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Measles immunisation before the age of nine months? Position statement by the Expanded Programme on Immunisation of the World Health Organisation.
Lancet. 1988 Dec 10; 2(8624):1356-7.In developing countries, where measles in young infants results in high mortality, it would be advantageous to immunize children at 6 months. However, the efficacy of standard-dose vaccines at 6 months is low, and a second dose at 9 months is required, which all too often is not given. At a meeting in Washington, D.C., sponsored by the World Health Organization, the US Agency for International Development, and the US National Institutes of Health. Comparative data were presented for the higher-than-standard dose Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine, the AIK-C vaccine, and Schwarz vaccines given earlier than 9 months, with standard-dose Schwarz measles vaccine given at 9 months. The data were reviewed by the Expanded Program on Immunization and the Global Advisory Group, which concluded that higher-than-standard dose vaccines for use before 9 months needed further evaluation and countries should continue to administer standard vaccines after 9 months except among high-risk populations, where standard dose vaccines should be given at 6 months and the children reimmunized after 9 months.
AIDS. 1988 Jun; 2(3):219-21.In many areas of Africa where AIDS is endemic, facilities for laboratory diagnosis are too limited to reliably diagnose opportunistic infections. Therefore, the World Health Organization defined a clinical case definition of AIDS in which 2 major signs and at least 1 minor sign must be present to diagnose AIDS. The major signs are: weight loss greater than 10%, diarrhea for more than 1 month, and prolonged fever for more than 1 month. The minor signs are: persistent cough for more than 1 month, generalized pruritic dermatitis, recurrent herpes zoster, oropharyngeal candidiasis, chronic disseminated herpes simplex, and generalized lymphadenopathy. (The presence of Kaposi's sarcoma or cryptococcal meningitis are sufficient by themselves for a diagnosis of AIDS.) 72 patients in 4 hospitals in Equateur Province of Zaire were used to test the reliability of the clinical case definition. 21 (29%) of the patients were HIV seropositive, and 22 (32%) fulfilled the clinical criteria. From these data the sensitivity of the case definition was 52%, specificity was 78%, positive predictive value was 50%, and negative predictive value was 80%. Since positive predictive value rises with prevalence and HIV infection is maximal in the 20-40 age group, restricting the case definition to this age group would increase its predictive value. Exclusion of patients with tuberculosis would reduce the number of false positive results.
ACTA CARDIOLOGICA. 1988; 43(2):133-9.Age-adjusted mortality trends among men aged 35 to 74 in developed countries are analyzed for the last 35 years using WHO data for seven selected countries. "Mortality from all causes has shown the greatest decrease in Japan and the greatest increase in Hungary. From 1970 on cardiovascular mortality demonstrates a downward trend in all countries, except in Sweden where it remains virtually unchanged and Hungary where it rises markedly. Cancer mortality shows an upward trend which levels off during the last 15 years with the exception of Hungary. Changes in dietary and smoking habits and mass treatment of hypertension offer the most plausible explanation for the observed changes." (EXCERPT)
Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Population Division, 1988. 1 p.This sheet gives the 1987 demographic estimates for Asian and Pacific countries and areas. Countries and areas are grouped under ESCAP, East Asia, South-East Asia, South Asia and the Pacific. Estimates are offered for mid-1987 population, average annual growth rate, crude birth rate, crude death rate, total fertility rate, male and female life expectancy at birth, infant mortality rate, % aged 0-14, % aged 65+, density, and population projected to 2010. Also included are 2 charts depicting the estimated and projected population of the ESCAP region by broad age group for 1960, 1985, and 2010, and the estimated and projected total fertility rate of ESCAP subregions, 1960 to 2010. Some estimates for the ESCAP region include a mid-1987 population of 2,805,056,000; a 1.82% average annual growth rate; a 27.5 crude birth rate; a 9.3 crude death rate; a fertility rate of 3.3; male and female life expectancies of 61.8 and 64.1, respectively; an infant mortality rate of 72; 89 persons/square kilometer; 33.5% of the population aged 0-14, 4.8% of the population aged 65+; and a population projected to reach 3,866,375,000 by 2010.
Baltimore, Maryland/London, England, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988. lvi, 439 p.This is the tenth in a series of population projections prepared by the World Bank and the third to be published separately. The introduction summarizes the methodology and assumptions and also "presents a brief history of the Bank's projections, delineates the sources of the principal data used, compares the Bank's estimates with those of the United Nations and other organizations, and provides summary demographic information on the new country groupings (by World Bank operational region and department) created by the recent reorganization of the Bank." The projections are given by age group and sex for five-year intervals up to the year 2030 for countries and regions. (EXCERPT)