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  1. 1

    Time for FAO to shift to a higher gear. A report of the CGD Working Group on Food Security.

    Ramachandran V; Timmer P; Friedman C

    Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2013. [54] p.

    Food security has arisen again on the development agenda. High and volatile food prices took a toll in 2007–08, and in many low-income countries agricultural yields have risen little, if at all, in the last decade. Moreover, food production in these poor countries is especially vulnerable to climate change. Meeting this demand is a global challenge. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is expected to lead the way in meeting this challenge and, with the arrival in 2012 of the first new director-general in 18 years, it has an opening to restructure itself to do so. In this report, the CGD Working Group on Food Security considers how the FAO might be reenergized and restructured for greater impact on the global challenge of boosting agricultural productivity. It points out that the FAO, despite its respected status as the premier global food agency, risks squandering its potential at a time when demand for food is rising fast, supplies are under threat, and hundreds of millions of people already don’t have enough to eat.
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  2. 2

    Mainstreaming nutrition to improve development outcomes.

    Swaminathan MS

    Contact. 2005 Jan; (179):40-42.

    In our world today, the statistics on hunger continue to rise alarmingly despite general economic progress and technological advancement. The quality of peace and true democratic value and the realization of human rights remain stubborn challenges facing civilization in the twenty-first century. Both developed and developing countries have missed some crucial links that might have ensured sustainable development and a more promising 'peace' scenario today. In its haste, the global society has overlooked its rich heritage of cultural, moral, and ethical values as well as its basic respect for human life and promotion of human dignity, and has sadly discarded its general code of ethics and spirituality. In other words, the focus of the world has been mainly uni-dimensional on economic success and political power. The recently concluded summits- World Food Summit in Rome and the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg-have brought home the lack of political will and consensus to achieve even modest targets. There is a need for a consensus to achieve even modest targets. There is need for a larger ethical and moral movement beyond politics and the onus is on civil society to take the lead. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    The Des Moines Declaration: A call for accelerated action in agriculture, food and nutrition to end poverty and hunger.

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2005; 26(3):312-314.

    Agriculture is the main source of income for poor people living in rural areas. As such, a boost in agricultural productivity in the rural areas of developing countries will greatly enhance earning potential as well as produce more food. However, agricultural production increases will not generate adequate gains in employment, and additional steps must also be taken to increase employment in agro based value added rural enterprises. In addition, food productivity must be increased to improve the lives of people and protect biodiversity in our environment. With close to a billion people still suffering from hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity and with the population of our planet projected to grow by 50% by the middle of the 21st century, either we must produce more food on the land and in the water now available to us, or people will be forced to cut down precious forest areas and cultivate marginal lands to grow the food necessary to fuel our escalating demands. It is crucial that new agricultural innovations and technologies be developed. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Population, development and food security: an unresolved challenge for the twenty-first century.

    Villarreal M; Stloukal L

    Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):215-246.

    Since the Rome Population Conference the perceptions of the relationship between population dynamics and food security have undergone significant changes, ranging from fear of unyielding famines caused by explosive population growth to strong confidence in the capacity of the world to stand up to the challenge of growth. Many novel factors, unpredictable at the time, radically changed the scene throughout the half century. Unprecedented population growth happened during times of growing incomes and soaring agricultural production. Emerging actors such as the international agricultural research system played an important role, while emerging factors such as the AIDS epidemic have changed the parameters of the equation. With a world population that will significantly increase in the twenty first century, and that will, for the first time in history, be more urban than rural, not only will the total demand for food be greater than it has ever been, but the nature of that demand will be different. In many countries, changes have been taking place in dietary habits, as well as in methods of food production, processing and marketing, while international trade in raw commodities and processed foods has also grown substantially. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Helping to achieve the MDGs; Second Committe: Economic and financial.

    UN Chronicle. 2005 Mar-May; 42(1):[6] p..

    Natural disasters devastate many parts of the world, whether they were high-intensity hurricanes battering the Pacific islands or gigantic ocean waves killing thousands in its wake. From strengthening coordination of humanitarian and disaster relief assistance, including special economic aid to individual countries or regions, to correcting global trade imbalances and promoting information technology for development, the Second Committee worked hard on these issues during the fifty-ninth session of the General Assembly. With 2005 marking the start of the ten-year countdown to 2015, the target date for the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim, among others, at halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary education, the Committee worked towards aligning its objectives with the framework of the MDGs. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Genetic resources, international organizations, and rice varietal improvement.

    Evenson RE; Gollin D

    New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1994 Jul. 38 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 713)

    This paper examines the economic role of three programs of the International Rice Research Institute designed to achieve genetic improvement in rice. These programs are the international genetic resource collection (IRGC), the international plan breeding program (IRPB), and the international network for the genetic evaluation of rice (INGER a system of "nurseries" in which varieties and advanced lines are tested in national programs. All of these programs are designed to contribute to rice genetic improvement by collaborating with counterpart national rice research programs. A genealogical analysis of 1709 rice varieties, constituting more than 90 percent of all improved rice varieties from the 1965 - 1991 period in tropical and subtropical countries, was undertaken. All ancestors of these varieties were traced back to the original "landrace" genetic resources on which they were based. This analysis showed a very high degree of international exchange of genetic materials. Fewer than 8 percent of these improved varieties were developed entirely from national genetic resources. More than two-thirds utilized genetic resources made available by the IRPB and IRGC programs. Most of these were transferred through INGER. A statistical analysis of varietal production showed that the IRGC and IRPB programs stimulated increased national use of the INGER nurseries. (National decisions regarding the number of national nurseries were treated as endogenous choices). The IRPB and the INGER programs, as well as national plant breeding programs, contributed to varietal production. Coefficient estimates indicated that the INGER system facilitated a 20 to 25 percent expansion of varietal production by making genetic materials readily available to large numbers of national plant breeding programs through the 900 to 1000 nurseries managed by INGER each year. The implied economic value of additional accessions to the genetic resource collections (IRGC national collections) was high and a strong economic justification for further collection, cataloging and preservation of these genetic resources was implied. (author's)
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  7. 7

    Self-reliance of developing countries is UNDP goal for 1990s - United Nations Development Programme.

    UN Chronicle. 1989 Sep; 26(3):[2] p..

    In the 1990s, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) will use its technical aid to continue to build self-reliance in developing nations. Although the Programme will still respond to priorities set by recipient countries, it plans to target action on developing human resources, health, education, and agricultural and rural development. Concluding a year-long overhaul of its goals and policies, the UNDP Governing Council at a high-level 1989 session (New York, 5-30 June) debated its approach to its work in the last decade of the 20th century. The 48-member Council stressed the theme "national capacity-building for self-reliance." It hoped to take on the role of a "facilitator" rather than initiator, urging recipients to take the lead in promoting their own development. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Economic and Social Council reviews world economic and social policy, calls for measures to combat AIDS.

    UN Chronicle. 1987 Nov; 24(4):[8] p..

    The Economic an Social Council, at its second regular 1987 session, made a broad review of international economic and social policy, adopting 58 texts on matters ranging from specific development and assistance issues to food and population problems to combating the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. In opening the session, Council President Eugeniusz Noworyta of Poland said that international co-operation "should enrich countries and not impoverish some of them". Without restoring mutual confidence, economic cooperation, trade and resource flows would not attain levels commensurate with development needs. Many negative phenomena persisted in international relations which inhibited wide co-operation among countries at different levels of development, and the introduction of an equitable international economic order, taking account of the legitimate interests of all groups of countries. Disparities between the economic potential of States had increased, he said. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Five priority areas highlighted in report on Africa crisis.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Aug; 23:[4] p..

    Five priority areas for national and international action are highlighted in a 53-page report of the Secretary-General on the critical economic situation in Africa (A/S-13/2) placed before the General Assembly's thirteenth special session. The priority areas include: national and collective self-sufficiency in food production and agricultural development in general; efforts to meet drought and desertification; rehabilitation and development of transport and other structures; development of human resources and social services, with attention to the role of women and the need to protect vulnerable groups; and external financial resources and the problem of external debt. The report states that droughts and famines suffered by many African countries from 1983 through 1985 attracted the world's attention to the plight of Africa. Emergency aid and good rains brought some relief, and although the food situation remains "precarious' and in some areas "quite serious', the immediate threat of mass starvation has subsided. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    United Nations Programme of Action for African Economic Recovery 1986-1990.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Aug; 23:[5] p..

    Secretary-General Perez de Cuellar said the international community, in adopting the Programme of Action, had "clearly expressed their human solidarity with their brothers and sisters in Africa'. Determined and continued efforts over time were needed to meet the challenge. "The image of Africa as a dependent continent must disappear. Africa is a continent rich in physical and human resources. The realization of its potential will not only fulfill the hopes and aspirations of the peoples of Africa, but also contribute immeasurably to the economic and social well-being of all the world'. A summary of the 3-part, 24-paragraph Programme of Action follows. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    African crisis: the human dimension special UNICEF report on the future of Africa's children.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Apr; 23:[15] p..

    So begins a special report, Within Human Reach: A Future for Africa's Children, prepared by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). According to UNICEF, neglect of the human costs of the African crisis has obscured a full understanding of the "scenario for disaster' that has been unfolding on that continent over the past two decades. "In its day-to-day work in the continent, UNICEF is faced with the maluntrition and ill health which claim the lives of nearly 4 million African children each and every year--even when there is no drought, no famine, no camps, no epidemics, and no media coverage', states UNICEF Executive Director James P. Grant in a preface to the report. "This is the "silent emergency' which, exacerbated by war and drought, has suddenly become the "loud emergency' of which all the world has heard'. However, adds Mr. Grant, "the first priority for action is to protect the lives and the normal growth of children. In times of emergency, the immediate, human argument for "children first' is an obvious one. But there is also a longer-term and more hard-headed case to be made. For there is a profound connection between the mental and physical development of the children and the social and economic development of their nations.' (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    A new leadership for UNICEF: Do values matter? [letter]

    San Sebastian M; Hurtig AK

    Lancet. 2005 Mar 26; 365:1136-1137.

    The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) aspires to be “the driving force that helps build a world where the rights of every child are realized”. This year’s State of the World Children is dedicated to three key threats affecting more than one billion children: poverty, armed conflicts, and HIV/AIDS. The causes are complex and interlinked and must be fought to ensure the rights of the children. We think that the recent appointment of Ann Veneman as the next Executive Director of UNICEF will hinder this fight. Veneman is a political conservative who has served under Republican administrations dating back to President Reagan and was the Secretary of Agriculture during the first term of the Bush administration. In recent years, US agricultural liberalisation policies have promoted a model based on countries specialising in what they are best at producing, exporting these products, and relying on foreign exchange earnings to purchase other food for local consumption. This model contrasts sharply with one of self-sufficiency, which tries to ensure that domestic food requirements are met from local production to guarantee food security. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    Africa beyond famine.

    Harsch E

    Africa Recovery. 2003 May; 17(1):[6] p..

    Africa today suffers from a "deadly triad" of interrelated burdens -- food insecurity, HIV/AIDS and a reduced capacity to govern and provide basic services -- says UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan. Therefore, a "new, integrated response from both the governments of Africa and the international community" is needed, he told the Group of 8 (G-8) industrialized countries in early March. That means taking long-term development measures at the same time as giving immediate relief to people suffering from famine, he said. At the beginning of the year, some 25 million Africans required emergency food aid, but quick relief shipments have since eased the threat of starvation in most countries of Southern Africa. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    Famine and AIDS: a lethal mixture. Southern Africa reels from a twin onslaught.

    Nyamu J

    Africa Recovery. 2003 May; 17(1):[10] p..

    As Southern Africa's HIV/AIDS infection rates combine with widespread famine conditions, the region faces not only sickness and starvation, but also a severe longterm threat to its economies and societies. This twin onslaught of disease and hunger has dire consequences for families, communities and production systems. Agriculture, Africa's economic mainstay, is being hit especially hard. The focus of Africa's latest food emergency is not only the arid, drought-prone Horn of Africa or Sahel regions, but also Southern Africa. Most of its countries are largely fertile, well watered and traditionally self-sufficient in food. One reason for Southern Africa's current crisis is that the region also has the world's highest HIV infection levels. The UN Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that infection rates in 2002 ranged from 15 per cent of adults in Malawi up to more than 30 per cent in Swaziland and Lesotho and a staggering 39 per cent in Botswana. Meanwhile, the World Food Programme (WFP) estimates that, as of March, the number of people requiring food assistance in Zimbabwe stood at 7.2 million, or 52 per cent of the population. Nearly 8 million more also need food aid in Malawi, Zambia, Lesotho, Mozambique and Swaziland. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    Food security through science.

    Harsch E

    Africa Recovery. 1999 Dec; 13(4):[6] p..

    To combat hunger and improve food security in their continent, Africans must make better use of science to overcome soil degradation, says Mr. Uzo Mokwunye, director of the UN's Institute for Natural Resources in Africa (INRA). "Farmers know that low soil fertility is a major problem, but nobody is doing anything about it," he said in an interview at the institute's headquarters at the University of Ghana, Legon, near Accra. According to UN studies, about 72 per cent of sub-Saharan Africa's cropland and 31 per cent of its pastureland is degraded, contributing to enormous losses in output. Meanwhile, 35 per cent of Africa's children are malnourished. If current trends continue, by 2025 the region will produce enough food for only 40 per cent of its projected 1 billion people. Thus far, most agricultural research is devoted to developing high-yielding seeds, Mr. Mokwunye notes. But, he adds, a green revolution "will be impossible in Africa" unless soil quality is improved so that these new varieties can thrive. With both high-yielding seeds and more fertile soil, rice and wheat yields could double, sorghum yields could triple and maize yields could quadruple. (excerpt)
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  16. 16

    Global battle cry: health is a right, not a commodity.

    Fernandez I

    Canadian HIV / AIDS Policy and Law Review. 2002 Dec; 7(2-3):80-84.

    Health is a fundamental right, not a commodity to be sold at a profit, argues Irene Fernandez in the second Jonathan Mann Memorial Lecture delivered on 8 July 2002 to the XIV International AIDS Conference in Barcelona. Ms Fernandez had to obtain a special permit from the Malaysian government to attend the Conference because she is on trial for having publicly released information about abuse, torture, illness, corruption, and death in Malaysian detention camps for migrants. This article, based on Ms Fernandez presentation, describes how the policies of the rich world have failed the poor world. According to Ms Fernandez, the policies of globalization and privatization of health care have hindered the ability of developing countries to respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic-The article decries the hypocrisy of the industrialized nations in increasing subsidies to farmers while demanding that the developing world open its doors to Western goods. It points out that the rich nations have failed to live up their foreign aid commitments. The article concludes that these commitments - and the other promises made in the last few years, such as those in the United Nations' Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS - can only become a reality if they are translated into action. (author's)
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  17. 17

    Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project assessment.

    Copeland R; Frankenberger T; Kennedy E

    Washington, D.C., LTG Associates, Monitoring, Evaluation and Design Support Project, 2002 Mar. [67] p. (PD-ABW-468; USAID Contract No. HRN-I-00-99-00002-00)

    The Nutrition Results Package is a ten-year program framework authorized in 1998. Under this authorization, The Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANTA) project was awarded competitively in September 1998 to the Academy for Educational Development (AED) as the prime contractor, with Cornell University and Tufts University as subcontractors. The FANTA proposal included a memorandum of understanding with Food Aid Management (FAM), a consortium of Private Voluntary Organizations (PVOs), referred to as Cooperating Sponsors (CS), implementing Title II food aid development and emergency programs. The overall purpose of FANTA is "improved food and nutrition policy, strategy, and program development". Three Intermediate Results (IRs) were identified to achieve this purpose: USAID's and Cooperating Sponsors' nutrition and food security-related program development, analysis, monitoring, and evaluation improved, USAID, host country governments, and Cooperating Sponsors establish improved, integrated nutrition and food security-related strategies and policies, and Best practices and acceptable standards in nutrition and food security-related policy and programming adopted by USAID, Cooperating Sponsors, and other key stakeholders. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    Women in FAO projects: cases from Asia, the Near East, and Africa.

    Carloni A

    In: Women, international development, and politics: the bureaucratic mire. Updated and expanded edition, edited by Kathleen Staudt. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Temple University Press, 1997. 249-268.

    How are women integrated into mainstream FAO projects? At what stages of the projects' cycles, from design through implementation and evaluation, are attempts made to learn about or involve women? Ten case studies of selected FAO field projects were carried out in 1982. The projects selected were in sectors where women were known to be involved: poultry, post-harvest processing and storage of food grain, sheep and goat production, and irrigation. Also, the projects selected were those in which the role of women was brought to the attention of project staff at some time during the project cycle. The cases, therefore, are a highly select group. Written reports, and discussions with concerned staff members, including those from the field and FAO headquarters, were the basis for analysis. The full 103- page, single-spaced report, Integrating Women in Agricultural Projects: Case Studies of Ten FAO-Assisted Field Projects (1983), was never widely disseminated. This highly condensed version contains three of the cases from Asia, Africa, and the Near East, rather than all ten cases. In each case, women were addressed at different stages of the project cycle: in Asia, belated attention with potentially hopeful yet fatal follow up; in the Near East, limited attention throughout; in Africa, early design attention but subsequent marginalization of efforts to reach women. For each case, I describe project goals and operations. I then analyze the work the women do in each area that is relevant to the project; women's work varies tremendously and generalizations about that would be hazardous. Finally, I provide an overview of each project cycle. First, however, I examine some conventional answers to women's integration. The process approach used herein involves dissecting all stages of project design and implementation to determine how, when, and where adjustments can be made to include, benefit, and give voice to women. As such, the analysis provides guidance about how to change existing mainstream projects or how to recast project administration. In the course of analysis, the limitations of conventional answers for administrative reform will become apparent. (excerpt)
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  19. 19

    Getting to the Third World: agencies as gatekeepers.

    Jensen K

    In: Women, international development, and politics: the bureaucratic mire. Updated and expanded edition, edited by Kathleen Staudt. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Temple University Press, 1997. 269-286.

    What follows is a narrative of a personal journey into Third World gender redistributive research and the bureaucracies encountered along the way. It is not possible to analyze in full the organization and agenda of each, even in this case study focusing on Women in Development (WID) programs through U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) projects. Rather, I aim to enumerate them and to describe the typical gatekeepers in the path from a home university through development consortia and AID at home and abroad as well as implementing agencies in a host country. In addition, this path requires a recognized WID program at each junction, lest one be left climbing the fence in unofficial and probably unapproved ways. The point of this journey is to analyze the possibilities of improving the opportunities for women less advantaged than those of us who can afford to make getting to the Third World part of our work. (excerpt)
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  20. 20

    Towards putting farmers in control: a second case study of the rural communication system for development in Mexico's tropical wetlands. [Agricultores a las riendas: un segundo estudio de casos del sistema de comunicación rural para el desarrollo en los pantanos tropicales mexicanos]

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]. Information Division. Development Support Communication Branch

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 1990. v, 58 p. (Development Communication Case Study No. 9)

    This is the second Case Study of the Rural Communication System for Development in Mexico's Tropical Wetlands. The first was written in late 1985 and published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in early 1987. The important changes that have taken place in Mexico since 1985, in particular as they relate to development in the tropical wetlands and the communication system working in that context, now warrant a second Case Study. To set the present Case Study in its proper context, it should, ideally, be read in conjunction with the earlier one, but since this may not be possible for all readers, the salient information provided in the earlier study will be given in the Background section, below. The first part of this Study will set the scene and describe the approach and the work being carried out, while the last section will attempt to examine the situation from various perspectives and offer some views regarding its future prospects. It should be noted, however, that this Study is not an evaluation. (excerpt)
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  21. 21

    Agrobiodiversity strategies to combat food insecurity and HIV / AIDS impact in rural Africa. Advancing grassroots responses for nutrition, health and sustainable livelihoods. Preliminary edition.

    Gari JA

    Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO], 2003. [154] p.

    This strategy paper has been developed in the framework of the FAO Population and Development Service (SDWP), under the support and lead of Marcela Villarreal (SDWP Chief). The paper aims at stimulating grassroots action for household food, nutrition and livelihood security in rural Africa, placing special emphasis on the evolving needs owing to the HIV/AIDS crisis. For the elaboration of the proposed strategies, the author carried out a specific FAO field mission to Uganda and Tanzania, as well as supplementary fieldwork in Ethiopia and Mali, in September-December 2001. (author's)
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  22. 22

    Addressing the "in" in food insecurity.

    Webb P; Rogers B

    Washington, D.C., Academy for Educational Development [AED], Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project, 2003 Feb. 32 p. (Occasional Paper No. 1)

    This paper, commissioned to support the development of the Office of Food for Peace's new Strategic Plan, analyzes the implications of these trends in poverty and malnutrition for USAID food security programming. The paper argues for a conceptual shift that explicitly acknowledges the risks that constrain progress towards enhanced food security, and addresses directly the vulnerability of food insecure households and communities. Enhancing peoples' resiliency to overcome shocks, building people's capacity to transcend food insecurity with a more durable and diverse livelihood base, and increasing human capital will result in long-term sustainable improvements in food security. (excerpt)
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  23. 23

    [Annual report: Interamerican Foundation: October 1, 1990 - September 30, 1991] Anuario 1991: Fundacion Interamericana: 1o de octubre de 1990 - 30 de septiembre de 1991.

    Interamerican Foundation

    Arlington, Virginia, Interamerican Foundation, 1991. [2], 52, [1] p.

    The annual report lists the executive council and the staff of the Interamerican Foundation, provides the letter of the president of the executive council, and a message of the president. In the promotion of national resources, cooperation was established with the Venezuelan state-owned oil company with the objective of assisting local and nongovernmental organizations in development along with a contribution of $200,000 annually for projects. The HOCOL foundation of Shell Oil Co. in Colombia also established a fund for small project development that amounted to apportionment of $100,000/year for a period of 3 years. In July 1991 representatives from the Andean region also took part in the American Folklore Festival of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., exhibiting traditional agriculture, textiles, artisans, dances, music, and ritual ceremonies. In 1991, financing reached the highest level in the Foundation's history with the approval of $29.2 million in donations. About 89% of the funds were assigned to food and agriculture, small business development, and education and training. The rest were allocated to assist community service programs in terms of housing, health care, legal assistance, ecological development, and culture. In-country funds were established in Belize, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, and Nicaragua. The office of training and promotion carried out exchanges of information with various development organizations by means of conferences, group studies, and video tapes, e.g., one that focused on preserving the access of poor people to the natural resources of the Gulf of Fonseca. The number of readers of the Foundation's publications increased by 20%. The offices were consolidated into 4 units for more effective operation. The plan for the 1990 decade, envisioned increasing development capacity and reducing the dependency on external help.
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  24. 24

    Our planet, our health. Report of the WHO commission on Health and Environment.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Commission on Health and Environment

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1992. xxxii, 282 p.

    The WHO Commission on Health and Environment has put together a comprehensive report on the interaction between the state of the environment and human health. There is a need to understand and manage this interaction to bring about a sustainable development which meets people's needs while preserving natural systems. Yet, humankind faces various obstacles to sustainable development, including population growth, migration, urbanization, poverty, resource degradation, and macroeconomic policies. Humans can sustain output of agriculture, forestry, and fishing, if they do not exploit ecological systems. Humans need to at least consider food production, diet, health, land tenure, food contamination, agricultural chemicals, and occupational hazards. They must also effectively and efficiently manage freshwater supplies using means which do not adversely upset natural systems. Humans should move away from using fossil fuels as an energy supply since they are the single largest source of air pollution. They should identify and develop energy supplies which reduce the adverse environment and health effects, e.g., solar, wind, and hydroelectric power. Industrial practices in both developed and developing countries spew air and water pollutants into the environment, generate hazardous wastes, and expose workers to harmful agents. Urbanization poses a special challenge to environmental health, especially where there is little or no infrastructure and services which worsens pollution and environmental health problems. Many environmental and health problems cross boundaries. These include long range transport of air pollution, acid rain, damage of the ozone layer, build up of greenhouse gases, hazardous wastes exported from developed to developing countries, ocean pollution, and loss of biodiversity. Two axioms to a healthier and sustainable world are more equitable access to resources and citizen participation.
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  25. 25

    The state of food and agriculture 1990. Ninety-eighth Session, Rome, 19-30 November 1990.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]. Council

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 1990 Aug. ii, 84 p. (CL 98/2)

    In a world review encompassing the world economic environment, recent trends in food and agricultural production, agricultural trade, food availability and nutrition, external assistance to agriculture and food aid, fisheries, and forestry are treated. The regional review deals with developing country regions of Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Near East, Eastern Europe and the USSR, and developed market economies. Agricultural output was faltering in the 2nd part of the 1980s, especially in North America where it declined by an annual average of .7% during 1986-89, but also in Oceania. It stagnated in western Europe, and increased slightly in eastern Europe and the USSR. In Asia growth was sustained, in Latin America and the Caribbean production lagged behind population increase, in the Near East the market did not progress, and in Africa production fell behind the levels of the early 1980s. During 1986-89 global cereal production increased marginally because of 1/2 of the growth of 1981-85 in developing countries. It increased 3% annually in eastern Europe and the USSR. In the Far East cereal output was promising despite an earlier slump of paddy output. Per caput cereal production did not increase in any other developing regions compared with the levels of 1981-85. In 49 of 72 developing countries food production fell behind population growth compared with 1985-89. There was a pronounced decrease in 80% of African countries, in 65% in the Near East, Asia, and the Pacific, while in Latin America and the Caribbean per caput production stayed the same. Food production surpassed population growth in countries experienced a decline of per caput production. In 1990 the prospects are promising for another bountiful cereal harvest to meet projected consumption provided bad weather does not intervene.
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