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  1. 1

    Traditional birth attendants: activities, problems, and prospects for the future.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Unpublished] 1979. 14 p.

    There has been a change in approach in the last few years to health development. Primary health care, with an emphasis on popular control and participation and 4-aspected care, consisting of preventive, promotive, curative, and rehabilitative services, is being stressed for developing areas. It is important that primary care be integrated into the total health system and that the personnel who provided primary care be respected by other personnel within the system. It is with this in mind that increased attention has been focussed on the utilization and training of TBAs (traditional birth attendants). TBAs can at least function better if they function with clean hands and clean instruments, a practice which cna be taught with training. Problems involved in training TBAs revolve around their own personal characteristics, the lack of acceptance by others in the organized health system, and characteristics of their communities, e.g., resistance to modern innovations. Government-sponsored training programs must offer, as incentives for taking training, subsidized fees for TBAs who accept training. Trainers must incorporate knowledge of the local communities into their courses. Systematic and direct supervision and evaluation of trained TBAs is necessary to evaluate the results of ttaining. It is actually difficult to measure the success of training. However, itshould be offered with the knowledge that it will do no harm and may do substantial good. WHO efforts in this area are summarized.
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  2. 2

    World Population trends and prospects by country, 1950-2000: summary report of the 1978 assessment.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, UN, 1979. 98 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/33)

    The population projections presented are based on the cohort component method in which the population of each country classified by age and sex for the base year 1975 is projected forward on the basis of assumed future fertility, mortality, and migration rates. The world total population of 4,033 million in 1975 is projected to reach 6,199 million in 2000, about 55 million below the 1973 projection. The downward adjustment is the net result of projected fertility rates reflecting recent declines in some countries, and an upward adjustment of the bench-mark population of 1975 by 65 million, much of which is due to the upward revision of China's population from 839 to 895 million. For the less developed regions the current rate of growth is revised downward from 2.36% to 2.21% for l975-80. In the more developed regions the rate of growth is revised from .82 to .67 %. Future growth rates were revised from 1.94% to 1.84% for the less developed regions and from .59% to .51% for developed regions toward the last quinquennial period of this century. The percentage of the world living in less developed regions will increase from 72.9 in 1975 to 79.5 while the percentage for the more developed regions will decline from 27.1 to 20.5. The percentages will increase for Africa, Latin America, and South Asia but will decrease for North America, East Asia, Europe, and the U.S.S.R.
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  3. 3



    In: Holland, W.W., Ipsen, J., and Kostrzewski, J., eds. Measurement of levels of health. Copenhagen, Denmark, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, 1979. (WHO Regional Publications, European Series No. 7) p. 413-417

    The ratio of accident mortality rate to total mortality rate indicates both the importance of accidents within the total mortality and the socioeconomic and industrial development of a country. WHO between 1950 and 1971 studied accident mortality in childhood in various countries and found the average accident mortality in 1 to 4 years olds was 32.4/100,000 for males and 22.8/100,000 for females. This rate decreased to 23.1 for 5 to 14 year old males and 10.9 for females in the same age group. Types of accidents vary by country with Asia and Oceania reporting more accidental drownings than motor vehicle accidents for boys age 1 to 4. Home accidents are more frequent among the older age group.
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  4. 4

    Thailand: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 p

    This report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.
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