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Washington, D.C., World Bank, Latin America and the Caribbean Region, Human Development Department, 2007 Oct. 55 p. (Policy Research Working Paper No. 4377)A new literature on the nature of and policies for youth in Latin America is emerging, but there is still very little known about who are the most vulnerable young people. This paper aims to characterize the heterogeneity in the youth population and identify ex ante the youth that are at-risk and should be targeted with prevention programs. Using non-parametric methodologies and specialized youth surveys from Mexico and Chile, the authors quantify and characterize the different subgroups of youth, according to the amount of risk in their lives, and find that approximately 20 percent of 18 to 24 year old Chileans and 40 percent of the same age cohort in Mexico are suffering the consequences of a range of negative behaviors. Another 8 to 20 percent demonstrate factors in their lives that pre-dispose them to becoming at-risk youth - they are the candidates for prevention programs. The analysis finds two observable variables that can be used to identify which children have a higher probability of becoming troubled youth: poverty and residing in rural areas. The analysis also finds that risky behaviors increase with age and differ by gender, thereby highlighting the need for program and policy differentiation along these two demographic dimensions. (author's)
Over-the-counter access, changing WHO guidelines, and contraindicated oral contraceptive use in Mexico.
Studies in Family Planning. 2006 Sep; 37(3):197-204.This study examines the prevalence of contraindications to the use of oral contraceptives in Mexico by sociodemographic characteristics and by whether this family planning method was obtained with or without a doctor's prescription. Using data on smoking behavior and blood-pressure measurements from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey, the authors found that, under the 1996 World Health Organization (WHO) medical eligibility guidelines, the prevalence of contraindications is low and that no significant differences in contraindications exist at any level between those who obtain oral contraceptives at clinics and those who obtain them at pharmacies. In 2000, however, WHO substantially revised its criteria regarding the level of hypertension that would constitute a contraindication for oral contraceptive use. Applying the new guidelines, the authors found that 10 percent of pill users younger than 35 and 33 percent aged 35 and older have health conditions that are either relative or absolute (Category 3 or 4) contraindications. The relevance of these findings to the larger debate concerning screening and over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives is discussed. (author's)