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The state of food security and nutrition in the world 2017: building resilience for peace and food security.
Rome, Italy, FAO, 2017. 133 p.This report has been jointly published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The 2017 edition marks the beginning of a new era in monitoring efforts to achieve a world without hunger and malnutrition within the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The report will henceforth monitor progress towards the targets on both ending hunger (SDG Target 2.1) and ending all forms of malnutrition (SDG Target 2.2). It will also include analyses of how food security and nutrition are related to progress on other SDG targets.
Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO], 2016. 57 p.This compendium has been designed to support officers responsible for designing nutrition-sensitive food and agriculture investments, in selecting appropriate indicators to monitor if these investments are having an impact on nutrition (positive or negative) and if so, through which pathways. It provides an overview of indicators that can be relevant as part of a nutrition-sensitive approach, together with guidance to inform the selection of indicators. The purpose of this compendium is to provide a current compilation of indicators that may be measured for identified outcomes of nutrition-sensitive investments. This compendium does not provide detailed guidance on how to collect a given indicator but points to relevant guidance materials. This compendium does not represent official FAO recommendations for specific indicators or methodologies. It is intended only to provide information on the indicators, methodologies and constructs that may be relevant to consider in the monitoring and evaluation of nutrition-sensitive agriculture investments. It is not envisaged that a single project should collect data on all the indicators presented here. The selection will be informed by the type of intervention implemented, the anticipated intermediary outcomes and nutritional outcomes, as well as the feasibility of data collection in view of available resources and other constraints. The advice of M&E experts and subject matter specialists, should be sought in making the final choice of indicators and in planning the data collection and analysis, including sampling and design of questionnaires. This compendium deals with programmes, projects and investments. While some indicators may be relevant for routine monitoring at national scale, this document does not cover every indicator that would be needed to monitor nutrition sensitivity of policies. (Excerpt)
Maternal and Child Nutrition. 2013; 9 Suppl 2:27-45.An estimated 165 million children are stunted due to the combined effects of poor nutrition, repeated infection and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The complementary feeding period, generally corresponding to age 6-24 months, represents an important period of sensitivity to stunting with lifelong, possibly irrevocable consequences. Interventions to improve complementary feeding practices or the nutritional quality of complementary foods must take into consideration the contextual as well as proximal determinants of stunting. This review presents a conceptual framework that highlights the role of complementary feeding within the layers of contextual and causal factors that lead to stunted growth and development and the resulting short- and long-term consequences. Contextual factors are organized into the following groups: political economy; health and health care systems; education; society and culture; agriculture and food systems; and water, sanitation and environment. We argue that these community and societal conditions underlie infant and young child feeding practices, which are a central pillar to healthy growth and development, and can serve to either impede or enable progress. Effectiveness studies with a strong process evaluation component are needed to identify transdisciplinary solutions. Programme and policy interventions aimed at preventing stunting should be informed by careful assessment of these factors at all levels.
Rome, Italy, FAO, 2013.  p.Malnutrition in all its forms imposes unacceptably high costs on society in human and economic terms. Addressing malnutrition requires a multisectoral approach that includes complementary interventions in food systems, public health and education. Within a multisectoral approach, food systems offer many opportunities for interventions leading to improved diets and better nutrition. Agricultural production and productivity growth remain essential for better nutrition, but more can be done. Both traditional and modern supply chains offer risks and opportunities for achieving better nutrition and more sustainable food systems. Consumers ultimately determine what they eat and therefore what the food system produces. Better governance of food systems at all levels, facilitated by high-level political support, is needed to build a common vision, to support evidence-based policies, and to promote effective coordination and collaboration through integrated, multisectoral action. (Excerpts)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2013 Jan.  p.This report provides operational guidance to maximize the impact of investments on nutrition outcomes for women and young children. The recommendations in this document build on evidence to date on issues of malnutrition, with the aim of providing concrete guidance on how to mainstream nutrition into agriculture, social protection, and health. The document is composed of five modules, including an introduction, an economic analysis of the relationship between poverty, economic growth and nutrition, and one module for each of the aforementioned focus sectors.
Ensuring the complementarity of country ownership and accountability for results in relation to donor aid: a response.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2011 Nov; 19(38):141-5.This paper focuses on the topic of improving the impact of sexual and reproductive health development assistance from European donors. It touches on country ownership and accountability and uses International Health Partnership+ (IHP+) as an example. In addition, it discusses the need for better funding data and more activity around sexual and reproductive health and rights. It concludes with recommendations for improving aid impact and effectiveness and improving outcome measures.
The state of food and agriculture, 2010-11. Women in agriculture: Closing the gender gap for development.
Rome, Italy, FAO, 2011.  p.This edition of The State of Food and Agriculture addresses Women in agriculture: closing the gender gap for development. The agriculture sector is underperforming in many developing countries, and one of the key reasons is that women do not have equal access to the resources and opportunities they need to be more productive. This report clearly confirms that the Millennium Development Goals on gender equality (MDG 3) and poverty and food security (MDG 1) are mutually reinforcing. We must promote gender equality and empower women in agriculture to win, sustainably, the fight against hunger and extreme poverty. I firmly believe that achieving MDG 3 can help us achieve MDG 1. (Excerpt)
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2008. 2 p.There is now widespread agreement that the earth is warming, due to emissions of greenhouse gases caused by human activity. It is also clear that current trends in energy use development and population growth will lead to continuing - and more severe - climate change. The changing climate will inevitably affect the basic requirements for maintaining health: clean air and water, sufficient food and adequate shelter. Each year, about 800 000 people die from causes attributable to urban air pollution, 1.8 million from diarrhoea resulting from lack of access to clean water supply, sanitation, and poor hygiene, 3.5 million from malnutrition and approximately 60 000 in natural disasters. A warmer and more variable climate threatens to lead to higher levels of some air pollutants, increase transmission of diseases through unclean water and through contaminated food, to compromise agricultural production in some of the least developed countries, and increase the hazards of extreme weather. Climate change also brings new challenges to the control of infectious diseases. Many of the major killers are highly climate sensitive as regards to temperature and rainfall, including cholera, and the diarrhoeal diseases, as well as diseases including malaria, dengue and other infections carried by vectors. In sum, climate change threatens to slow, halt or reverse the progress that the global public health community is now making against many of these diseases. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2008 Mar.  p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/275)The wall chart on Rural Population, Development and the Environment 2007 displays information on various aspects of population, environment and development, including changes in rural populations and their relationship with development and the environment. The wall chart include information for 228 countries or areas as well as data at the regional and sub-regional levels. (author's)
Development and Change. 2007 Sep; 38(5):865-888.A number of programmes and policies in Laos are promoting the internal resettlement of mostly indigenous ethnic minorities from remote highlands to lowland areas and along roads. Various justifications are given for this internal resettlement: eradication of opium cultivation, security concerns, access and service delivery, cultural integration and nation building, and the reduction of swidden agriculture. There is compelling evidence that it is having a devastating impact on local livelihoods and cultures, and that international aid agencies are playing important but varied and sometimes conflicting roles with regard to internal resettlement in Laos. While some international aid agencies claim that they are willing to support internal resettlement if it is 'voluntary', it is not easy to separate voluntary from involuntary resettlement in the Lao context. Both state and non-state players often find it convenient to discursively frame non-villager initiated resettlement as 'voluntary'. (author's)
Structural adjustment in sub-Saharan Africa. Report on a series of five senior policy seminars held in Africa, 1987-88.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1989.  p. (EDI Policy Seminar Report No. 18)In June 1986, the National Economic Management Division of the World Bank's Economic Development Institute (EDI) designed a series of senior policy seminars on structural adjustment for Sub-Saharan Africa. The exercise led to three seminars in 1987: Lusaka I, Lusaka 11, and Abidjan I, and, after redesign, two more in 1988: Victoria Falls and Abidjan 11. Seminar participants were invited in teams typically composed of ministers, governors, permanent secretaries, senior advisors, and a significant number of senior technical staff of central banks, the core ministries of finance and planning, and spending ministries such as agriculture and industry. Twenty seven countries participated in the seminars. Of these, six participated in two separate seminars (see annex A). This report is a synthesized record of the five seminars and is likely to be of interest to all those interested in the reform process in Sub-Saharan Africa, namely, the seminar participants, other similarly placed policymakers, advisors to these policymakers, executives of the public and private sectors, staff of academic institutions, and the staff of international organizations such as the World Bank (the Bank) and the International Monetary Fund (the Fund) involved in studying the political economy of structural adjustment. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1984 Mar; 21: p..Africa, the Assembly pointed out, contains three quarters of the countries designated as "least developed" and 50 per cent of the world's land-locked nations. There vulnerable States suffer particularly from the effects of the crises, which touch all sectors of the economy--especially food production and agriculture, the backbone of these primarily rural societies. Drought has swept through the savannas, deserts and coastlines of all parts of Africa. Food shortages are rampant throughout at least half of all African countries, affecting millions of Africans. Hundreds of thousands of cattle have died from lack of feed and epidemics of cattle plague. Rivers and streams have vanished and wells have dried up. At least 150 million persons are faced with starvation in the 24 most seriously affected countries: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Lesotho, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Somalia, Swaziland, Togo, United Republic of Tanzania, Upper Volta, Zambia and Zimbabwe. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1985 Sep; 22: p..More than a million people throughout Africa would have perished had it not been for the massive international relief effort launched in December 1984, the Office for Emergency Operations in Africa (OEOA) reported in September. The "partnership between the drought-stricken countries and the international community' helped stave off what would have been an "unprecedented peace-time disaster', the Office stated in its monthly report on the African crisis. In spite of relief efforts and increased rain throughout drought-stricken areas of Africa, the situation in some countries is still critical, the OEOA warned. "One good rainy season can hardly be expected to undo the damage of several years of drought', the report stated. Lesotho was cited as an example of how the mere return of the rains did not necessarily signify the end of the crisis. Earlier forecasts for that country's harvest were about 15 per cent higher than was likely to be the case. (excerpt)
From silent spring to vocal vanguard - women's role in the global environmental movement - includes related articles.
UN Chronicle. 1997 Fall; 34(3): p..Since 1962, when American author Rachel Carson alerted the world to the dangers of pesticide poisoning in her ground-breaking book "Silent Spring", women have played a vital role in the global environmental movement. In 1988, the World Commission on Environment and Development, headed by Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland, published its report, "Our Common Future", linking the environmental crisis to unsustainable development and financial practices that were worsening the North-South gap, with women making up a majority of the world's poor and illiterate. The United Nations Development Programme has defined sustainable development as development that not only generates economic growth, but distributes its benefits equitably, that regenerates the environment rather than destroying it, and that empowers people rather than marginalizing them. It is development that gives priority to the poor, enlarging their choices and opportunities and providing for their participation in decisions that affect their lives. (excerpt)
World of Work. 2003 Dec; (49):22-24.In two-and-a-half years, an innovative ILO project has helped create well over 2,000 jobs, and pull more than 200 indebted families out of debt trap. This year ILO INDISCO project aims at creating decent employment for tribal peoples in the remote forests of Maryurbhanj in Orissa, India, and is well on its way to becoming a replicable model. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 175-188.This analysis looks at the United Nations Population Fund's (UNFPA's) work in the area of population-environment-development linkages. It then analyses the collective effects of 6 billion people, their consumption patterns, and resource use trends, in six different critical resource areas. (excerpt)
Agrobiodiversity strategies to combat food insecurity and HIV / AIDS impact in rural Africa. Advancing grassroots responses for nutrition, health and sustainable livelihoods. Preliminary edition.
Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO], 2003.  p.This strategy paper has been developed in the framework of the FAO Population and Development Service (SDWP), under the support and lead of Marcela Villarreal (SDWP Chief). The paper aims at stimulating grassroots action for household food, nutrition and livelihood security in rural Africa, placing special emphasis on the evolving needs owing to the HIV/AIDS crisis. For the elaboration of the proposed strategies, the author carried out a specific FAO field mission to Uganda and Tanzania, as well as supplementary fieldwork in Ethiopia and Mali, in September-December 2001. (author's)
RNIS. Report on the Nutrition Situation of Refugees and Displaced Populations. 2003 Jan; (40):37.The situation of IDPs in northern Uganda is still very precarious (category II). (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1991. lxii, 272 p.In 1988, the World Meteorological Organization and the UN Environment Program established the Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change (IPCC) to consider scientific data on various factors of the climate change issue, e.g., emissions of major greenhouse gases, and to draw up realistic response strategies to manage this issue. Its members have agreed that emissions from human activities are indeed increasing sizably the levels of carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere. The major conclusions are that effective responses need a global effort and both developed and developing countries must take responsibility to implement these responses. Industrialized countries must modify their economies to limit emissions because most emissions into the atmosphere come from these countries. They should cooperate with and also provide financial and technical assistance to developing countries to raise their living standards while preventing and managing environmental problems. Concurrently, developing countries must adopt measures to also limit emissions as their economies expand. Environmental protection must be the base for continuing economic development. There must be an education campaign to inform the public about the issue and the needed changes. Strategies and measures to confront rapid population growth must be included in a flexible and progressive approach to sustainable development. Specific short-term actions include improved energy efficiency, cleaner energy sources and technologies, phasing out CFCs, improved forest management and expansion of forests, improved livestock waste management, modified use and formulation of fertilizers, and changes in agricultural land use. Longer term efforts are accelerated and coordinated research programs, development of new technologies, behavioral and structural changes (e.g., transportation), and expansion of global ocean observing and monitoring systems.
Global biodiversity strategy. Guidelines for action to save, study, and use Earth's biotic wealth sustainably and equitably.
Washington, D.C., WRI, 1992. vi, 244 p.Humanity depends on all other forms of life on Earth and its nonliving components including the atmosphere, ocean, bodies of freshwater, rocks, and soils. If humanity is to persist and to develop so that everyone enjoys the most basic of human rights, it must protect the structure, functions, and diversity of the world's natural systems. The World Resources Institute, the World Conservation Union, and the UN Environment Programme have joined together to prepare this strategy for global biodiversity. The first 2 chapters cover the nature and value of biodiversity and losses of biodiversity and their causes. The 3rd chapter presents the strategy for biodiversity conservation which includes the goal of such conservation and its contents and catalysts and 5 actions needed to establish biodiversity conservation. Establishment of a national policy framework for biodiversity conservation is the topic of the 4th chapter. It discusses 3 objectives with various actions to accomplish each objective. Integration of biodiversity conservation into international economic policy is 1 of the 3 objectives of the 5th chapter--creating an international policy environment that supports national biodiversity conservation. Correct imbalances in the control of land and resources is a clear objective in creating conditions and incentives for local biodiversity conservation--the topic of the 6th chapter. The next 3 chapters are devoted to managing biodiversity throughout the human environment; strengthening protected areas; and conserving species, populations, and genetic diversity. The last chapter provides specific actions to improve human capacity to conserve biodiversity including promotion of basic and applied research and assist institutions to disseminate biodiversity information.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1992. xxxii, 282 p.The WHO Commission on Health and Environment has put together a comprehensive report on the interaction between the state of the environment and human health. There is a need to understand and manage this interaction to bring about a sustainable development which meets people's needs while preserving natural systems. Yet, humankind faces various obstacles to sustainable development, including population growth, migration, urbanization, poverty, resource degradation, and macroeconomic policies. Humans can sustain output of agriculture, forestry, and fishing, if they do not exploit ecological systems. Humans need to at least consider food production, diet, health, land tenure, food contamination, agricultural chemicals, and occupational hazards. They must also effectively and efficiently manage freshwater supplies using means which do not adversely upset natural systems. Humans should move away from using fossil fuels as an energy supply since they are the single largest source of air pollution. They should identify and develop energy supplies which reduce the adverse environment and health effects, e.g., solar, wind, and hydroelectric power. Industrial practices in both developed and developing countries spew air and water pollutants into the environment, generate hazardous wastes, and expose workers to harmful agents. Urbanization poses a special challenge to environmental health, especially where there is little or no infrastructure and services which worsens pollution and environmental health problems. Many environmental and health problems cross boundaries. These include long range transport of air pollution, acid rain, damage of the ozone layer, build up of greenhouse gases, hazardous wastes exported from developed to developing countries, ocean pollution, and loss of biodiversity. Two axioms to a healthier and sustainable world are more equitable access to resources and citizen participation.
Rome, Italy, FAO, 1990 Aug. ii, 84 p. (CL 98/2)In a world review encompassing the world economic environment, recent trends in food and agricultural production, agricultural trade, food availability and nutrition, external assistance to agriculture and food aid, fisheries, and forestry are treated. The regional review deals with developing country regions of Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Near East, Eastern Europe and the USSR, and developed market economies. Agricultural output was faltering in the 2nd part of the 1980s, especially in North America where it declined by an annual average of .7% during 1986-89, but also in Oceania. It stagnated in western Europe, and increased slightly in eastern Europe and the USSR. In Asia growth was sustained, in Latin America and the Caribbean production lagged behind population increase, in the Near East the market did not progress, and in Africa production fell behind the levels of the early 1980s. During 1986-89 global cereal production increased marginally because of 1/2 of the growth of 1981-85 in developing countries. It increased 3% annually in eastern Europe and the USSR. In the Far East cereal output was promising despite an earlier slump of paddy output. Per caput cereal production did not increase in any other developing regions compared with the levels of 1981-85. In 49 of 72 developing countries food production fell behind population growth compared with 1985-89. There was a pronounced decrease in 80% of African countries, in 65% in the Near East, Asia, and the Pacific, while in Latin America and the Caribbean per caput production stayed the same. Food production surpassed population growth in countries experienced a decline of per caput production. In 1990 the prospects are promising for another bountiful cereal harvest to meet projected consumption provided bad weather does not intervene.
The state of food and agriculture 1990. Ninety-eighth session, Rome, 19-30 November 1990. Supplement 1.
Rome, Italy, FAO, 1990 Oct. 24 p. (CL 98/2-Sup.1)World agricultural production estimates for 1990 indicate an increase of around 2.4% (2.6% for food), significantly above the depressed average growth rates of 1986-88. Similar to 1989 the global increase in food and agricultural production in 1990 is expected mainly in North America and Eastern Europe and the USSR. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the overall shortfall occurred because of severely reduced crops in Brazil and in some Andean and Caribbean countries. In Africa, especially poor food output is expected in Liberia, Zambia, Morocco, Botswana, and Senegal. In Sudan food output is projected to rise significantly from the depressed 1989 production, but the heavy production setbacks of earlier years would not be offset. Similarly, in Ethiopia domestic food supply prospects are worrisome. Food production is expected to surpass population growth in India, but per capita output may significantly fall in Nepal, Bangladesh, Thailand, and the Republic of Korea. On the other hand, production is forecast to be well above population growth in Myanmar, Laos, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Viet Nam, Pakistan. In China prospects for 1990 range from bountiful crops for oilcrops and sugar, but slow growth in livestock production. World cereal output is currently forecast at a record level of 1941 million tons in 1990, approximately 66 million more than in 1989. Wheat production is expected to increase 27% in North America and reach record levels in the USSR. Wheat crops are likely to be significantly larger than in 1989 in China, Pakistan, Egypt, and Argentina; close to the 1989 peak in India; definitely improved from the drought-reduced 1989 harvest in Turkey; but modest in Mexico and Brazil. World production of coarse grain is projected to increase by 1.5% to 12.7 million tons, mainly in North America, the USSR, and Turkey. World rice (paddy) production in 1990 would exceed the high level of 1989 at over 515 million tons.
In: The global possible: resources, development, and the new century, edited by Robert Repetto. New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press, 1985. 491-519. (World Resources Institute Book)Participants at the Global Possible Conference in 1984 concluded that, despite the dismal predictions about the earth, we can still fashion a more secure, prosperous, and sustainable world environmentally and economically. The tools to bring about such a world already exist. The international community and nations must implement new policies, however. Government, science, business, and concerned groups must reach new levels of cooperation. Developed and developing countries must form new partnerships to implement sustained improvements in living standards of the world's poor. Peaceful cooperation is needed to eliminate the threat of nuclear war--the greatest threat to life and the environment. Conference working groups prepared an agenda for action which, even though it is organized along sectoral disciplines, illustrates the complex linkages that unite issues in 1 area with those in several others. For example, problems existing in forests tie in with biological diversity, energy and fuelwood, and management of agricultural lands and watersheds. The agenda emphasizes policies and initiatives that synergistically influence serious problems in several sectors. It also tries to not present solutions that generate as many problems as it tries to solve. The 1st section of the agenda covers population, poverty, and development issues. it provides recommendations for developing and developed countries. It discusses urbanization and issues facing cities. The 3rd section embodies freshwater issues and has 1 list of recommendations for all sectors. The agenda addresses biological diversity, tropical forests, agricultural land, living marine resources, energy, and nonfuel minerals in their own separate sections. It discusses international assistance and the environment in 1 section. Another section highlights the need to assess conditions, trends, and capabilities. The last section comprises business, science, an citizens.
The state of the world's women 1985: World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women, Equality, Development and Peace, Nairobi, Kenya, July 15-26, 1985.
[Unpublished] 1985. 19 p.This report, based on results of a questionnaire completed by 121 national governments as well as independent research by UN agencies, assesses the status of the world's women at the end of the UN Decade for Women in the areas of the family, agriculture, industrialization, health, education, and politics. Women are estimated to perform 2/3 of the world's work, receive 1/10 of its income and own less than 1/100 of its property. The findings revealed that women do almost all the world's domestic work, which combined with their additional work outside the home means that most women work a double day. Women grow about 1/2 the world's food but own very little land, have difficulty obtaining credit, and are overlooked by agricultural advisors and projects. Women constitute 1/3 of the world's official labor force but are concentrated in the lowest paid occupations and are more vulnerable to unemployment than men. Although there are signs that the wage gap is closing slightly, women still earn less than 3/4 of the wage of men doing similar work. Women provide more health care than do health services, and have been major beneficiaries of the global shift in priorities to primary health care. The average number of children desired by the world's women has dropped from 6 to 4 in 1 generation. Although a school enrollment boom is closing the gap between the sexes, women illiterates outnumber men by 3 to 2. 90% of countries now have organizations promoting the advancement of women, but women are still greatly underrepresented in national decision making because of their poorer educations, lack of confidence, and greater workload. The results repeatedly point to the major underlying cause of women's inequality: their domestic role of wife and mother, which consumes about 1/2 of their time and energy, is unpaid, and is undervalued. The emerging picture of the importance and magnitude of the roles women play in society has been reflected in growing concern for women among governments and the community at large, and is responsible for the positive achievements of the decade in better health care and more employment and educational opportunities. Equality for women will require that they have equal rights, responsibilities, and opportunities in every area of life.