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Get on the fast-track. The life-cycle approach to HIV. Finding solutions for everyone at every stage of life.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2016. 140 p.In this report, UNAIDS is announcing that 18.2 million people now have access to HIV treatment. The Fast-Track response is working. Increasing treatment coverage is reducing AIDS-related deaths among adults and children. But the life-cycle approach has to include more than just treatment. Tuberculosis (TB) remains among the commonest causes of illness and death among people living with HIV of all ages, causing about one third of AIDS-related deaths in 2015. These deaths could and should have been prevented. TB, like cervical cancer, hepatitis C and other major causes of illness and death among people living with HIV, is not always detected in HIV services. It is vital that we collaborate closely with other health programmes to prevent unnecessary deaths. The impact of better treatment coverage means that a growing number of people will be living with HIV into old age, while there has also been an increase in new HIV infections among older people. The consequences of long-term antiretroviral therapy, combined with the diseases of ageing, will be new territory for many HIV programmes. Drug resistance is a major threat to the AIDS response, not just for antiretroviral medicines but also for the antibiotic and antituberculous medicines that people living with HIV frequently need to remain healthy. More people than ever before are in need of second- and third-line medicines for HIV and TB. The human burden of drug resistance is already unacceptable; the financial costs will soon be unsustainable. We need to make sure the medicines we have today are put to best use, and accelerate and expand the search for new treatments, diagnostics, vaccines and an HIV cure. As we build on science and innovation we will need fresh thinking to get us over the remaining obstacles. The cliché is true -- what got us here, won’t get us there. We face persistent inequalities, the threat of fewer resources and a growing conspiracy of complacency. (Excerpt)
International Family Planning Perspectives. 1991 Sep; 17(3):108-13.South Asia consisting of Bangladesh, India, Nepal Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, claims 1/5 to total world population with expected population growth of at least 200 million by the year 2000. Taking issue with assumptions behind World Bank (WB) and United Nations (UN) population projections for the region, the authors make less optimistic assumptions of country fertility and mortality trends when running population projections for the region. Following discussion of methodological issues for and analysis of population projections, the paper's alternate assumptions and projection results are presented and discussed. Projections were made for each country of the region over the period 1985-2010, based on assumptions that only very modest fertility declines and improvements in life expectancy would develop over most of the 1990s. South Asian population would therefore grow from over 1 billion in 1985, to 1.4 billion by 2000, and almost 1.8 billion by 2010. Overall slower fertility decline than assumed for the UN and WB projections point to larger population growth with momentum for continued, larger growth through the 21st century. Rapid, substantial population growth as envisioned by these projections will impede movement toward an urban-industrial economy, with a burgeoning labor force exceeding the absorptive capacity of the modern sector. Job seekers will pile up in agriculture and the informal sector. Demands upon the government to deliver education and health services will also be extraordinarily high. High-tech niches will, however, continue expanding in India and Pakistan with overall negative social effects. Their low demand for labor will exacerbate income disparities, fuel interpersonal, interclass, and interregional tensions, and only contribute to eventual ethnic, communal, and political conflict. Immediate, coordinated policy is urged to achieve balanced low mortality and low fertility over the next few decades.
Aging population and development, statement made at the European Follow-up Forum on Aging, Castelgandolfo, Italy, 6-11 September, 1981.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 7 p.UNFPA's concern over the issue of aging and the agency's ability to help alleviate some of the problems caused by aging, is discussed. Aging is a feature of both developed and developing countries. In the world as a whole, the number of older people has nearly doubled since 1950, and 1/2 of them live in the less developed countries. Such a shift in the balance of ages will have many profound consequences for the world a generation or more hence. The capacity to confront successfully the wide variety of issues raised by aging is not determined by a country's economic position or its status as a developed or developing country. Many of the economic and social systems which permit the elderly to make a positive contribution, and hold them in most esteem as valued members of the community, are among the economically less developed. All countries need to develop an economic structure which caters to the needs and abilities of older people, either through social security, living and working facilities for older people, or as is the case of the less developed countries, through extended family networks.
Population and global future, statement made at the First Global Conference on the Future: through the '80s, Toronto, Canada, 21 July 1980.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 6 p. (Speech Series No. 57)The United Nations has always considered population variables to be an integral part of the total development process. UNFPA has developed, in response to national needs, a core program of population assistance which has found universal support and acceptance among the 130 recipient countries and territories. Historically, these are: family planning, population policy formulation and population dynamics. The following emerging trends are foreseeable from country requests and information available to the Fund: 1) migration from rural to urban areas and increased growth in urbanization; 2) an increased proportion of aged which has already created a number of new demands for resources in both developing and developed countries; 3) a move toward enabling women to participate in economic and educational activities; and 4) a need for urgent concern over ecological issues which affect the delicate balance of resources and population.
New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 pThis report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.
CBFPS (Community-based Family Planning Services) in Thailand: a community-based approach to family planning.
Essex, Connecticut, International Council for Educational Development, 1978. (A project to help practitioners help the rural poor, case study no. 6) 91 pThis report and case study of the Community-Based Family Planning Service (CBFPS) in Thailand describes and evaluates the program in order to provide useful operational lessons for concerned national and international agencies. CBFPS has demonstrated the special role a private organization can play not only in providing family planning services, but in helping to pioneer a more integrated approach to rural development. The significant achievement of CBFPS is that it has overcome the familiar barriers of geographical access to family planning information and contraceptive supplies by making these available in the village community itself. The report gives detailed information on the history and development of the CBFPS, its current operation and organization, financial resources, and overall impact. Several important lessons were learned from the project: 1) the successful development of a project depends on a strong and dynamic leader; 2) cooperation between the public and private sectors is essential; 3) the success of a project depends primarily on the effectiveness of community-based activities; 4) planning and monitoring activities represent significant ingredients of project effectiveness; 5) a successful project needs a sense of commitment among its staff; 6) it is imperative that a project maintain good public relations; 7) the use of family planning strategy in introducing self-supporting development programs can be very effective; 8) manning of volunteer workers is crucial to project success; and 9) aside from acceptor recruitment in the short run, the primary purpose of education in more profound matterns such as childbearing, womens'roles in the family, and family life should also be kept in mind. The key to success lies in continuity of communication and education.
(Description of the World Health Organization Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction.) (Statement, May 2, 1978))
In: United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Select Committee on Population. Population and development: research in population development: needs and capacities. Vol. 3. Hearings, May 2-4, 1978. Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978. p. 213-286The World Health Organization's Special Programme of research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction is supported by 150 member governments spending over 15 million dollars on 5 specific areas of research: 1) effectiveness of existing birth control methods; 2) development of new methods; 3) psychosocial factors and health service delivery; 4) health rationale for family planning; and 5) infertility. A primary goal of the program is to strengthen fertility research within the developing country. Some results of WHO research on specific contraceptive practices found the following. Depo-Provera was frequently discontinued because the amenorrhea percentage over 90 days increased from 13% to 35% during the 4th injection interval. Male contraceptives are acceptable to 50% of men in Fiji, India, Korea, Mexico and the United States with a daily pill more desirable than a monthly injection. A majority of women believe that menstruation is the removal of impure blood, and that intercourse should not occur at that time.
Geneva, ILO, 1973. 163 pThe survey attempts to answer specific questions about rapid population growth and labor problems and does not address the question of why the world's population is expanding as it is and what should be done about it. It is in effect a summary of the literature on the subject available in 1973, but is not based on ILO research underway as part of the World Employment Programme. The views expressed are not necessarily those of the ILO. The 1st 4 chapters provide a general background of conditions in developing countries with particular reference to fertility and mortality, economic development, social awareness and reaction of the population to their problems, and international efforts to aid such countries. Specific problems addressed include education, training for rural and industrial development, employment and unemployment both rural and urban, worker income and income distribution, social security provisions, and expansion of welfare services. The survey was undertaken at the request of the 51st Session of the International Labour Conference and was prepared by Robert Plant with the financial support of the U.N. Fund for Population Activities.
Country Profiles. 1972 Oct; 19.The estimated population of Iran in 1972 was 31,000,000, with an estimated rate of natural increase of 3.2% per year. In 1966 61% of the population lived in rural areas, male literacy was 41% and female literacy 18%. Coitus interruptus is the most common form of contraception used in Iran, followed by condoms. Because of the rapid rate of population growth, the government has taken a strong stand in support of family planning. The Ministry of Health coordinates family planning activities through the Family Planning Division. Contraceptive supplies are delivered free of charge through clinics. The national family planning program also is involved in postpartum programs, training of auxiliary personnel, communication and motivation for family planning population education, evaluation and research. The overall goal of the program is to reduce the growth rate of 2.4% by 1978, and to 1% by 1990.