's)
WOMEN 2000. 1987; (2):1-18.It has become clear that, although many groups and organizations are concerned with the general question of drug abuse, there has been little effort made to consider the problem with special reference to women. This issue draws attention to some of the elements that particularly concern women. The 1st section discusses the proceedings of the UN International Conference On Drug Abuse And Illicit Trafficking. Special attention is paid to the Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Outline of Future Activities in Drug Abuse Control and the Declaration of the International Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking. The next section was prepared by the Division of Narcotic Drugs of the UN. It stresses maternal drug abuse and implications for intervention. The 3rd section discusses the activities of the Un Fund For Drug Abuse Control. The 4th section outlines rehabilitation approaches to drug and alcohol dependence including the ecological approach, survival skills training, assertiveness training, and health promotion. Finally the role of the Food and Agriculture Organizazion of the UN in combating drug abuse is analyzed.