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Report of the Task Force II on research inventory and analysis of family planning communication research in Bangladesh.
[Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting] Oct. 1976. 85 p.Topics relevant to family planning such as interpersonal relationships, communication patterns, local personnel, mass media, and educational aids, have been studied for this report. The central theme is the dissemination of family planning knowledge. The methodology of education and communication are major factors and are emphasized in the studies. While the object was to raise the effectiveness of approaches, the direct concern of some studies was to examine a few basic aspects of communication dynamics and different human relationship structures. Interspouse communication assumes an important place in the family planning program and a couple's concurrence is an essential precondition of family planning practice. Communication between husband and wife varies with the given social system. A study of couple concurrence and empathy on family planning motivation was undertaken; there was virtually no empathy between the spouses. A probable conclusion is that there was no interspouse communication on contraception and that some village women tend to practice birth control without their husband's knowledge. Communication and personal influence in the village community provide a leverage for the diffusion of innovative ideas and practices, including family planning. Influence pattern and flow of communication were empirically studied in a village which was situated 10 miles away from the nearest district town. The village was found to have linkage with outside systems (towns, other villages, extra village communication network) through an influence mechanism operative in the form of receiving or delivering some information. Local agents--midwives, "dais," and female village organizers are in a position to use interpersonal relations in information motivation work if such agents are systematically involved in the family planning program and are given proper orientation and support by program authorities. These people usually have to be trained. 7 findings are worth noting in regard to the use of radio for family planning: folksongs are effective and popular; evening hours draw more listeners; the broadcast can stimulate interspouse communication; the younger groups can be stimulated by group discussions; a high correlation exists between radio listening and newspaper reading; most people listen to the radio if it is accessible to them; approximately 60% of the population is reached by radio. A positive relationship was found to exist between exposure to printed family planning publicity materials and respondents' opinions toward contraception and family planning. The use of the educational aid is construed as an essential element to educating and motivating people's actions.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1978. (International Research Document No. 6) 12pCompiling population data for Afghanistan is made difficult by the nomadic population. Estimates of their numbers range from 1-2 million people, 9-14% of the total. A 1972-73 survey of the settled population accumulated data from approximately 21,000 households and 120,000 individuals. Pregnancy and marital histories were acquired from 10,000 women. The age-specific fertility rate was 8 per woman; crude birth rate, 43/1000. Estimated life expectancy for males was 34-42 years, for females, 36-41 years. The crude death rate is 28-32/1000. Of the 10,020,099 total settled population, 5,373,249 were male, 4,646,850 were female. The Afghan Family Guidance Association opened the first family planning clinic in 1968. By 1972 there were 18 clinics in operation. When surveyed, 3% of women over 15 knew about family planning, only 1/3 of these had used a family planning method. 66% males and 90% females over 15 were ever-married. About 11% of those over 6 years were literate, 18.7% males, 2.8% females.
(Description of the World Health Organization Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction.) (Statement, May 2, 1978))
In: United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Select Committee on Population. Population and development: research in population development: needs and capacities. Vol. 3. Hearings, May 2-4, 1978. Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978. p. 213-286The World Health Organization's Special Programme of research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction is supported by 150 member governments spending over 15 million dollars on 5 specific areas of research: 1) effectiveness of existing birth control methods; 2) development of new methods; 3) psychosocial factors and health service delivery; 4) health rationale for family planning; and 5) infertility. A primary goal of the program is to strengthen fertility research within the developing country. Some results of WHO research on specific contraceptive practices found the following. Depo-Provera was frequently discontinued because the amenorrhea percentage over 90 days increased from 13% to 35% during the 4th injection interval. Male contraceptives are acceptable to 50% of men in Fiji, India, Korea, Mexico and the United States with a daily pill more desirable than a monthly injection. A majority of women believe that menstruation is the removal of impure blood, and that intercourse should not occur at that time.