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  1. 1

    [Latin America: the state of family planning programs since 1973] America Latina: situacion de los programmas de planificacion de la familia hasta 1973.

    SOTO Z

    Santiago, Centro Latinamericano de Demografia, April 1975. 73 p. (Serie A, No. 130).

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  2. 2

    Contraceptive services family planning programs Western Hemisphere Region.


    New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, September 1975. 149 p

    The primary focus in this 4th edition in the series of annual "overviews" of the contraceptive services in the Western Hemisphere Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation is on clinical facilities, medical and paramedical services, and on the delivery of contraceptive methods by family planning programs. Family planning services link information on methods for spacing or limiting children to their availability, and they provide education on the advantages of contracepting. They seek to motivate acceptors to continue their chosen method. Counseling and information and education activities, although an integral component of family planning programs, are not included among the topics considered in the "Overview." In the Western Hemisphere Region, the most notable innovation has involved the community-based distribution of contraceptives (CBD), and for the 1st time, non-clinical distribution of contraceptives by associations in the region is a part of the "Overview." The Annual Reports submitted by IPPF affiliates and published and unpublished data from other programs are the primary sources of statistics for this report. Information for 1973 encompassed 29 associations related to IPPF and 4 other programs, and for 1974, 28 associations and 5 other programs could be covered. As for clinical input of family planning programs, the affiliates reported to the Regional Office of IPPF the number and types of clinics, weekly session hours, hours of medical and paramedical personnel. Data on the output of clinical activities of family planning programs for the calendar year were limited to 1st visits or new acceptors by methods, 1st revisits of the year or continuing (old) acceptors by method, number of revisits by old and new acceptors by method, demographic characteristics of new acceptors by method, and voluntary male and female sterilization performed or referred. Data on contraceptive services and clinical activities are summarized and presented in the form of tables.
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  3. 3

    Smoking and its effects on health.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1975. 100 p. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 568)

    The objectives of a WHO Expert Committee on Smoking and its Effects on Health, which met in Geneva from December 9-14, 1974, were: 1) to summarize and restate in general terms the evidence on the harmful effects to health of smoking; and 2) to propose actions directed towards discouraging smoking. The Committee was asked to summarize the present evidence of the ill effects of smoking on health, and to suggest action that the WHO might recommend to member states and interested health organizations. The purpose of the present report is to formulate information obtained in general terms, and to recommend certain lines of action. Summaries of additional evidence on the effects of smoking on health since the 1970 report of the Director-General include: 1) smoking habits and total mortality; 2) cigarettes as a cause of excess mortality; 3) lung cancer; 4) other respiratory diseases; 5) ischaemic heart disease; 6) cerebrovascular diseases; 7) peptic ulcer; 8) smoking in pregnancy; 9) dependence on nicotine; and 10) involuntary exposure to smoke. Additional information is presented on worldwide smoking trends; smoking control measures; educational approaches; and legislation for antismoking campaigns. It is concluded that the evidence reviewed by the Committee leaves no doubt that many millions of lives are adversely affected by cigarette smoking each year, resulting in several recommendations for implementation by governments and health authorities, and by WHO. 3 annexes include: 1) smoking and health; 2) the limitation of smoking; and 3) legislation to combat smoking hazards: a code of practice.
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  4. 4

    Overview 1973-1974: contraceptive services, family planning programmes, Western Hemisphere Region.

    Kumar S

    New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, Medical Division, September 1975. 49 p

    This is a compilation of family planning services provided by associations operating in the Western Hemisphere Region. Separate tables are compiled for 1973 and 1974. A list of each family planning program included in the study is appended to the report. The report does not guarantee the completeness or accuracy of the data; problems with reliability of data point up the necessity for a system of standardized record-keeping. Tables cover program input in the form of clinical facilities, medical and paramedical services, and the delivery of contraceptive methods by family planning programs and community-based distribution systems. Charts on program output include information on acceptor characteristics, numbers of new and continuing acceptors, numbers of voluntary sterilizations, and percentages of other methods in use.
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