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  1. 1
    201464

    Trends and patterns of mortality in the ESCAP Region: comparative analysis.

    Ruzicka L; Kane P

    In: Mortality and health issues in Asia and the Pacific: report of a seminar held at Beijing in collaboration with the Institute of Population Research, People's University of China from 22 to 27 October 1986. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 33-105. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 78.; ST/ESCAP/485.)

    This study outlines the mortality transition in 6 developing countries: Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. The path and pattern of the mortality transition in these countries is compared to the transition in other countries in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region. These 6 countries have striking similarities to others in the region: 1) they have all been exposed to colonialism in the past; 2) 30 or 40 years ago they were very similar in their demographic characteristics, and only in the last decade or so have they become increasingly heterogenous; and 3) they have suffered from the stagnation of economic growth and inflation. In at least 1 of the 6 countries, the Republic of Korea, mortality probably started declining early in this century. In Pakistan and Bangladesh, during the British colonial administration of the 1920s, the early decline of mortality was probably limited to urban areas. The onset of the mortality transition is more difficult to date in Thailand and Indonesia, but it probably did not begin before the mid-1940s. It is unlikely that major improvements in Chinese mortality began before the 1950s. In all 6 countries age and sex specific mortality rates declined, though the pattern of these changes varies greatly among them. In most instances, significant reductions in infancy and early childhood mortality occurred, lesser ones among adults, and least affected were older people. In some countries, the reduction of female mortality at some or all ages was proportionately greater than that of males, with a subsequent widening of the gap between the survival chances of males and females. There have been no major changes in the age and sex structure of the 6 populations other than those which have originated from the recent decline in fertility in some of them. The reduced numbers of higher order births, birth spacing, and the postponement of marriage and of births to very young mothers must have reduced infant, child, and maternal mortality. A significant contribution to the general decline of mortality accrues from 2 major trends: 1) rising urbanization, and 2) increasing adult literacy, especially of women. On the available evidence, it appears that in all the countries except Bangladesh the nutritional situation of the population has improved. Health care planning has been an integral part of developmental plans in all 6 countries of the ESCAP region. The health delivery systems in all 6 countries have greatly expanded in the last 35 years. 3 characteristics have made the mortality decline unique: the magnitude, speed, and universality of the decline.
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  2. 2
    201463

    Mortality and health issues in Asia and the Pacific: report of a seminar held at Beijing in collaboration with the Institute of Population Research, People's University of China from 22 to 27 October 1986.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. vi, 169 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 78.; ST/ESCAP/485.)

    The Seminar on Mortality and Health Issues was held at Beijing from 22 to 27 October 1986 as a cooperative venture between the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and the Institute of Population Research, People's University of China, as part of the project, "Analysis of Trends and Patterns of Mortality in the ESCAP Region." Part 1 of the report includes a summary of the Beijing recommendations on health and mortality and the report of the seminar. Part 2 contains papers on a comparative analysis on trends and patterns of mortality in the ESCAP region, an overview of the epidemiological situation in the region, health for all by the year 2000, and inequalities in health.
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  3. 3
    040810

    Global estimates and projections of population by sex and age: the 1984 assessment.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. ix, 385 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/70.)

    The report presents the estimated and projected sex and age distributions according to the medium, high, and low variants for population growth for 1950-2025 for countries and areas generally with a population of 300,000 and over in 1980. The data for smaller countries or areas are included in the regional population totals and are not given separately. This report supplements the report on the WORLD POPULATION PROSPECTS: ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS AS ASSESSED IN 1984, which presents methods, data, assumptions, and a summary of major findings of the estimates and projections, as well as selected demographic indicators for every country or area of the world. The sex and age distributions of population in this report are based on the 10th round of the global demographic assessments undertaken by the UN Secretariat. They are derived from data that were available to the UN generally by the beginning of 1985; therefore, the figures presented supercede those that were previously published by the UN.
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