Your search found 785 Results

  1. 1
    392884
    Peer Reviewed

    The impact and cost of ending AIDS in Botswana.

    Williams BG; Gupta S; Wollmers M; Granich R

    Lancet. HIV. 2016 Sep; 3(9):e409.

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  2. 2
    389408
    Peer Reviewed

    An assessment of staffing needs at a HIV clinic in a Western Kenya using the WHO workload indicators of staffing need WISN, 2011.

    Burmen B; Owuor N; Mitei P

    Human Resources For Health. 2017 Jan 26; 15(1):9.

    BACKGROUND: An optimal number of health workers, who are appropriately allocated across different occupations and geographical regions, are required to ensure population coverage of health interventions. Health worker shortages in HIV care provision are highest in areas that are worst hit by the HIV epidemic. Kenya is listed among countries that experience health worker shortages (<2.5 health workers per 1000 population) and have a high HIV burden (HIV prevalence 5.6 with 15.2% in Nyanza province). We set out to determine the optimum number of clinicians required to provide quality consultancy HIV care services at the Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital, JOOTRH, HIV Clinic, the premier HIV clinic in Nyanza province with a cumulative client enrolment of PLHIV of over 20,000 persons. CASE PRESENTATION: The World Health's Organization's Workload Indicators of Staffing Needs (WISN) was used to compute the staffing needs and sufficiency of staffing needs at the JOOTRH HIV clinic in Kisumu, Kenya, between January and December 2011. All people living with HIV (PLHIV) who received HIV care services at the HIV clinic at JOOTRH and all the clinicians attending to them were included in this analysis. The actual staffing was divided by the optimal staff requirement to give ratios of staffing excesses or shortages. A ratio of 1.0 indicated optimal staffing, less than 1.0 indicated suboptimal staffing, and more than 1 indicated supra optimal staffing. The HIV clinic is served by 56 staff of various cadres. Clinicians (doctors and clinical officers) comprise approximately one fifth of this population (n = 12). All clinicians (excluding the clinic manager, who is engaged in administrative duties and supervisory roles that consumes approximately one third of his time) provide full-time consultancy services. To operate at maximum efficiency, the clinic therefore requires 19 clinicians. The clinic therefore operates with only 60% of its staffing requirements. CONCLUSIONS: Our assessment revealed a severe shortage of clinicians providing consultation services at the HIV clinic. Human resources managers should oversee the rational planning, training, retention, and management of human resources for health using the WISN which is an objective and reliable means of estimating staffing needs.
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  3. 3
    377140
    Peer Reviewed

    Projected Uptake of New Antiretroviral (ARV) Medicines in Adults in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Forecast Analysis 2015-2025.

    Gupta A; Juneja S; Vitoria M; Habiyambere V; Nguimfack BD; Doherty M; Low-Beer D

    PloS One. 2016; 11(10):e0164619.

    With anti-retroviral treatment (ART) scale-up set to continue over the next few years it is of key importance that manufacturers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS pandemic are able to anticipate and respond to future changes to treatment regimens, generics pipeline and demand, in order to secure continued access to all ARV medicines required. We did a forecast analysis, using secondary WHO and UNAIDS data sources, to estimate the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and the market share and demand for a range of new and existing ARV drugs in LMICs up to 2025. UNAIDS estimates 24.7 million person-years of ART in 2020 and 28.5 million person-years of ART in 2025 (24.3 million on first-line treatment, 3.5 million on second-line treatment, and 0.6 million on third-line treatment). Our analysis showed that TAF and DTG will be major players in the ART regimen by 2025, with 8 million and 15 million patients using these ARVs respectively. However, as safety and efficacy of dolutegravir (DTG) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) during pregnancy and among TB/HIV co-infected patients using rifampicin is still under debate, and ART scale-up is predicted to increase considerably, there also remains a clear need for continuous supplies of existing ARVs including TDF and EFV, which 16 million and 10 million patients-respectively-are predicted to be using in 2025. It will be important to ensure that the existing capacities of generics manufacturers, which are geared towards ARVs of higher doses (such as TDF 300mg and EFV 600mg), will not be adversely impacted due to the introduction of lower dose ARVs such as TAF 25mg and DTG 50mg. With increased access to viral load testing, more patients would be using protease inhibitors containing regimens in second-line, with 1 million patients on LPV/r and 2.3 million on ATV/r by 2025. However, it will remain important to continue monitoring the evolution of ARV market in LMICs to guarantee the availability of these medicines.
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  4. 4
    376955
    Peer Reviewed

    Prevalence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among Hospitalized Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia.

    Mulu H; Hamza L; Alemseged F

    Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences. 2016 May; 26(3):217-26.

    BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS predisposes to malnutrition. Malnutrition exacerbates HIV/AIDS progression resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. The magnitude of malnutrition in HIV/AIDS patients has not been well studied in Ethiopian setup. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among HIV/AIDS patients admitted to Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of 109 HIV/AIDS patients admitted from November 2013 to July 2014. Cohort design was also used for outcome assessment. Serum levels of hemoglobin, albumin and CD4 counts were determined. Data were organized, coded, cleaned, entered into a computer and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Descriptive analysis was done initially. Those variables in the bivariate analysis with P-value < 0.25 were then considered as candidates to be included in the multivariable logistic regression model. A P-vale of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 32.7+/-8.12 with male to female ratio of 1:1.9. Patients were in either clinical stage, 3(46.8%), or stage, 4(53.2%). Forty nine (45%) of the respondents had a CD4 count of < 200 cells/microL. The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 46.8% (BMI<18.5kg/m2) and 44.1% (MUAC
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  5. 5
    378771

    [Quality of life and its related factors among HIV/AIDS patients from HIV serodiscordant couples in Zhoukou of Henan province].

    Ma LP; Xu P; Sun DY; Li N; Yang WJ; Zhang L; Bai YJ; Ju LH; He HJ; Chen WY; Lyu P

    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]. 2016 Apr; 50(4):339-45.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the quality of life and its related factors among HIV/AIDS patients from HIV serodiscordant couples in Zhoukou city of Henan province. METHODS: During January to May in 2015, by the convenience sample, World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire for Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) (Chinese version) and a self-edited questionnaire were used to investigate 1 251 HIV/AIDS patients who were confirmed with HIV positive by local CDC, registered in"HIV serodiscordant family" and agreed to participate in a face-to-face interview with above 18 year-old based on the local CDC , township hospitals and village clinics of 9 counties and 1 district of Zhoukou city, excluding the HIV/AIDS patients who were in divorce, death by one side, unknowing about his HIV status, with mental illness and disturbance of consciousness, incorrectly understanding the content of the questionnaire, and reluctant to participate in this study. The scores of quality of life of physical, psychological, social relations, and environmental domain were calculated. The related factors of the scores of different domains were analyzed by Multiple Two Classification Unconditioned Logistic Regression. RESULTS: The scores of investigation objects in the physical, psychological, social relations, and environmental domain were 12.00+/- 2.02, 12.07 +/- 2.07, 11.87 +/- 1.99, and 11.09 +/- 1.84, respectively. The multiple Unconditioned Logistic Regression analysis indicated that age <40 years, on ART and no other sickness in last two weeks were beneficial factors associated with physical domain with OR (95%CI): 0.61 (0.35-1.06), 0.52 (0.30-0.90), and 1.66 (1.09-2.52), respectively. The possibility of no poverty and no other sickness in last two weeks increased to 0.15(0.09-0.26) and 1.57(1.06-2.33) times of those who was in poverty and with other sickness in last two weeks in physical domain. The possibility of participants who were below 40 years old and with children increased to 0.58 (0.34-0.98) and 0.37 (0.23-0.57) times of who were above 40 years old and without children in psychological domain. The factors of with AIDS related symptoms, no children and with other sickness in last two week were found to be significantly associated with environmental domain with OR (95%CI): 0.65 (0.48-0.88), 0.66 (0.51-0.85), and 0.65 (0.51-0.84), respectively . CONCLUSION: The scores of every domain of quality of life in HIV serodiscordant couples of Zhoukou city were good. Age, whether having AIDS related symptoms, whether to accept ART , children, status of poverty, and whether suffering from other diseases in last two weeks were the main factors associated with the quality of life.
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  6. 6
    373093
    Peer Reviewed

    UN political declaration on HIV and AIDS: where to begin?

    Poku NK

    Lancet. 2016 Aug 20; 388(10046):743-4.

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  7. 7
    372475

    90-90-90. An ambitious treatment target to help end the AIDS epidemic.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2014 Oct. 40 p.

    In December 2013, the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board called on UNAIDS to support country- and region-led efforts to establish new targets for HIV treatment scale-up beyond 2015. In response, stakeholder consultations on new targets have been held in all regions of the world. At the global level, stakeholders assembled in a variety of thematic consultations focused on civil society, laboratory medicine, paediatric HIV treatment, adolescents and other key issues. The 90-90-90 UNAIDS target seeks to: 1) By 2020, 90% of all people living with HIV will know their HIV status; 2) By 2020, 90% of all people with diagnosed HIV infection will receive sustained antiretroviral therapy; and 3) By 2020, 90% of all people receiving antiretroviral therapy will have viral suppression. Key points: 1) Governments, health experts and civil society must take advantage of the next five-year window to meet the 90-90-90 target to tackle AIDS; 2) Early treatment can reduce infection rates by 90 %; 3) A paradigm shift in HIV/AIDS treatment has seen average drug prices fall from an average of US$15 000 to US$ 80; and 4) Health systems will improve as a result of investment in HIV/AIDS treatment; financing from the international community is indispensable.
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  8. 8
    373021

    Progress Toward Strengthening National Blood Transfusion Services - 14 Countries, 2011-2014.

    Chevalier MS; Kuehnert M; Basavaraju SV; Bjork A; Pitman JP

    MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2016 Feb 12; 65(5):115-9.

    Blood transfusion is a life-saving medical intervention; however, challenges to the recruitment of voluntary, unpaid or otherwise nonremunerated whole blood donors and insufficient funding of national blood services and programs have created obstacles to collecting adequate supplies of safe blood in developing countries (1). Since 2004, the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has provided approximately $437 million in bilateral financial support to strengthen national blood transfusion services in 14 countries in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean* that have high prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. CDC analyzed routinely collected surveillance data on annual blood collections and HIV prevalence among donated blood units for 2011-2014. This report updates previous CDC reports (2,3) on progress made by these 14 PEPFAR-supported countries in blood safety, summarizes challenges facing countries as they strive to meet World Health Organization (WHO) targets, and documents progress toward achieving the WHO target of 100% voluntary, nonremunerated blood donors by 2020 (4). During 2011-2014, overall blood collections among the 14 countries increased by 19%; countries with 100% voluntary, nonremunerated blood donations remained stable at eight, and, despite high national HIV prevalence rates, 12 of 14 countries reported an overall decrease in donated blood units that tested positive for HIV. Achieving safe and adequate national blood supplies remains a public health priority for WHO and countries worldwide. Continued success in improving blood safety and achieving WHO targets for blood quality and adequacy will depend on national government commitments to national blood transfusion services or blood programs through increased public financing and diversified funding mechanisms for transfusion-related activities.
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  9. 9
    340327

    Fast-track update on investments needed in the AIDS response.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2016. [20] p. (UNAIDS/JC2842/E)

    This document gives an update on progress in the Fast-Track Strategy, adopted by the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board in October 2015. This strategy sets HIV service coverage targets that must be achieved by 2020 to build sufficient momentum to overcome one of history's greatest public health threats by 2030. For example: Providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) to an additional 12 million people living with HIV in 2020. This will require reaching key populations with a comprehensive package of HIV services. Increasing investment in HIV programs from an estimated USD$19.2 billion in 2014 to USD$26.2 billion by 2020. After 2020, the vast majority of people living with HIV will have been diagnosed. Because of this and other factors, the resources needed for HIV will then steadily decrease to USD$22.3 billion in 2030. Increasing investment in outreach to key populations in low- and middle-income countries for HIV prevention and linkage to HIV testing and treatment. This investment should grow to about 7.2 percent of total investment by 2020, and the estimated resources needed for community-based delivery of ART percent should grow to about 3.8 percent of total investment. The report also states that international assistance should continue to focus on low-income countries, which are less able to fund their HIV response.
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  10. 10
    368322

    Trends in maternal mortality: 1990 to 2015. Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group and the United Nations Population Division.

    World Bank

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 2015. 100 p.

    In 2000, the United Nations (UN) Member States pledged to work towards a series of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), including the target of a three-quarters reduction in the 1990 maternal mortality ratio (MMR; maternal deaths per 100 000 live births), to be achieved by 2015. This target (MDG 5A) and that of achieving universal access to reproductive health (MDG 5B) together formed the two targets for MDG 5: Improve maternal health. In the five years counting down to the conclusion of the MDGs, a number of initiatives were established to galvanize efforts towards reducing maternal mortality. These included the UN Secretary-General’s Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health, which mobilized efforts towards achieving MDG 4 (Improve child health) as well as MDG 5, and the high-level Commission on Information and Accountability (COIA), which promoted “global reporting, oversight, and accountability on women’s and children’s health”. Now, building on the momentum generated by MDG 5, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) establish a transformative new agenda for maternal health towards ending preventable maternal mortality; target 3.1 of SDG 3 is to reduce the global MMR to less than 70 per 100 000 live births by 2030.
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  11. 11
    340840

    UNAIDS 2016–2021 Strategy: On the fast-track to end AIDS.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, [2015]. [124] p.

    In October 2015, the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board adopted a new strategy to end the HIV epidemic as a public health threat by 2030. The UNAIDS 2016-2021 Strategy is one of the first in the United Nations system to be aligned to the Sustainable Development Goals framework. This framework, which guides global development policy over the next 15 years, includes ending the HIV epidemic by 2030. The strategy, informed by evidence and rights-based approaches, maps out the UNAIDS Fast-Track approach to accelerate the HIV response over the next five years so as to reach critical HIV prevention and treatment targets and achieve zero discrimination. The strategy also endorses achieving 90–90–90 treatment targets, closing the testing gap, and protecting the health of the 22 million people living with HIV who are still not accessing treatment. Additionally, it urges protecting future generations from acquiring HIV by eliminating all new HIV infections among children, and by ensuring that young people can access needed services for HIV and sexual and reproductive health. The strategy emphasizes that empowering young people, particularly young women, is of utmost importance to preventing HIV. This empowerment includes ending gender-based violence and promoting healthy gender norms.
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  12. 12
    386583

    Planning for HIV preexposure prophylaxis introduction: lessons learned from contraception.

    Delany-Moretlwe S; Mullick S; Eakle R; Rees H

    Current Opinion In HIV and AIDS. 2015 Nov 16;

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We summarize key lessons learned from contraceptive development and introduction, and implications for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). RECENT FINDINGS: New approaches to HIV prevention are urgently needed. PrEP is a new technology for HIV prevention. Uncertainty remains about its acceptance, use and potential to have an impact on the HIV epidemic. Despite imperfect use and implementation of programs, the use of modern contraception has led to significant reproductive health and social gains, making it one of the public health's major achievements. Guided by the WHO strategic approach to contraception introduction, we identified the following lessons for PrEP introduction from contraception: the importance of a broader focus on the method mix rather than promotion of a single technology, new technologies alone do not increase choice - service delivery systems and providers are equally important to success, and that failure to account for user preferences and social context can undermine the potential of new methods to provide benefit. SUMMARY: Taking a strategic approach to PrEP introduction that includes a broader focus on the technology/user interface, the method mix, delivery strategies, and the context in which methods are introduced will benefit HIV prevention programs, and will ensure greater success.
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  13. 13
    335970

    The gap report.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2014 Jul. [422] p. (UNAIDS / JC2656)

    How do we close the gap between the people moving forward and the people being left behind? This was the question we set out to answer in the UNAIDS Gap report. Similar to the Global report, the goal of the Gap report is to provide the best possible data, but, in addition, to give information and analysis on the people being left behind. A new report by UNAIDS shows that 19 million of the 35 million people living with HIV globally do not know their HIV-positive status. The UNAIDS Gap report shows that as people find out their HIV-positive status they will seek life-saving treatment. In sub-Saharan Africa, almost 90% of people who tested positive for HIV went on to access antiretroviral therapy (ART). Research shows that in sub-Saharan Africa, 76% of people on ART have achieved viral suppression, whereby they are unlikely to transmit the virus to their sexual partners. New data analysis demonstrates that for every 10% increase in treatment coverage there is a 1% decline in the percentage of new infections among people living with HIV. The report highlights that efforts to increase access to ART are working. In 2013, an additional 2.3 million people gained access to the life-saving medicines. This brings the global number of people accessing ART to nearly 13 million by the end of 2013. Based on past scale-up, UNAIDS projects that as of July 2014 as many as 13 950 296 people were accessing ART. By ending the epidemic by 2030, the world would avert 18 million new HIV infections and 11.2 million AIDS-related deaths between 2013 and 2030.
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  14. 14
    363486
    Peer Reviewed

    Understanding global trends in maternal mortality.

    Zureick-Brown S; Newby H; Chou D; Mizoguchi N; Say L; Suzuki E; Wilmoth J

    International Perspectives On Sexual and Reproductive Health. 2013 Mar; 39(1):32-41.

    CONTEXT: Despite the fact that most maternal deaths are preventable, maternal mortality remains high in many developing countries. Target A of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 calls for a three-quarters reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) between 1990 and 2015. METHODS: We derived estimates of maternal mortality for 172 countries over the period 1990-2008. Trends in maternal mortality were estimated either directly from vital registration data or from a hierarchical or multilevel model, depending on the data available for a particular country. RESULTS: The annual number of maternal deaths worldwide declined by 34% between 1990 and 2008, from approximately 546,000 to 358,000 deaths. The estimated MMR for the world as a whole also declined by 34% over this period, falling from 400 to 260 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Between 1990 and 2008, the majority of the global burden of maternal deaths shifted from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa. Differential trends in fertility, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and access to reproductive health are associated with the shift in the burden of maternal deaths from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Although the estimated annual rate of decline in the global MMR in 1990-2008 (2.3%) fell short of the level needed to meet the MDG 5 target, it was much faster than had been thought previously. Targeted efforts to improve access to quality maternal health care, as well as efforts to decrease unintended pregnancies through family planning, are necessary to further reduce the global burden of maternal mortality.
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  15. 15
    361727
    Peer Reviewed

    Multilateral, regional, and national determinants of policy adoption: the case of HIV/AIDS legislative action.

    Clark BY

    International Journal of Public Health. 2013 Apr; 58(2):285-93.

    OBJECTIVES: This article examines the global legislative response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic with a particular focus on how policies were diffused internationally or regionally, or facilitated internally. METHODS: This article uses event history analysis combined with multinomial logit regression to model the legislative response of 133 countries. RESULTS: First, the results demonstrate that the WHO positively influenced the likelihood of a legislative response. Second, the article demonstrates that development bank aid helped to spur earlier legislative action. Third, the results demonstrate that developed countries acted earlier than developing countries. And finally, the onset and severity of the HIV/AIDS epidemic was a significant influence on the legislative response. CONCLUSION: Multilateral organizations have a positive influence in global policy diffusion through informational advocacy, technical assistance, and financial aid. It is also clear that internal stressors play key roles in legislative action seen clearly through earlier action being taken in countries where the shock of the onset of HIV/AIDS occurred earlier and earlier responses taken where the epidemic was more severe.
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  16. 16
    361231
    Peer Reviewed

    Criminal prosecution of a male partner for sexual transmission of infectious diseases: the views of educated people living in Togo.

    Kpanake L; Patassi A; Mullet E

    Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2013 Jun; 89(4):290-4.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the views of educated people in Togo on the acceptability of criminal prosecution of a male partner for sexual transmission of infectious diseases (STIDs) to his female partner. METHODS: 199 adults living in Kara, Togo judged acceptability of criminal prosecution for STID in 45 scenarios composed of combinations of five factors: (a) severity of disease; (b) awareness and communication of one's serological status; (c) partners' marital status; (d) number of sexual partners the female partner has and (e) male partner's subsequent attitude (supportive or not). RESULTS: Acceptability was lower (a) when the male partner decided to take care of his female partner he had infected than when he decided to leave, (b) when both partners were informed but decided not to take precautions than when none of them was informed or when only the male partner was informed and (c) when the female partner has had several male sexual partners than when she has had only one. Two qualitatively different views were identified. For 66% of participants, when the male partner accepts to take care of his partner, he should not be sued, except when he did not disclose his serological status. For 34%, when both partners were informed, the male partner should not be sued, irrespective of other circumstances. CONCLUSIONS: Regarding criminal prosecution for STID, most people in the sample endorsed the position of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS that urges governments not to apply criminal law to cases where sexual partners disclosed their status or were not informed of it.
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  17. 17
    360516
    Peer Reviewed

    Scale-up of TB and HIV programme collaborative activities in Zambia - a 10-year review.

    Kapata N; Chanda-Kapata P; Grobusch MP; O'Grady J; Schwank S; Bates M; Jansenn S; Mwinga A; Cobelens F; Mwaba P; Zumla A

    Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2012 Jun; 17(6):760-6.

    OBJECTIVE: To review the activities, progress, achievements and challenges of the Zambia Ministry of Health tuberculosis (TB)/HIV collaborative activities over the past decade. METHODS: Analysis of Zambia Ministry of Health National TB and HIV programme documents and external independent programme review reports pertaining to 2000-2010. RESULTS: The number of people testing for HIV increased from 37 557 persons in 2003 to 1 327 995 persons in 2010 nationally. Those receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART) increased from 143 in 2003 to 344 304 in 2010. The national HIV prevalence estimates declined from 14.3% in 2001 to 13.5% in 2009. The proportion of TB patients being tested for HIV increased from 22.6% in 2006 to 84% in 2010 and approximately 70% were HIV positive. The proportion of the HIV-infected TB patients who: (i) started on ART increased from 38% in 2006 to 50% in 2010; (ii) commenced co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) increased from 31% in 2006 to 70% in 2010; and (iii) were successfully treated increased to an average of 80% resulting in decline of deaths from 13% in 2006 to 9% in 2010. CONCLUSIONS: The scale-up of TB/HIV collaborative programme activities in Zambia has steadily increased over the past decade resulting in increased testing for TB and HIV, and anti-retroviral (ARV) rollout with improved treatment outcomes among TB patients co-infected with HIV. Getting service delivery points to adhere to WHO guidelines for collaborative TB/HIV activities remains problematic, especially those meant to reduce the burden of TB in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). (c) 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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  18. 18
    356686
    Peer Reviewed

    Discrimination, stigma, and AIDS: a review of academic literature produced in Brazil (2005-2010).

    Monteiro S; Villela WV; Knauth D

    Cadernos De Saude Publica. 2012 Jan; 28(1):170-6.

    Given the implications of stigma for HIV/AIDS prevention and control of the epidemic, as emphasized by UNAIDS, this study analyzes the Brazilian academic production on health, AIDS, stigma, and discrimination, available in the SciELO database from 2005 to 2010. Brazilian research on the theme is modest as compared to the international literature, but the studies follow the same trend of focusing on individual experiences of discrimination as opposed to analysis of stigma and discrimination as social processes associated with power relations and domination (macro-social structures) and the characteristics of individuals and social groups that shape social interactions. The current study seeks to analyze the reasons for the scarcity of studies on the social perspective towards stigma and discrimination in the field of public health and the implications for the development of proposals to deal with HIV/AIDS-related discrimination.
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  19. 19
    334133
    Peer Reviewed

    Child mortality estimation: Methods used to adjust for bias due to AIDS in estimating trends in under-five mortality.

    Walker N; Hill K; Zhao F

    PLOS Medicine. 2012 Aug; 9(8):e1001298.

    In most low- and middle-income countries, child mortality is estimated from data provided by mothers concerning the survival of their children using methods that assume no correlation between the mortality risks of the mothers and those of their children. This assumption is not valid for populations with generalized HIV epidemics, however, and in this review, we show how the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME) uses a cohort component projection model to correct for AIDS-related biases in the data used to estimate trends in under-five mortality. In this model, births in a given year are identified as occurring to HIV-positive or HIV-negative mothers, the lives of the infants and mothers are projected forward using survivorship probabilities to estimate survivors at the time of a given survey, and the extent to which excess mortality of children goes unreported because of the deaths of HIV-infected mothers prior to the survey is calculated. Estimates from the survey for past periods can then be adjusted for the estimated bias. The extent of the AIDS-related bias depends crucially on the dynamics of the HIV epidemic, on the length of time before the survey that the estimates are made for, and on the underlying non-AIDS child mortality. This simple methodology (which does not take into account the use of effective antiretroviral interventions) gives results qualitatively similar to those of other studies.
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  20. 20
    353472

    Practical guidelines for supporting EDUCAIDS implementation.

    Greenall M

    Paris, France, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], 2012. 158 p.

    The education sector has a significant role to play in the response to HIV and AIDS. The sector can help to prevent the spread of HIV through education, and, in countries that are highly affected by HIV, by taking steps to protect itself from the effects of the epidemic. It can also make a significant contribution by supporting health improvement more generally and by helping to improve the sexual and reproductive health of young people in particular.This framework is designed to help those working in the education sector at a national level to understand the need for a robust response to HIV and AIDS in order to achieve Education for All (EFA) and the education-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The document also highlights the education sector’s role in contributing to universal access to HIV and AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support.
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  21. 21
    351761
    Peer Reviewed

    Care and the 53rd Commission on the Status of Women: a transformative policy space?

    Bedford K

    Reproductive Health Matters. 2011 Nov; 19(38):197-207.

    In March 2009, UN member states met at the 53rd Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) to discuss the priority theme of "the equal sharing of responsibilities between women and men, including caregiving in the context of HIV/AIDS". This meeting focused the international community's attention on care issues and generated Agreed Conclusions that aimed to lay out a roadmap for care policy. I examine how the frame of "care" - a contested concept that has long divided feminist researchers and activists - operated in this site. Research involved a review of documentation related to the meeting and interviews with 18 participants. Using this research I argue that the frame of care united a range of groups, including conservative faith-based actors who have mobilized within the UN to roll back sexual and reproductive rights. This policy alliance led to important advances in the Agreed Conclusions, including strong arguments about the global significance of care, especially in relation to HIV; the need for a strong state role; and the value of caregivers' participation in policy debates. However, the care frame also constrained debate at the CSW, particularly about disability rights and variations in family formation. Those seeking to reassert sexual and reproductive rights are grappling with such limitations in a range of ways, and attention to their efforts and concerns can help us better understand the potentials and dangers for feminist intervention within global policy spaces. Copyright (c) 2010 UNRISD. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  22. 22
    352117

    Essential medicines for reproductive health: developing evidence based interagency list.

    Logez S; Jayasekar S; Moller H; Ahmed K; Patel MU

    Southern Med Review. 2011 Dec; 4(2):15-21.

    Objectives: Although poor reproductive health constitutes a significant proportion of the disease burden in developing countries, essential medicines for reproductive health are often not available to the population. The objective was to analyze the guiding principles for developing national Essential Medicines Lists (EML). The second objective was to compare the reproductive health medicines included on these EMLs to the 2002 WHO/UNFPA list of essential drugs and commodities for reproductive health. Another objective was to compare the medicines included in existing international lists of medicines for reproductive health. Methods: The authors calculated the average number of medicines per clinical groups included in 112 national EMLs and compared these average numbers with the number of medicines per clinical group included on the WHO/UNFPA List. Additionally, they compared the content of the lists of medicines for reproductive health developed by various international agencies. Results: In 2003, the review of the 112 EMLs highlighted that medicines for reproductive health were not consistently included. The review of the international lists identified inconsistencies in their recommendations. The reviews' outcomes became the catalyst for collaboration among international agencies in the development of the first harmonized Interagency List of Essential Medicines for Reproductive Health. Additionally, WHO, UNFPA and PATH published guidelines to support the inclusion of essential medicines for reproductive health in national medicine policies and EMLs. The Interagency List became a key advocacy tool for countries to review their EMLs. In 2009, a UNFPA/WHO assessment on access to reproductive health medicines in six countries demonstrated that the major challenge was that the Interagency List had not been updated recently and was inconsistently used. Conclusion: The addition of cost-effective medicines for reproductive health to EMLs can result in enhanced equity in access to and cost containment of these medicines, and improve quality of care. Action is required to ensure their inclusion in national budget lines, supply chains, policies and programmatic guidance.
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  23. 23
    333454

    UNAIDS terminology guidelines. Revised version.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011 Oct. [40] p.

    These guidelines to UNAIDS’ preferred terminology have been developed for use by staff members, colleagues in the Programme’s 10 Cosponsoring organisations, and other partners working in the global response to HIV. Language shapes beliefs and may influence behaviours. Considered use of appropriate language has the power to strengthen the global response to the epidemic. UNAIDS is pleased to make these guidelines to preferred terminology freely available. It is a living, evolving document that is reviewed on a regular basis. Comments and suggestions for additions, deletions, or modifications should be sent to terminology@unaids.org.
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  24. 24
    333446

    Ten targets: 2011 United Nations General Assembly Political Declaration on HIV / AIDS: Targets and elimination commitments.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011. [3] p.

    Ten targets in the campaign to achieve universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support by 2015 are listed. Targets include: Reduce sexual transmission of HIV by 50% by 2015; Reduce transmission of HIV among people who inject drugs by 50% by 2015; Eliminate new HIV infections among children by 2015 and substantially reduce AIDS-related maternal deaths; Reach 15 million people living with HIV with lifesaving antiretroviral treatment by 2015; Reduce tuberculosis deaths in people living with HIV by 50 percent by 2015; Close the global AIDS resource gap by 2015 and reach annual global investment of US$22-24 billion in low- and middle-income countries; Eliminate gender inequalities and gender-based abuse and violence and increase the capacity of women and girls to protect themselves from HIV; Eliminate stigma and discrimination against people living with and affected by HIV through promotion of laws and policies that ensure the full realization of all human rights and fundamental freedoms; Eliminate HIV-related restrictions on entry, stay and residence; Eliminate parallel systems for HIV-related services to strengthen integration of the AIDS response in global health and development efforts.
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  25. 25
    333445

    World AIDS Day report, 2011.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011. [52] p.

    A new report by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS (UNAIDS), released on 21 November, shows that 2011 was a game changing year for the AIDS response with unprecedented progress in science, political leadership and results. The report also shows that new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths have fallen to the lowest levels since the peak of the epidemic.
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