Your search found 18 Results

  1. 1
    326616

    World fertility patterns 2007. [Wallchart].

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2008 Jan. [2] p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/269)

    The last decades of the twentieth century witnessed a major transformation in world fertility: total fertility fell from an average of 4.5 children per woman in 1970-1975 to 2.6 children per woman in 2000-2005. This change was driven mostly by developing countries whose fertility dropped by nearly half (from 5.4 to 2.9 children per woman) with the decline being less marked among the least developed countries where fertility remains high (their average fertility declined from 6.6 children per woman in 1970-1975 to 5.0 in 2000-2005). This chart presents some of the data available to assess the change in fertility taking place in the countries of the world. For each of the 195 countries or areas with at least 100,000 inhabitants in 2007, it displays available unadjusted data on total fertility, age-specific fertility and the mean age at childbearing for two points in time: the first as close as possible to 1970 and the second as close as possible to 2005. Data on total fertility for the world as a whole, the development groups and major areas are estimates referring to 1970-1975 and 2000-2005 derived from the 2006 Revision of World Population Prospects. The chart thus presents regional estimates of fertility change and part of the basic data underlying those estimates. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    084970

    Levels, age patterns and trends of sterility in selected countries South of the Sahara.

    Larsen U

    In: International Population Conference / Congres International de la Population, Montreal 1993, 24 August - 1st September. Volume 1, [compiled by] International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]. Liege, Belgium, IUSSP, 1993. 593-603.

    Using data collected in cooperation with the World Fertility Surveys (WFS) and the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) the aim was to determine the levels, age patterns, and trends of sterility in benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, Togo, and Uganda. In sub-Saharan Africa, 10 countries completed a WFS survey from 1977 to 1982. From 1986 to 1991 a DHS survey was carried out in 13 countries. In Sudan, Lesotho and Mauritania only ever married women were eligible for interview. All women (generally age 15-49) were eligible in the rest of the sub-Saharan countries. The selected samples included women who had been sexually active at least 5 years. Subsequently the levels and range patterns of sterility were estimated for each country and by produce within each country. The inhibiting effect of sterility on fertility was also assessed. Age-specific rates of sterility were estimated by the subsequently infertile estimator. At age 34, the proportions sterile reached .41 in Cameroon, .11 in Burundi, and intermediate levels in the rest of the countries. Burundi had the lowest prevalence of sterility at all ages, Cameroon had the highest up to about age 42, and at older ages Sudan and Lesotho ranked highest. In general, sterility rose moderately up to age 35 and then more rapidly after age 40. Sterility was particularly prevalent along major rivers, lakes, and coastal areas. Sterility was relatively high around Lake Victoria as well as in the Coast region of Kenya in 1977-78. Primary sterility was less than 3% in Burundi, Ghana, Kenya, Togo, and in Ondo state, Nigeria; 3-5% in Lesotho, Liberia, Mali, and Nigeria (1990), Senegal, Sudan (1989-90) and Uganda; and 5% or more in Cameroon, Nigeria (1981-82), and Sudan (1978-79). Differential disease patterns caused the most variation in age-specific rates of sterility. Under the hypothesis of Burundi levels of age specific sterility and unchanged fertility, and African woman in the age range from 20 to 44 would have an additional .5 to 2 children.
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  3. 3
    006292

    Country case study: Korea.

    Kim TI; Cho NH

    In: Jain SC, Kanagaratnam K, Paul JE, ed. Management development in population programs. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Dept. of Health Administration and Carolina Population Center, 1981. 113-51.

    This case study examines the management development aspect of the Korean national family planning program which was initially adopted in 1962. The nation's goal in the 1st 10 years of the program was to reduce the rate of population growth from 2.9-2.0%. Subsequent targets were established to reduce the growth rate to 1.5% by 1976 and 1.3% by 1981. Recent census figures indicate that these latter figures were not reached. The total fertility rate declined from 6.0 in 1960 to 2.7 in 1978, a 55% decline. The age specific fertility rate also declined except for women between 25-29 years of age. Program costs during the last 18 years totaled about $126.7 million; 80% of these funds came from the government and the rest from foreign assistance. 3811 full time employees were engaged in the program in 1979; 4.9% at the central level, 8.1% at the provincial level, and 87% at the urban and county level. 69% are considered family planning workers. Between 1962-79, 6.1 million cumulative acceptors have received contraceptive services. The IUD was the principal method of contraception until 1976 when female sterilization services were introduced. The contraceptive practice rate has increased from 9-49% between 1964-78. Organization of the program is structured on a national, provincial, and local basis. Assessment of the program indicates that there has been success but the following problems still remain in the, 1) rural oriented program structure, 2) high discontinuation rates of contraceptive usage and inadequate follow-up, 3) high turnover of field workers, 4) difficulties in using local civil administration services, 5) poor quality research, 6) weak management training, and 7) poor relationships among special projects. Other program management problems exist in planning, resource allocation, training, use of private clinics, coordination, interagency coordination, program supervision, recording systems, and overall program evaluation. Emphasis is placed on the operational and managerial capacity of the program managers to successfully implement family planning programs. Improvements in the current managerial system and the role of international agencies are discussed.
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  4. 4
    006622

    Management development in the Korean national family planning program.

    Kim TI; Cho NH

    Journal of Population and Health Studies. 1981 Dec; 1(1):135-78.

    This paper concentrates on the management development aspects of the Korean family planning program which began in 1962. Population growth rate in Korea went from 2.9% in 1962 to 2% in 1971, and total fertility rate declined 57% from 1960 to 1979. Program cost during 1962-80 totaled $147.7 million, of which 81.2% came from the national government. It has been calculated that between 1962-80 about 3.5 million births were averted. In December 1980 the program employed a total of 3811 full time employees in 4 different organizations; currently the coverage is about 1 family planning worker for every 4200 urban couples, and for every 1200 rural couples. Major methods of birth control used the IUD, the condom, the pill, female sterilization, male sterilization, and menstrual regulation. A total of 1.107 million acceptors received services between 1962-80. Responsibility for the national program rests with the Ministry of Health and with the Economic Planning Board. If it is reasonable to say that the program has been successful, there are still problems to be solved which include: 1) an inadequate approach to contraceptive services in rural areas, 2) a high discontinuation rate of contraceptive usage, 3) high turnover of fieldworkers, 4) poor coordination with other health programs, 5) poor quality of research, and 6) weak management training. Improvements in program management functions include program planning, better distribution of economic resources, better training and use of personnel, and better use of private clinics and mobile vans. Also necessary are interministerial and interagency coordination, improvements in the record reporting system, and better program evaluation. The current management system is making efforts to integrate family planning services with maternal and child health and expand the role of international agencies in training courses and research investment.
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  5. 5
    005087

    Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Mortality Levels, Patterns and Trends in Africa and their Policy Implications.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa. Population Division

    In: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa [UNECA]. Population dynamics: fertility and mortality in Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, UNECA, 1981 May. 1-31. (ST/ECA/SER.A/1; UNFPA PROJ. No. RAF/78/P17)

    The Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Mortality Levels, Patterns and Trends in Africa, held in Monrovia late in 1976, examined the various aspects of the interrelationships of fertility and mortality to development process and planning in Africa. Focus in this report of the Expert Group Meeting is on the following: background to fertility and mortality in Africa; usefulness and relevance of existing methodology for collecting and processing and for analyzing fertility and mortality data; fertility and mortality levels and patterns in Africa -- regional studies and country studies; fertility trends and differentials in Africa; mortality trends and differentials; biological and socio-cultural aspects of infertility and sterility; the significance of breast feeding for fertility and mortality; nutrition, disease and mortality in young children; evolution of causes of death and the use of related statistics in mortality studies in Africa; and fertility and mortality in national development. It was suggested that a strategy for development with equity must direct itself, among other things, to the issue of how to monitor progress in the elimination of underdevelopment, poverty, malnutrition, poor health, bad housing, poor education and employment through the use of indicators which measured changes in those variables at the national and local levels. In order to achieve development with equity, it was obvious that demographers and policymakers should ensure that there was regular monitoring of socioeconomic differentials in mortality and morbidity rates since such differentials essentially measured inequality in a society. The following were included among the recommendations made: recognizing that fertility and mortality data for a majority of African countries are now 20 years out of date, efforts should be directed toward collecting and analyzing fertility and mortality data by the use of both direct and indirect methods; and international and national organizations should support country efforts to improve the supply of data and analytical work on census and other existing data.
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  6. 6
    800088

    Guyana.

    Intercom. 1980 Jan; 8(1):14.

    Guyana, a former British colony of about 830,000 population, in the 1970 Census had a composition of 52% East Indian, 31% African, and the balance Amerindian, Portuguese, Chinese, and mixed descent. The crude birth rate is believed to have peaked in 1957-59 at 44.5/1000; by 1978 the birth rate had dropped to about 28.3/1000. The World Fertility Survey of 1975 found that a total fertility rate of 7.1 children/woman in 1961 dropped to 4.4 in 1974. The largest decline in childbearing was in the over 30 age group and the under 20's. Knowledge of contraceptive methods is high; over 95% of a sample of ever-married women had heard of some method. Contraceptive usage is not as high as knowledge; of women exposed and with a partner, 38% said they were contracepting. The pill (11%) and female sterilization (10%) were the 2 most popular effective methods. Usage was lowest among women in common law marriages and visiting unions. Guyanese women overall preferred 4.6 children. Women age 20 thought 3.4 ideal; those over 40 reported 5.8 children as their choice. African women, who marry later than Indian women, preferred more children, 4.8, compared to 4.6 for Indian women. Rural women wanted 4.9 children while urban women wanted 4.3. The crude birth and death rates combine to give a rate of natural increase of 2.1% per year.
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  7. 7
    797958

    Korea profile: family planning policies and programs.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, IPPF, 1979 Oct. 77 p.

    During the 2nd half of the 1950s the necessity for family planning became an issue in Korea. The 1st and little-observed start was made in 1957 when family planning was introduced into the training program of the official Home Demonstration Program. Field workers were encouraged to convey their knowledge to village women. The contribution of the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK) to the development of Korea's national family planning program appears to have been unique in the history of the world family planning movement. No other private and voluntary family planning association is recorded as having, over a 20-year period, worked so intimately within the national programs. In discussing family planning policies and programs in Korea, focus is on the following: national history and population growth, population growth rates 1925-1979, fertility trends to 1975, primary conclusions of the National Fertility Survey, government policy and programs for the 1960-1975 period, the first 10 years of program, salient developments in the first 10 years, the 1970s, the new approach, the 4th plan (1977-1981), and the PPFK and its role. The 4th plan recognized that 1/2 of the protected couples were already obtaining contraception from the private sector and this was encouraged as the primary trend in the cities and among those in better economic situations. The major government effort was concentrated in the rural and impoverished urban and peri-urban areas with the goal of integrating family planning services and education with other development and health programs.
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  8. 8
    681416

    Fertility in Nigeria.

    Van de Walle E

    In: Brass W, Coale AJ, Demeny P, Heisel DF, Lorimer F, Romaniuk A, Van de Walle E. The demography of tropical Africa. Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 1968. 515-27.

    There is no information on fertility or mortality representative of numbers of Nigerian people. Vital statistics are registered in Lagos but are not representative of the country. The first census was taken in 1952-53 but contained no information of fertility and mortality. The 1962 census was invalidated. The political confusion surrounding the 1963 census will probably invalidate it. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. The 1963 census of 56 million is an overestimate, but is much larger than the other countries. According to UN estimates based on the 1953 census, the gross reproduction rate was 3.7 and the crude birth rate between 53 and 57. Age data for boys is recorded systematically as lower than those of girls of the same real age until age 15. Slower physical development and the desire to avoid taxation may account for the discrepancies. Certain tribes tend to conceal their number of children, particularly the first born. Among Moslems it is impossible to check the number of married women who are in "purdah." Migration from and to areas of Nigeria probably affected the young adult male and was not reported. The area of highest fertility was estimated to be in Western Nigeria, particularly in the Yoruba region. The eastern region includes one low-fertility area, Cameroons Province, with a gross reproduction rate under 3.
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  9. 9
    795858

    Screening procedures for detecting errors in maternity history data.

    Brass W

    In: United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, World Fertility Survey, and International Institute for Population Studies. Regional Workshop on Techniques of Analysis of World Fertility Survey data: report and selected papers. New York, UN, 1979. 15-36. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 44)

    The World Fertility Survey provides data from national maternity history inquiries. Detecting trends and differentials is only as accurate as the data collected. Where evidence suggests error, the analysis may be restricted to obtaining only a measure of fertility level. The basic data is the date and order of birth of each live born child for a sample of women in the reproductive period, according to the current age of the women and their duration of marriage. The cohort marker is usually separated into 7 5-year classes determined by age at interview; sample of women is representative of the female population of childbearing age. Total births for each cohort are allocated to different periods preceding the survey date. Reading down the columns gives the births to different cohorts over different ranges in the same time interval preceding the survey. To detect omissions, check the overall sex ratio and the sex ratios by periods; examine the trends of infant mortality by cohorts and periods; an excess of male mortality over female indicates poor reporting of dead female children and/or of sex (a common omission). From data on age of mother and number of surviving children at the survey and estimates of mortality level, the numbers of births at preceding periods may be calculated.
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  10. 10
    795762

    World population trends and policies: 1977 monitoring report. Vol. 1. Population trends.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, UN, 1979. 279 p. (Population studies No. 62)

    This report was prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat on the basis of inputs by the Division, the International Labour Organisation, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and the World Health Organization. Tables are presented for sex compositions of populations; demographic variables; percentage rates of change of unstandardized maternal mortality rates and ratios; population enumerated in the United States and born in Latin America; urban and rural population, annual rates of growth, and percentage of urban in total population, the world, the more developed and the less developed regions, 1950-75; crude death rates, by rural and urban residence, selected more developed countries; childhood mortality rates, age 1-4 years; and many others. The world population amounted to nearly 4 billion in 1975, a 60% increase over the 1950 population of 2.5 billion. The global increase is about 2%. The average death rate in developing areas has dropped from 25/1000 in 1950 to about 15/1000, a 40% decline. Estimates of birth rates in developing countries are 40-45 for 1950 and 35-40/1000 for 1975. Most of the shifts in vital trends in the less developed regions are still at an early stage or of limited geographical scope.
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  11. 11
    783432

    Fertility differentials in Karnataka 1971: a census analysis.

    KANBARGI R

    Seminar Paper, Bombay, India, International Institute for Population Studies, June 1978. 9 p

    In the 1971 census in India, data on current fertility were collected for the 1st time. Various factors affecting fertility (fertility differentials) were revealed after studying the data: 1) Rural and urban residence data show higher fertility in rural areas, with total marital fertility rate estimated to be 4.56 and 4.09 in rural and urban populations, respectively. The difference was mainly due to lower fertility among the currently married women of urban areas in the age group of 18 years and above. 2) Educational attainment of women data indicate that fertility among the illiterate group was lower as compared to those women who have read up to the graduate level in rural areas, whereas urban fertility was lower in all categories except graduate level or above. 3) Age at marriage data indicate that in Karnataka the total marital fertility rates declined sharply as age at marriage increased in both urban and rural areas. 4) Religion data show that total marital fertility by religion and place of residence was lowest among Hindu women. Christians exhibited highest fertility in rural areas, and Muslims had the highest urban fertility. 5) Differentials in scheduled caste, tribe, and nonscheduled population show lower fertility rates among nonscheduled as compared to scheduled population. Among the scheduled castes and tribes, the latter show higher fertility.
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  12. 12
    782923

    Afghanistan: a demographic uncertainty.

    SPITLER JF; FRANK NB

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1978. (International Research Document No. 6) 12p

    Compiling population data for Afghanistan is made difficult by the nomadic population. Estimates of their numbers range from 1-2 million people, 9-14% of the total. A 1972-73 survey of the settled population accumulated data from approximately 21,000 households and 120,000 individuals. Pregnancy and marital histories were acquired from 10,000 women. The age-specific fertility rate was 8 per woman; crude birth rate, 43/1000. Estimated life expectancy for males was 34-42 years, for females, 36-41 years. The crude death rate is 28-32/1000. Of the 10,020,099 total settled population, 5,373,249 were male, 4,646,850 were female. The Afghan Family Guidance Association opened the first family planning clinic in 1968. By 1972 there were 18 clinics in operation. When surveyed, 3% of women over 15 knew about family planning, only 1/3 of these had used a family planning method. 66% males and 90% females over 15 were ever-married. About 11% of those over 6 years were literate, 18.7% males, 2.8% females.
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  13. 13
    781374

    The population program in Colombia. Statement, April 25, 1978.

    BAIR WD

    In: United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Select Committee on Population. Population and development: status and trends of family planning/population programs in developing countries. Vol. 2. Hearings, April 25-27, 1978. Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978. p. 331-354

    USAID became involved in developing a population program in Colombia in 1967 by helping Colombian institutions to plan their strategy, establish informal communication among themselves, and seek international financial and technical support. USAID provided a large part of the necessary resources itself, either directly or through USAID-funded organizations. The program that evolved combined private and public efforts in the areas of training, information and education, service delivery, and research/evaluation with a shifting emphasis as was appropriate to meet changing needs. Overall, some 51 million dollars were invested during a 10-year period with approximately 15 million cycles of oral contraceptives and 116 million condoms delivered to about 1,900,000 new acceptors. Thus the 1967 birth rate of 42/1000 dropped below 32/1000 by 1975, leading to a projected Colombian population of 35 million rather than 50 million in the year 2000. It has been estimated that 40-60% of this reduction is attributable to the organized family planning program. The Colombian experience indicates that religious belief will not hinder family planning activities, that strong motivation is not necessarily a precursor to establishing a desire for a small family, that a formal population policy (although desirable) does little to strengthen a program, that availability of services and supplies is more important to success than socioeconomic factors, and that integration with maternal and child health activities is not essential. On the other hand, a well-balanced program which provides services in an appropriate fashion will be accepted wholeheartedly by poor, rural people as well as rich, urban dwellers. Colombia's population problems are not solved, indeed assistance will be needed until birth rates reach 20/1000, but user demand has been well established and a brighter future has been obtained.
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  14. 14
    772039

    Family planning helps in Sri Lanka.

    CHINNATAMBY S

    Draper World Population Fund Report. 1977 Summer; 4:23-25.

    Sri Lanka has undergone a classic demographic transition over the last 30 years. In 1971, the country was 1 of the most densely populated agricultural countries in the world. By 1975, Sri Lanka's birthrate had declined to 27.2, the lowest rate in South Asia. This decline in fertility is attributed to increased contraceptive use, due to a greater awareness of modern family planning methods and easier access to contraceptive facilities. A brief history of the family planning movement in the country is presented. The Sri Lanka family planning program today illustrates a cooperative venture between private organizations and government programming. High levels of celibacy and late marriage in Sri Lanka, caused by demographic, economic, and educational factors, have also resulted in a declining percentage of married women in the under-30 age group.
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  15. 15
    762138

    Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

    Furnia AH

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1976. (Syncrisis, The Dynamics of Health No. 18) 149 p

    There is no sector of Pakistani life which more graphically reflects the great sacrifice it took to make Pakistan a viable state than the health sector. Malaria, tuberculosis, and cholera continue to constitute threats to health. Gastrointestinal, infectious, and other parasitic diseases continue to contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality. These diseases are exacerbated by extremely primitive water supplies and waste disposal, bad housing, nutritional problems, and an increasingly heavy population growth. Public health resources to cope with these conditions have not previously been available. Pakistan's poor helth environment appears to result from widespread infectious and communicable diseases, poverty, and sociocultural attitudes which inhibit improving the environment, and ineffective policies administered by limited numbers of inadequately trained health workers, affecting both the urban poor and the rural population. In the latest 5-year plan, the 5th, 1975-1980, there is increasing attention to health. Regarding family planning, it has been suggested that the government has finally begun to recognize that urgent and dramatic steps are necessary to reduce Pakistan's population growth rate. The government has adopted a policy of using conventional contraceptives as the most acceptable method of contraception in Pakistan. A program of distributing the oral contraceptive without medical or paramedical constraints had been instituted, and the government has undertaken to subsidize the distribution of th oral contraceptive and the condom through some 50,000 outlets at 2.5 cents per monthly supply.
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  16. 16
    730732

    Orientation book, 5th edition.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]

    [Unpublished] 1973 Jul. 20 p.

    The booklet provides an introduction to Indonesia's national family planning program, and summarizes USAID's assistance to this program. Data are included on the following topics: 1) demographic and economic synopsis; 2) population projections, 3) distribution of land and people, 4) age-specific fertility, 5) family planning program economic benefits, 6) legislative history of family planning, 7) Indonesian family planning structure, 8) major Government and donor program activities, 9) IDA/UNFPA joint project, 10) program results 1971-1973, 11) new acceptor s' characteristics, 12) program impact, 13) program financial resources, 14) USAID population program assistance 1968-1973 -- its primary components and a program description.(AUTHOR'S, MODIFIED)
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  17. 17
    722344

    Fifth annual report, 1970.

    Singapore. Population and Family Planning Board

    Singapore, 1972 (xi). 60 p

    This report presents a detailed analysis of the demographic situation in Singapore, tracing trends in birthrates, fertility rates, and population growth. Family planning services available during 1970 are thoroughly explored, including their funding, birth control methods, and organization and administration. Detailed analyses are given of acceptors of birth control methods by method accepted as well as by acceptor characteristics such as age, parity, education, and race. The Family Planning and Population Board recruited 162,485 acceptors between 1966 and 1970. During that period there was a dramatic decline in the crude birthrate, which was 28.6/1000 in 1966 and 22.1/1000 in 1970. Fertility continued to decline in all age groups and in all ethnic groups during 1970.
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  18. 18
    712010

    Long acting steroid formulations.

    Rudel HW; Kincl FA

    In: Diczfalusy, E. and Borel, U., eds. Control of human fertility. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Nobel Symposium, Sodergarn, Lidingo, Sweden, May 27-29, 1970. New York, Wiley, 1971. 39-51.

    A drug delivery system providing for a controlled release of progestogen and affecting ovulation and steroidogenesis minimally would deal effectively with some of the problems associated with contraception. 2 systems being developed which fit these criteria are the primary topics of discourse in this article. In 1 system an implant consists of a polymer membrane of polydimethylsiloxane (PDS) and contains the progestogen in crystalline form. Major problems with the PDS implants include a lack of intraindividual constance of release and interindividual variation in the slope of the decay in release. In the second system the implant consists of a lipid-steroid membrane containing a steroid. In this implant the concentration of the steroid in the membrane and the nature of the lipid phase may be important in determining the pattern of release. In vivo metabolic studies with lipid-steroid pellets are limited, but the patterns of output may be similar to those seen with PDS implants. Because of rate problems, a shorter regime slow-release implant seems more feasible than a longer lasting system. Surgical difficulties associated with the implantation and removal of the PDS implant make the choice of a lipid-steroid micropellet preparation more feasible for a short-term regimen. The discussion, following the main body of the article, focuses primarily on problems associated with implants.
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