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The state of food and agriculture, 2010-11. Women in agriculture: Closing the gender gap for development.
Rome, Italy, FAO, 2011.  p.This edition of The State of Food and Agriculture addresses Women in agriculture: closing the gender gap for development. The agriculture sector is underperforming in many developing countries, and one of the key reasons is that women do not have equal access to the resources and opportunities they need to be more productive. This report clearly confirms that the Millennium Development Goals on gender equality (MDG 3) and poverty and food security (MDG 1) are mutually reinforcing. We must promote gender equality and empower women in agriculture to win, sustainably, the fight against hunger and extreme poverty. I firmly believe that achieving MDG 3 can help us achieve MDG 1. (Excerpt)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2007 Feb. 111 p. (Human Rights Watch Vol 19, No. 3(A))South Africa's vibrant and diverse economy is a powerful draw for Africans from other countries migrating in search of work. But the chance of earning a wage can come with a price: If undocumented, foreign migrants are liable to be arrested, detained, and deported in circumstances and under conditions that flout South Africa's own laws. And as highlighted by the situation in Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces, both documented and undocumented foreign farm workers may have their rights under South Africa's basic employment law protections violated by employers in ways ranging from wage exploitation to uncompensated workplace injury, and from appalling housing conditions to workplace violence. Human Rights Watch has conducted research on the situation and experiences of migrant workers around the globe. Its research demonstrates that migrant workers, whether documented or undocumented, are particularly vulnerable to human rights abuses. Such abuses can be the result of many different factors includinginadequate legal protections, illegal actions of unscrupulous employers or state officials, and lack of state capacity or political will to enforce legal protections and to hold abusive employers and officials to account. The focus of this report is principally the situation of Zimbabweans and Mozambicans in South Africa's Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces. (excerpt)
Africa Recovery. 2003 May; 17(1): p..As Southern Africa's HIV/AIDS infection rates combine with widespread famine conditions, the region faces not only sickness and starvation, but also a severe longterm threat to its economies and societies. This twin onslaught of disease and hunger has dire consequences for families, communities and production systems. Agriculture, Africa's economic mainstay, is being hit especially hard. The focus of Africa's latest food emergency is not only the arid, drought-prone Horn of Africa or Sahel regions, but also Southern Africa. Most of its countries are largely fertile, well watered and traditionally self-sufficient in food. One reason for Southern Africa's current crisis is that the region also has the world's highest HIV infection levels. The UN Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that infection rates in 2002 ranged from 15 per cent of adults in Malawi up to more than 30 per cent in Swaziland and Lesotho and a staggering 39 per cent in Botswana. Meanwhile, the World Food Programme (WFP) estimates that, as of March, the number of people requiring food assistance in Zimbabwe stood at 7.2 million, or 52 per cent of the population. Nearly 8 million more also need food aid in Malawi, Zambia, Lesotho, Mozambique and Swaziland. (excerpt)
Towards putting farmers in control: a second case study of the rural communication system for development in Mexico's tropical wetlands. [Agricultores a las riendas: un segundo estudio de casos del sistema de comunicación rural para el desarrollo en los pantanos tropicales mexicanos]
Rome, Italy, FAO, 1990. v, 58 p. (Development Communication Case Study No. 9)This is the second Case Study of the Rural Communication System for Development in Mexico's Tropical Wetlands. The first was written in late 1985 and published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in early 1987. The important changes that have taken place in Mexico since 1985, in particular as they relate to development in the tropical wetlands and the communication system working in that context, now warrant a second Case Study. To set the present Case Study in its proper context, it should, ideally, be read in conjunction with the earlier one, but since this may not be possible for all readers, the salient information provided in the earlier study will be given in the Background section, below. The first part of this Study will set the scene and describe the approach and the work being carried out, while the last section will attempt to examine the situation from various perspectives and offer some views regarding its future prospects. It should be noted, however, that this Study is not an evaluation. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. xv, 57 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers No. 103)This paper proposes a series of operational guidelines on how to provide agricultural extension services in a cost-effective way to women farmers. All small-scale farmers, regardless of gender, face constraints, but the focus here is on women farmers in order to foster a better understanding of the particular gender-related barriers confronting women and the strategies needed to overcome them. Attention is concentrated on Sub-Saharan Africa in view of the crucial role of women in agriculture throughout the sub-continent. Worldwide operational guidelines for agricultural extension for women farmers are planned for later this year. The recommendations have been gleaned from the experiences of African governments, the World Bank and other donors, and researchers. Ongoing pilot programs have provided useful guidance about what can work to integrate women fully into the agricultural extension system and what problems are likely to emerge in different socioeconomic environments. This is, however, an ongoing process: it is a relatively new field and much remains to be learned. It will be especially important to test alternative approaches over the next few years. This paper will then be revised to incorporate new lessons of experience. This paper is organized as follows: Chapter 1 addresses the question of why women need help -- the role women have in agriculture, especially in Africa, and the particular constraints they face in terms of access to resources and information. Chapter 2 examines the information needed to modify extension systems to better reach women farmers, to modify the focus of research to address women's activities and constraints, and to monitor and evaluate programs. Ways to collect such data are also suggested. Chapter 3 deals with the transmission of the extension message to women farmers -- the role of the extension agents and the importance of gender, the use of home economists and subject matter specialists, and the use of contact farmers and groups. The final Chapter examines the formulation of the message to be delivered, and the linkage between extension and agricultural research and technology. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 1995. Presented at the FAO Conference, Twenty-eighth Session, October 20 - November 2, 1995 29 p.The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) issued this plan of action for "women in development" in 1995. The objectives of the plan are to 1) promote gender-based equity in access to and control of productive resources; 2) enhance women's participation in decision and policy-making processes; and 3) promote actions to reduce the workload of rural women and enhance their opportunities for remunerated employment and income. Activities in the following areas will create a framework for the integration of a gender perspective within the FAO for 1996-2001: 1) increasing the availability, accuracy, and use of quantitative and qualitative data and information on the gender dimension of agriculture and rural development; 2) developing and utilizing methodologies, tools, and training activities to help development specialists integrate a gender perspective into agricultural and rural development approaches; 3) strengthening the skills and capacities of rural women to reduce the burden of their labor and increase their economic gains; and 4) supporting the formulation and application of gender-responsive agricultural and rural development policy. In addition to setting forth these goals and objectives, this document describes the background, purpose, and scope of the plan of action; the state of rural women to the year 2001 (in relation to key issues including food security, nutrition, the environment, population, poverty); the strategic objectives of the plan; FAO departmental strategies and instruments; and institutional support for implementation of the plan.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Administrative Committee on Coordination, Subcommittee on Nutrition, 1989 May. , 110 p. (ACC / SCN State-of-the-Art Series; Nutrition Policy Discussion Paper No. 4)This UN state-of-the-art nutrition policy discussion paper focuses on the role of African and Asian women in food-related activities and the consequences for nutrition. Special emphasis is placed on constraints and opportunities for women in providing adequate nutrition for their families, obstacles and potentialities for women in catering to their own nutrition and other basic needs, and areas of conflict and congruence between these two roles. The main obstacles are women's high workloads, seasonal variations in food availability and food chain work, women's low productivity in the food chain, women's low status, and the lack of infrastructure and services relevant to women. Greater female participation in food production and income generation may increase total household food availability and give women control of cash and food as well as improve their status. However, these gains also may increase women's workload and thereby have a negative effect on their health and that of their families. Recommended is a household food security framework that emphasizes food adequacy, viability in procurement, and sustainability. The literature suggests the following criteria for operation of successful woman-oriented programs: a holistic approach, consideration of gender relations, sensitivity and flexibility in planning and implementation, community participation, interaction with rural women on their own terms, and a combination of interventions.
DEEP. DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION EXCHANGE PAPERS. 1997 Dec; 13-4.While the 1996 World Food Summit Plan of Action was being approved, a companion NGO (nongovernmental organization) Forum provided opportunities for rural women from 29 countries to relay their perspectives and recommendations. The Rural Women's Workshop was organized by four NGOs: Isis International-Manila, La Via Campesina, the People-Centred Development Forum, and the Women's Food and Agriculture Working Group. Isis International-Manila seeks to create spaces, facilitate processes, and disseminate information for rural women to voice concerns, network, and plan responses. The La Via Campesina network operates in Latin American and the Caribbean where it applies a strong gender perspective to all of its activities. Ultimate progress on the World Food Summit Plan of Action can be evaluated using the ABCs of food security: does the program or policy assure 1) access for women to the total means of production; 2) benefits for women; and 3) community-based resource management and sustainable agriculture.
New York, New York, SEEDS, 1995. 20 p. (SEEDS No. 17)Mozambique has suffered through centuries of colonial rule by the Portuguese, their bitter and destructive departure in 1975, 16 years of civil war, and severe drought. The end of the drought and of the conflict occurred in 1992, and the newly-elected government is struggling to deal with the absolute poverty of 80% of the population and one of the highest national debts in the world. An agricultural initiative in land ("Green Zones") surrounding large cities has sought to increase agricultural productivity. Special cooperatives were organized for this purpose and to improve the standard of living for women and their children. The cooperatives address irrigation needs, building construction, child care, literacy needs, and malnutrition. Costs are covered by development bank loans. The Green Zones operate as a self-help initiative and are served by a General Union of Cooperatives (GUC), largely run by women. Today, the GUC serves 5400 members grouped in 182 cooperatives (all but one headed by women). Individual cooperatives function democratically. Members pay themselves a regular salary, and individual cooperatives can secure loans from the GUC. GUC members can also relate to the organization through local unions which represent 10-15 cooperatives each. The most critical role of the GUC is the marketing of produce, but the organization also provides basic equipment, conducts workshops, evaluates activities, assists with ownership disputes, and helps solve problems. The largest source of income is chicken production. The GUC also provides management training courses and child care support. The financial support for the GUC comes from the international community and from nongovernmental organizations. The Green Zone cooperatives of Maputo have been particularly successful, and the UN Children's Fund is attempting to replicate this program in the Green Zones of Beira where different conditions demand different solutions. Lessons learned include 1) it is difficult to transplant development models, 2) people must see benefits, 3) projects should be realistic, 4) marketing is pivotal, 5) women need to secure assets in their own right, 6) economic needs can rarely be addressed in isolation, 7) such projects can empower women, and 8) there is power in numbers.
Country report: Bangladesh. International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.
[Unpublished] 1994. iv, 45 p.The country report prepared by Bangladesh for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development begins by highlighting the achievements of the family planning (FP)/maternal-child health (MCH) program. Political commitment, international support, the involvement of women, and integrated efforts have led to a decline in the population growth rate from 3 to 2.07% (1971-91), a decline in total fertility rate from 7.5 to 4.0% (1974-91), a reduction in desired family size from 4.1 to 2.9 (1975-89), a decline in infant mortality from 150 to 88/1000 (1975-92), and a decline in the under age 5 years mortality from 24 to 19/1000 (1982-90). In addition, the contraceptive prevalence rate has increased from 7 to 40% (1974-91). The government is now addressing the following concerns: 1) the dependence of the FP and health programs on external resources; 2) improving access to and quality of FP and health services; 3) promoting a demand for FP and involving men in FP and MCH; and 4) achieving social and economic development through economic overhaul and by improving education and the status of women and children. The country report presents the demographic context by giving a profile of the population and by discussing mortality, migration, and future growth and population size. The population policy, planning, and program framework is described through information on national perceptions of population issues, the evolution and current status of the population policy (which is presented), the role of population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program (reproductive health issues; MCH and FP services; information, education, and communication; research methodology; the environment, aging, adolescents and youth, multi-sectoral activities, women's status; the health of women and girls; women's education and role in industry and agriculture, and public interventions for women). The description of the operational aspects of population and family planning (FP) program implementation includes political and national support, the national implementation strategy, evaluation, finances and resources, and the role of the World Population Plan of Action. The discussion of the national plan for the future involves emerging and priority concerns, the policy framework, programmatic activities, resource mobilization, and regional and global cooperation.
[Integrated family planning for small farmers: a handbook] Planeamento familiar integrado para pequenos agricultores: um manual.
Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1985. iv, 57,  p.The objective of this training program manual was the elevation of the knowledge levels of Group Organizers and Action Research Fellows (GP/ARFs) of countries that participated in the Small Farmers Development Project (SFDP) launched by the Regional, Office for Asia and the Pacific of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The SFDP had the mission of increasing technical knowledge to small farmer to curtail the dichotomy of rapid population growth in Asian countries which started in the 1970s and the faltering agricultural output. A survey of agrarian reform (ASARRD) was also launched, and, after the implementation of SFDP in 1976 by Bangladesh, Nepal, and the Philippines, a family planning (FP) program (PopEd) was initiated in 1978 under SFDP in these countries. Income generating projects aimed at improving the quality of life of small farmers, Family Planning Education had the objective of disseminating FP information; however, after initial success, practical application bogged down. Thus, PopEd introduced a new strategy of training GO/ARFs, as group organizers and mobilizers, to enhance their knowledge about the relationship of poverty, development, and population growth, about its applicability to small farmers, and about the role of communication. The planning, management, and evaluation of the training program is detailed, with an overview of FAO programs for small farmers.
PEOPLE. 1990; 17(1):36-8.The major points in Worldwatch's plan involve 1) development of energy strategies which protect the climate, 2) expansion of forests, 3) a substantial increase in efforts to meet food needs, and 4) a halt to population growth. The consequence of "business as usual" is severe economic disruption, social instability, and human suffering. Energy strategies must be prioritized and reordered within 10 years. A safe, effective way to curb use of fossil fuels, which produce CO2 and account for 50% of the global warming, is to improve energy efficiency, to develop renewable energy sources, and to abandon use of nuclear power. Use of existing technology has the most immediate, largest effect. Solar, hydro, wind, and geothermal technologies are much slower to develop and implementation has greater initial costs. An internationally consistent fuel-based tax on carbon content is also recommended. Investment in energy efficiency will be offset by reduced fuel bills for consumers and businesses. Forests, which store 3 times the amount of carbon in the atmosphere, contribute to CO2 buildup when cut down. Expanding forest cover in tropical countries means finding other ways to earn quick foreign exchange, stimulate regional development, and expand settlement areas. 130 million hectares of trees need to be planted just to meet demands for fuelwood and industrial wood products and to stabilize soil and water resources. 15 billion trees need to be planted each year for the next 15 years. Large food production increases are still possible in India, Argentina, and Brazil, but few gains are expected in Japan, China, western Europe, and North America. Subsistence farmers can boost production by multiple cropping, intercropping, biointensive gardening, and composting of organic wastes. If food reserves tighten, redirecting grain from livestock, which amounts to 33% of a harvest, is the only option for feeding the poor. Family planning (FP) will be instrumental in assuring food security. Countries with high growth rates must follow China and Japan in curbing population growth rapidly. This entails government commitment and an active national population education program, widely available FP services, and widespread improvements in economic and social conditions, particularly for women. The several billion dollars/year needed from industrialized countries should be considered a "downpayment on the future."
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 484-97. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)The issues dealing with the interrelationships between population growth, food supply, and agricultural development are summarized. Focus is directed to past trends in food supplies, food consumption and nutritional requirements, future demand, future food supplies, agricultural employment, and rural development policies. A table included in the annex gives population growth rates, food production rates, food demand rates of growth, dietary energy supply, and protein supply by country. Meeting the nutritional needs of population growth is possible. Supply and demand vary between countries; supplies are unevenly distributed. Increased production alone will not solve the problems of poverty. Food production must meet nutritional and employment needs. Food production declined slightly during the 1960s due in many cases to policy, but in developing countries it occurred in spite of policy. In 34 countries, food production failed to keep pace with population growth. Population growth accounts for 70% of the demand for food increases. Between 1952 and 1972, in 54 out of 85 developing countries food production increased less than demand. Balancing supply with demand was unaffected by the rate of population growth. 1965-66 brought bad weather and declines in production; 1967-70 is associated with the "green revolution" and increased production. In 1971-72, bad weather again prevailed and food production declined in absolute terms as well as in relation to population growth. Imported food has created dependency relationships. Nutrition is a measure of total availability of dietary energy; developing countries during the 1960s had a 3% deficit while developed countries were 20% above requirements. In 1970, 62 developing countries had overall dietary energy deficits. Insufficient food supply affects poorer families and particularly pregnant and lactating women and children. 10 million children under 5 years of age suffer from severe malnutrition, 80 million from moderate malnutrition, and 120 million from milder forms of malnutrition, or about 50% of all the children in the developing world. 14% of the population excluding Asian economies have insufficient food intake to meet energy needs. Reducing the rate of population growth is essential.
Environmental and project displacement of population in India. Part I: Development and deracination.
UFSI FIELD STAFF REPORTS. 1991; (14):1-16.Official development projects in India have displaced at least 20 million persons since Indian independence in 1947, and the majority have not been relocated in planned resettlement. India is in a race to implement development projects needed to support the growth of its population, which increased from 361 million in 1951 to 840 million in 1990. Through the 1960s and 1970s about 1/4 of these oustees were minimally resettled and the rest had to find their own way to get reestablished. There is no international consensus on the rights of internally displaced persons, but most countries compensate people. Agricultural labor and construction labor are the most common types of work of the landless oustees. 1,589 large dams built since independence ousted the largest number of people. Dams, reservoirs, and canals displaced 11,000,000 people; 2,750,000 were rehabilitated and 8,250,000 found their own way. Mines displaced 1,700,000; 450,000 were rehabilitated and 1,250,000 found their own way. Industries displaced 1,000,000; 300,000 were rehabilitated and 700,000 found their own way. Parks and sanctuaries displaced 600,000; 150,000 were rehabilitated and 450,000 relocated on their own. Other projects displacing people are forest preserves, wildlife sanctuaries, military installations, weapons testing grounds, nuclear installations, and railroads and roads. The World Bank requires compensation for people displaced by 12 dam projects it is funding in India: the underestimated count is 610,500 persons. The Pong Dam, a 130 m high gravel dam, under the western Himalayas ousted 30,330 families, about 167,000 people, but only 16,001 families were found eligible for compensation. The Subarnarekha Project in southern Bihar is displacing 10,000 families, about 55,000 people. The state government estimates that 35% of these will not settle in suggested relocation sites because land is not available.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION. 1984 Summer; 11(2):167-9.People living in the area just south of the Sahara Desert in Africa face their 3rd major drought since 1900. This drought brings about famine. Drought and famine are only manifestations of more profound problems: soil erosion and degradation. They diminish land productivity which aggravates the population's poverty. Yet soil erosion and degradation occur due to an expanding population. Continued pressures on the land and soil degradation results in desertification. The UN Environment Programme's Assessment of the Status and Trend of Desertification shows that between 1978-84 desertification spread. Expanding deserts now endanger 35% of the world's land and 20% of the population. In the thorn bush savanna zone, most people are subsistence farmers or herdsmen and rely on the soils, forests, and rangelands. Even though the mean population density in the Sahel is low, it is overpopulated since people concentrate in areas where water is available. These areas tend to be cities where near or total deforestation has already occurred. Between 1959-84, the population in the Sahel doubled so farmers have extended cultivation into marginal areas which are vulnerable to desertification. The livestock populations have also grown tremendously resulting in overgrazing and deforestation. People must cook their food which involves cutting down trees for fuelwood. Mismanagement of the land is the key cause for desertification, but the growing poor populations have no choice but to eke out an existence on increasingly marginal lands. Long fallow periods would allow the land to regain its fertility, but with the ever-increasing population this is almost impossible. Humans caused desertification. We can improve land use and farming methods to stop it.
[Unpublished] . 22 p.Since 1978, the Sudanese Ministry of Social Services and Administration Reform, through the Public Corporation for Workers' Education (PCWE), has provided a workers' population education program in Sudan. Rationale for and description of the expansion of the program to the organized labor sector of Gezira Province in 1984-86 is provided. The program was expanded to the organized sector in hopes of sparking greater understanding and awareness of population issues, garnering trade union involvement, increasing acceptance of new family norms, increasing understanding of population size as it relates to quality of life, and developing worker motivators. The 1984 Working Plan included 10 seminars, 18 meetings, and 24 symposia over 2 years reaching more than 10,000 workers and family members. This level of participation represented a small fraction of the total target population, yet constitutes a limited, small-scale communication impact. The United Nation Population Fund (UNFPA) has funded a 2nd phase of the project.
Report on the introduction of population education in the action-cum-research project on small farmers and landless labourers.
[Dacca], Bangladesh, People's Republic of Bangladesh, Central Coordination Committee, . iii, 198 p.A population education program was launched in 1978 within the existing framework of the Project on Small Farmers and Laborers that is currently in progress in 8 villages in Bangladesh. A workshop developed materials and methods and a workplan that the village level action research fellows could use. The workshop design was flexible; the idea being that the workers learn from process as well as content. Budgets and content for village level workshops, as well as formats for benchmark questionnaires to test workshop effectiveness, and the outline of a field workers' manual, were discussed. There followed reports on materials pre-tested in several of the villages: displays and education materials, including materials developed in the Philippines. An example is a short drama, in which a farm family, its crops destroyed by a storm, must react by removing the children from school. It is made clear this would not be necessary if there were fewer children, and that family planning (FP) does not go against religion. Other educational materials evaluated included felt boards, poem recitals, question and answer discussions, and others. Line agencies next presented papers on diverse topics, e.g. multi sectoral approaches to population education; a scheme of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting; processes applied with women. An example is a report by the International labour Organization on a project to educate 80,000 industrial sector couples in FP. Sub-project level workshop reports follow for 3 workshops in Comilla, Mymensing, and Bogra. Progress reports, discussing village-level advances such as latrine digging; night schools; and contraceptive prevalence follow, for several villages. The format was 2 review workshops held several months after projects began, in Comilla.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1983 Jan. 140 p. (World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 526)The relationship between women's economic participation and their input into household decision making was investigated in 7 village studies in Nepal. 2 distinct cultural traditions were represented in the sample: Indo-Aryan/Hindu and Tibeto-Burman/Buddhist-Animist. The village economy is conceptualized in 4 concentric spheres: 1) household domestic work, 2) household agricultural production activity, 3) work in the local market economy, and 4) employment in the wider economy beyond the village. Aggregate data revealed that women are responsible for 86%, 57%, 38%, and 25% of the input into these 4 spheres, respectively. It was hypothesized that women's participation in the market economy increases their status (defined in terms of household decision making), while confinement to nonmarket subsistence production and domestic work reduces women's status. This hypothesis was confirmed. Women in the more orthodox Hindu communities, who are largely confined to domestic and subsistence production, were found to play a less significant role in major household economic decisions than women in Tibeto-Burman communities where women participate more actively in the market sector. Money earned in the market sector allows women to make a measurable contribution to household income, and thus appears to enhance the perception of women as equal partners. In addition, women's decision making input was found to be inversely related to the income status of the household. These results indicate that integrating women into the market economy is not only an efficient use of local resources, but also improves women's status and economic security. The time allocation and decision making data reveal that women play the major role in agricultural production, both as laborers and managers. This suggests the need to train female agricultural extension agents and to make male workers aware of the need to reach female farmers. The results further indicate that involvement of women in the development process leads to lowered fertility and more positive attitudes toward educating female children. Tibeto-Burman women have lower birthrates than Hindu women, perhaps due to their greater economic security and availability of alternate female role models. An extensive methodological annex, including survey instruments, is included.
Population Bulletin of the Economic Commission for Western Asia. 1980; (19):69-80.The author cites problems in the definitions of different categories of economic activity and employment status which have been made by the UN. The term "casual workers" has never been clarified and these people were described as both employed and unemployed on different occasions; there is also no allowance for the term underemployed in the UN classification. The latter term, he concludes, is not included in most censuses. The UN in its Principles and Recommendations for Population Censuses, discusses sex-based stereotypes which he states are based on a set of conventions that are arbitrary, irrational, and complex. However on the basis of the UN rules it is possible to divide the population into 3 categories: 1) those who are economically active (black), 2) those who are not active (white), and 3) those whose classification is in doubt (gray). In developed countries most people are either in the black or the white area and the amount in the gray area is small, but in developing countries the gray area may be the majority of the population. In the Swaziland census no attempt was made to provide a clear picture of employment. In view of the complexity of the underlying concepts, the decisions as to whether a person should be classified as economically active or not should be left to the statisticians, not the census enumerators.
Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development, 1982 May. 8 p. (A.I.D. Policy Paper)The Task Force of the US Agency for International Development (US AID) sets forth the overall objectives, policy decisions, and programming implications for food and agricultural assistance funded from Development Assistance, Economic Support Fund, and PL 480 budgets. The objective of US food and agricultural assistance is to enable developing countries to become self-reliant in food through increased agricultural production and greater economic efficiency in marketing and distribution of food products. Improved food consumption is gained through expanded employment to increase purchasing power, increased awareness of sound nutritional principles, and direct distribution of food from domestic or external sources to those facing severe malnutrition and food shortages. Policy elements to accomplish these objectives include 1) improving country policies to remove constraints on food production; 2) developing human resources and institutional capabilities, including research on food and agriculture problems; 3) expanding the role of private sectors in developing countries and private sector in agricultural development; and 4) employing available assistance instruments and technologies in an integrated and efficient manner. A sound country policy framework is fundamental for agricultural growth and should 1) rely on free markets, product incentives, and equitable access to resources; 2) give priority to complementary public sector investments that complement and encourage rather than compete with private sector growth. Private and voluntary organizations (PVOs) can also offer low-cost approaches to agricultural development that take local attitudes and conditions into account. Under appropriate conditions, US AID will finance a share of recurrent costs of food and agricultural research, education, extension or related institutions, provided that policy and institution frameworks assure effective utilization and the country is making maximum and/or increasing domestic resource mobilization efforts.
Bangkok, Thailand, DEEMAR, 1983 Nov. , 27,  p. (UNFPA/FAO Project THA/83/PO4; J.9616)This evaluation research reports on the effectiveness of the Thai learning program for 500 civil servants who then incorporate the population education into their jobs as trainers. A sample of 100 trainers representing 6 provinces and regions were evaluated for content and process of integration information, for innovative approaches, for identifying systems which facilitate integration, and for identifying bottlenecks. Informal contact and monthly meetings or already formal groups have been the vehicles for transmission of information. Horizontal integration among staff and co-workers is high as well as among villagers in vertical integration. No follow-up is made after contact and little active participation occurs after POPED. In order to expand contact with the rural population, more training among middle management position needs to be addressed within the organization. Interorganization is overall 86%. The most talked about topics among villagers were population growth and natural resources (86%), age at marriage (81%), population density and land distribution (79%), and nutrition (70%). The most difficult topics were migration (21%), planning for a family (13%), economic and social consideration in marriage (14%), and sex of children (14%). Trainers perceived family planning in general as the most important topic and key to the success of the effort.