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In: Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference (Colombo, September 1982). Selected papers. Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. 9-40. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 58)This report summarizes the recent demographic situation and considers prospective trends and their development implications among the 39 members and associate members of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). It presents data on the following: size, growth, and distribution of the population; age and sex structure; fertility and marriage; mortality; international migration; growth and poverty; food and nutrition; households and housing; primary health care; education; the working-age population; family planning; the elderly; and population distribution. Despite improvements in the frequency and quality of demographic data collected in recent years, big gaps continue to exist in knowledge of the demographic situation in the ESCAP region. Available evidence suggests that the population growth rate of the ESCAP region declined between 1970 and 1980, as compared with the preceding decade, but that its rate of decline was slow. Within this overall picture, there is wide variation, with the most developed countries having annual growth rates around 1% and some of the least developed countries having a figure near 3%. The main factors associated with the high growth rates are the past high levels of fertility resulting in young age structures and continuing high fertility in some countries, notably in middle south Asia. The population of countries in the ESCAP region is expected to grow from 2.5 billion in 1980, to 2.9 billion in 1990, and to 3.4 billion persons by the year 2000. This massive growth in numbers, which will be most pronounced in Middle South Asia, will occur despite projected continuing moderation in annual population growth rates. Fertility is expected to continue its downward trend, assuming a more widespread and equitable distribution of health, education, and family planning services. Mortality is expected to decline further from its current levels, where life expectancy is often at or around 50 years. In several countries, more than 10 in every 100 babies born die before their 1st birthday. The extension of primary health care services is seen as the key to reducing this figure. Rapid population growth and poverty tend to reinforce each other. Low income, lack of education, and high infant and child mortality contribute to high fertility, which in turn is associated with high rates of natural increase. High rates of natural increase feed back to depress socioeconomic development. High population growth rates and their correlates of young age structures and heavy concentrations of persons in the nonproductive ages tend to depress production and burden government expenditure with high costs for social overhead needs. Rapid population growth emerges as an important factor in the persistence of chronic undernutrition and malnutrition. It increases the magnitude of the task of improving the educational system and exacerbates the problem of substandard housing that is widely prevalent throughout Asia.
New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 pThis report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.
CBFPS (Community-based Family Planning Services) in Thailand: a community-based approach to family planning.
Essex, Connecticut, International Council for Educational Development, 1978. (A project to help practitioners help the rural poor, case study no. 6) 91 pThis report and case study of the Community-Based Family Planning Service (CBFPS) in Thailand describes and evaluates the program in order to provide useful operational lessons for concerned national and international agencies. CBFPS has demonstrated the special role a private organization can play not only in providing family planning services, but in helping to pioneer a more integrated approach to rural development. The significant achievement of CBFPS is that it has overcome the familiar barriers of geographical access to family planning information and contraceptive supplies by making these available in the village community itself. The report gives detailed information on the history and development of the CBFPS, its current operation and organization, financial resources, and overall impact. Several important lessons were learned from the project: 1) the successful development of a project depends on a strong and dynamic leader; 2) cooperation between the public and private sectors is essential; 3) the success of a project depends primarily on the effectiveness of community-based activities; 4) planning and monitoring activities represent significant ingredients of project effectiveness; 5) a successful project needs a sense of commitment among its staff; 6) it is imperative that a project maintain good public relations; 7) the use of family planning strategy in introducing self-supporting development programs can be very effective; 8) manning of volunteer workers is crucial to project success; and 9) aside from acceptor recruitment in the short run, the primary purpose of education in more profound matterns such as childbearing, womens'roles in the family, and family life should also be kept in mind. The key to success lies in continuity of communication and education.
New York, New York: United Nations fund for population activities, 1978. 8 pIn the 4 years following the World Population Conference at Bucharest, almost all U.N. member countries participate in the U.N. Fund for Population Activities as donors and/or recipients. This momentum must be maintained and the implications of demographic trends must be assessed. The lowest forecast for world population in the Year 2000 is 1.8 billion more than in 1975. This "giantism" should not be regarded as a spectre but as a probable reality which needs to be faced boldly in order to take into account increased demands on Earth's resources in making government policy and planning programs for development and deployment of those resources. There are clear signs that fertility will fall as much as 30% during the next 20 years. This, however encouraging it seems, should not obscure the reality that it is occurring at a very high level of actual numbers of people whose lives must be sustained. In the developing world life expectancy has risen from 42 to 54 years; in the developed world from 65 to 71. In the Third World, infant mortality continues to be the most important determinant of general mortality levels even though there are encouraging indications of a steep fall in this area. A resurgence of malaria is bound to have a serious effect on mortality as it is being found mainly in already malnourished areas. At current rates all cities are expected to grow in the next 20 years. Programs and national policy must be established to manage the problems accompanying these crowded cities. Migration is high because economic growth rates cannot sustain the growing populations of developing countries. The magnitude of this movement is causing problems for most countries in the developed world, with one suggested solution being to close the doors to all immigration. The developed and developing worlds share two population problems: 1) the number of youth is growing resulting in a potential for massive increases in fertility; and 2) the decline of fertility rates and increased life expectancy resulting in marked changes in the age structure. The most significant principle emerging from this paper is that changes taking place in demographic processes should be recognized as powerful determinants of relevance in the formulation of social and economic policy and plans in every major area of national concern.
IPPA-News Letter, No. 1. September 1977. p. 2-3.There are 5 important aspects related to family planning (FP) in Indonesia: 1) The large population. It is the 5th largest country in the world in terms of population. 2) The rapid increase in population (2.4%/annum). 3) The uneven distribution - most live in Java and Bali where land area is only 8% of total. 4) Age composition - 45% of the population is under age 15. 5) Mobility - there is little mobility and communication despite urbanization. In 1957 the IPPA cautiously began counseling. In 1968 the Suharto administration declared FP a national program. In 1970 the National FP Coordinating Body was established to oversee action of government institutions and private organizations with the goal of bringing down population increase from 2.4 to 1.2 by the year 2000. The 1st 5-year program (from 1969 to 1974) included Bali and Java, the 2nd (1974-1979) added 10 other provinces, and the 3rd will include the remaining 11 provinces.
Geneva, ILO, 1973. 163 pThe survey attempts to answer specific questions about rapid population growth and labor problems and does not address the question of why the world's population is expanding as it is and what should be done about it. It is in effect a summary of the literature on the subject available in 1973, but is not based on ILO research underway as part of the World Employment Programme. The views expressed are not necessarily those of the ILO. The 1st 4 chapters provide a general background of conditions in developing countries with particular reference to fertility and mortality, economic development, social awareness and reaction of the population to their problems, and international efforts to aid such countries. Specific problems addressed include education, training for rural and industrial development, employment and unemployment both rural and urban, worker income and income distribution, social security provisions, and expansion of welfare services. The survey was undertaken at the request of the 51st Session of the International Labour Conference and was prepared by Robert Plant with the financial support of the U.N. Fund for Population Activities.
Singapore, 1972 (xi). 60 pThis report presents a detailed analysis of the demographic situation in Singapore, tracing trends in birthrates, fertility rates, and population growth. Family planning services available during 1970 are thoroughly explored, including their funding, birth control methods, and organization and administration. Detailed analyses are given of acceptors of birth control methods by method accepted as well as by acceptor characteristics such as age, parity, education, and race. The Family Planning and Population Board recruited 162,485 acceptors between 1966 and 1970. During that period there was a dramatic decline in the crude birthrate, which was 28.6/1000 in 1966 and 22.1/1000 in 1970. Fertility continued to decline in all age groups and in all ethnic groups during 1970.
Country Profiles. 1972 Oct; 19.The estimated population of Iran in 1972 was 31,000,000, with an estimated rate of natural increase of 3.2% per year. In 1966 61% of the population lived in rural areas, male literacy was 41% and female literacy 18%. Coitus interruptus is the most common form of contraception used in Iran, followed by condoms. Because of the rapid rate of population growth, the government has taken a strong stand in support of family planning. The Ministry of Health coordinates family planning activities through the Family Planning Division. Contraceptive supplies are delivered free of charge through clinics. The national family planning program also is involved in postpartum programs, training of auxiliary personnel, communication and motivation for family planning population education, evaluation and research. The overall goal of the program is to reduce the growth rate of 2.4% by 1978, and to 1% by 1990.