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Program scan matrix on child marriage: A web-based search of interventions addressing child marriage.
[Washington, D.C.], International Center for Research on Women [ICRW], . 25 p.The international community and U.S. government are increasingly concerned about the prevalence of child marriage and its toll on girls in developing countries. One in seven girls in the developing world marries before 15. Nearly half of the 331 million girls in developing countries are expected to marry by their 20th birthday. At this rate, 100 million more girls-or 25,000 more girls every day-will become child brides in the next decade. Current literature on child marriage has primarily examined the prevalence, consequences and reported reasons for early marriage. Much less has been analyzed about the risk and protective factors that may be associated with child marriage. Also, little is known about the range of existing programs addressing child marriage, and what does and does not work in preventing early marriage. The work presented here investigates two key questions: What factors are associated with risk of or protection against child marriage, and ultimately could be the focus of prevention efforts? What are the current programmatic approaches to prevent child marriage in developing countries, and are these programs effective? (excerpt)
London, FPA, 1972. 48 p.Currently, public authorities pay for almost 2/3 of the family planning consultations conducted by the Family Planning Association, and this is the most significant development since the publication of the last Family Planning Association Report. Additionally, more local health authorities are operating direct clinic and domiciliary services. The Family Planning Association handed over the management of 39 clinics to public authorities in the 1971-1972 year. However, despite this progress, family planning service provision by public authorities throughout England continues to be uneven in quality and extent. Spending by local health authorities for each woman at risk varies from 1 penny per woman at risk in Burnley (excluding the city of London) to 179 pence at Islington. In addition to the problem of inconsistency in spending, there appears to be no immediate prospect of a comprehensive family planning service - one that is available to all, is free of charge, and is backed by an adequate education campaign. Although government help for the extension of domiciliary family planning service is impressive, it should not obscure the false economies in spending on other contraceptive delivery services such as general practitioners, specialist clinics, and specialized advisory centers. Until the government announces the details of its plans for family planning services within the National Health Service beginning April 1974, the Family Planning Association's own detailed planning cannot be exact. The Association's basic policy continues to be to turn over the responsibility for the management of clinic and domiciliary contraceptive services as quickly and as smoothly as possible to the public authorities. Already there is concern that some clinic services managed by public authorities may become less attractive, particularly to young people, and that differences in the quality of service will increase under local public management as well as that backup services will be neglected. Also existing is the realization that the public authorities do not do enough to attract people to the use of contraception.
[Unpublished] 1984 Jun. 10,  p.105 developing country projects dealing primarily or exclusively with adolescent fertility were analyzed in an attempt to determine the nature and level of adolescent fertility programming in the developing world. There were 37 projects in Asia, 21 in Sub-Saharan Africa, 8 in North Africa and the Middle East, 22 in the Caribbean, and 17 in Latin America. About 27% of the programs were exclusively urban, 16% exclusively rural, and the remainder operated in both rural and urban settings. Various types of organizations sponsored projects, but the majority were sponsored by International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliates and other private organizations. There were marked regional differences in sponsorship. Only 11 of the 105 programs were conducted by government agencies, but 14 programs received some support from national governments and local governments also sometimes contributed support. Family life education for both in and out of school youth was the predominant project activity in 66 of the 105 projects. 20 projects focused on training of professionals in family life education such as educators, counselors, and health personnel. Curricula primarily concentrated on sex education, responsible parenthood, the importance of delayed 1st birth and child spacing, and general population concerns. 25 projects conduct youth training sessions and teach teams to serve as peer counselors and cators, motivating their peers toward acceptance of family planning and the small family and providing accurate information on sexuality. About 21 projects have a specific counseling component, with most counseling services teaching family planning, distributing condoms, or referring clients to clinics. Only 16 projects had as a stated objective provision for adolescents of diagnostic or clinical health services related to contraceptive use, family planning, or venereal disease. 18 projects offered training in vocational or income-generating skills integrated with family planning, sex education, and family life education. Over 20 projects described educational materials preparation and production as an activity. Innovative approaches observed in the 105 projects included adoption of the multiservice center concept, integration of family planning education with self-help initiatives to improve young women's socioeconomic status, participation of adolescents in program decision making, and innovative promotional activities. Factors contributing to program success identified by project staff include conducting a needs assessment survey, securing parental and community support, solid funding, a flexible program design, skilled personnel, availability of adequate materials, good cooperation with other community agencies, active participation of young people in planning and running the program, good publicity, and use of innovative teaching methods. Projects are increasingly tending toward less formal kinds of communication in family life education.
In: Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference (Colombo, September 1982). Selected papers. Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. 9-40. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 58)This report summarizes the recent demographic situation and considers prospective trends and their development implications among the 39 members and associate members of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). It presents data on the following: size, growth, and distribution of the population; age and sex structure; fertility and marriage; mortality; international migration; growth and poverty; food and nutrition; households and housing; primary health care; education; the working-age population; family planning; the elderly; and population distribution. Despite improvements in the frequency and quality of demographic data collected in recent years, big gaps continue to exist in knowledge of the demographic situation in the ESCAP region. Available evidence suggests that the population growth rate of the ESCAP region declined between 1970 and 1980, as compared with the preceding decade, but that its rate of decline was slow. Within this overall picture, there is wide variation, with the most developed countries having annual growth rates around 1% and some of the least developed countries having a figure near 3%. The main factors associated with the high growth rates are the past high levels of fertility resulting in young age structures and continuing high fertility in some countries, notably in middle south Asia. The population of countries in the ESCAP region is expected to grow from 2.5 billion in 1980, to 2.9 billion in 1990, and to 3.4 billion persons by the year 2000. This massive growth in numbers, which will be most pronounced in Middle South Asia, will occur despite projected continuing moderation in annual population growth rates. Fertility is expected to continue its downward trend, assuming a more widespread and equitable distribution of health, education, and family planning services. Mortality is expected to decline further from its current levels, where life expectancy is often at or around 50 years. In several countries, more than 10 in every 100 babies born die before their 1st birthday. The extension of primary health care services is seen as the key to reducing this figure. Rapid population growth and poverty tend to reinforce each other. Low income, lack of education, and high infant and child mortality contribute to high fertility, which in turn is associated with high rates of natural increase. High rates of natural increase feed back to depress socioeconomic development. High population growth rates and their correlates of young age structures and heavy concentrations of persons in the nonproductive ages tend to depress production and burden government expenditure with high costs for social overhead needs. Rapid population growth emerges as an important factor in the persistence of chronic undernutrition and malnutrition. It increases the magnitude of the task of improving the educational system and exacerbates the problem of substandard housing that is widely prevalent throughout Asia.
[Unpublished] 1984 Aug. Background note presented to the International Conference on Population held in Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 4 p.The United Kingdom's birth rate has been below replacement level since 1973. Average family size is becoming smaller; the most popular size is 2 children. Women are postponing births to a later date, and age at marriage has risen. Problems of providing support and services for the growing number of very elderly are being studied by the government. Size of population is of less concern than well-being to the government. They provide assistance with family planning through the National Health Service, but believe that decisions about fertility and childbearing are each couple's to make. Population figures are taken into account in making economic and social policy, but there is no attempt to influence overall size and components of change except in the area of immigration where they lose more people by emigration than they gain from immigration.
[Unpublished] 1978. Paper presented at National Workshop on Innovative Projects in Family Planning and Rural Institutions in Bangladesh, Dacca, Bangladesh, Feb. 1-4, 1978. 21 p.The author describes the establishment of a rural health service in Companigonj thana in Bangladesh done jointly by the government and international relief agencies. Provision was made for integrated health services including family planning, child health services, maternal health services, nutrition programs, and both curative and preventive medicine. Field workers, mostly female, were trained to provide medical services not requiring a doctor's presence. The author finds a marked increase in attendance at the health service over a period of years. The government should intensify its participation in the health service component for the program to have a chance of taking hold. Tables to illustrate the experience of the program in money expended; numbers of patients; cost per patient; clinic attendance by age, sex; hospital deliveries; new family planning acceptors; contraceptive usage; mortality and birth rate and causes of death by age; and antenatal follow up.
New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 pThis report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.
Studies in Family Planning. 1978 May; 9(5):89-147.A macroanalysis of the correlates of fertility decline in developing countries for the period 1965-75. The analysis focuses on how much of the fertility decline is associated with socioeconomic variables such as health, education, economic status, and urbanization, or with "modernization" as a whole, and how much with population policies and programs designed to reduce rates of growth. The data are examined in a variety of ways: 1) simple correlations among the variables; 2) multiple regression analysis using both 1970 values of socioeconomic variables and, for the alternative lag theory, 1960 values; 3) change in the socioeconomic variables over time; 4) a special form of regression analysis called path analysis; 5) a relatively new type of analysis called exploratory data analysis; 6) relation of socioeconomic level and program efforts to both absolute and percentage declines in fertility; 7) crosstabulations of program effort with an index of socioeconomic variables. Such data and analyses show that the level of "modernization" as reflected by 7 socioeconomic factors has a substantial relationship to fertility decline, but also that family planning programs have a significant, independent effect over and above the effect of socioeconomic factors. The key finding probably is that 2 (social setting and program effort) go together most effectively. Countries that rank well on socioeconomic variables and also make substantial program effort have had on average much more fertility decline than have countries with one or the other, and far more than those with neither. Finally, the relationship between predicted and observed crude birth rate decline for the 94 developing countries over this period is illustrated for different combinations of actors, and an attempt is made to estimate the quantitative impact of the major conditions upon the intermediate variables traditionally assumed to account for crude birth rate change.(AUTHOR ABSTRACT)
CBFPS (Community-based Family Planning Services) in Thailand: a community-based approach to family planning.
Essex, Connecticut, International Council for Educational Development, 1978. (A project to help practitioners help the rural poor, case study no. 6) 91 pThis report and case study of the Community-Based Family Planning Service (CBFPS) in Thailand describes and evaluates the program in order to provide useful operational lessons for concerned national and international agencies. CBFPS has demonstrated the special role a private organization can play not only in providing family planning services, but in helping to pioneer a more integrated approach to rural development. The significant achievement of CBFPS is that it has overcome the familiar barriers of geographical access to family planning information and contraceptive supplies by making these available in the village community itself. The report gives detailed information on the history and development of the CBFPS, its current operation and organization, financial resources, and overall impact. Several important lessons were learned from the project: 1) the successful development of a project depends on a strong and dynamic leader; 2) cooperation between the public and private sectors is essential; 3) the success of a project depends primarily on the effectiveness of community-based activities; 4) planning and monitoring activities represent significant ingredients of project effectiveness; 5) a successful project needs a sense of commitment among its staff; 6) it is imperative that a project maintain good public relations; 7) the use of family planning strategy in introducing self-supporting development programs can be very effective; 8) manning of volunteer workers is crucial to project success; and 9) aside from acceptor recruitment in the short run, the primary purpose of education in more profound matterns such as childbearing, womens'roles in the family, and family life should also be kept in mind. The key to success lies in continuity of communication and education.
(Description of the World Health Organization Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction.) (Statement, May 2, 1978))
In: United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Select Committee on Population. Population and development: research in population development: needs and capacities. Vol. 3. Hearings, May 2-4, 1978. Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978. p. 213-286The World Health Organization's Special Programme of research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction is supported by 150 member governments spending over 15 million dollars on 5 specific areas of research: 1) effectiveness of existing birth control methods; 2) development of new methods; 3) psychosocial factors and health service delivery; 4) health rationale for family planning; and 5) infertility. A primary goal of the program is to strengthen fertility research within the developing country. Some results of WHO research on specific contraceptive practices found the following. Depo-Provera was frequently discontinued because the amenorrhea percentage over 90 days increased from 13% to 35% during the 4th injection interval. Male contraceptives are acceptable to 50% of men in Fiji, India, Korea, Mexico and the United States with a daily pill more desirable than a monthly injection. A majority of women believe that menstruation is the removal of impure blood, and that intercourse should not occur at that time.
New York, New York: United Nations fund for population activities, 1978. 8 pIn the 4 years following the World Population Conference at Bucharest, almost all U.N. member countries participate in the U.N. Fund for Population Activities as donors and/or recipients. This momentum must be maintained and the implications of demographic trends must be assessed. The lowest forecast for world population in the Year 2000 is 1.8 billion more than in 1975. This "giantism" should not be regarded as a spectre but as a probable reality which needs to be faced boldly in order to take into account increased demands on Earth's resources in making government policy and planning programs for development and deployment of those resources. There are clear signs that fertility will fall as much as 30% during the next 20 years. This, however encouraging it seems, should not obscure the reality that it is occurring at a very high level of actual numbers of people whose lives must be sustained. In the developing world life expectancy has risen from 42 to 54 years; in the developed world from 65 to 71. In the Third World, infant mortality continues to be the most important determinant of general mortality levels even though there are encouraging indications of a steep fall in this area. A resurgence of malaria is bound to have a serious effect on mortality as it is being found mainly in already malnourished areas. At current rates all cities are expected to grow in the next 20 years. Programs and national policy must be established to manage the problems accompanying these crowded cities. Migration is high because economic growth rates cannot sustain the growing populations of developing countries. The magnitude of this movement is causing problems for most countries in the developed world, with one suggested solution being to close the doors to all immigration. The developed and developing worlds share two population problems: 1) the number of youth is growing resulting in a potential for massive increases in fertility; and 2) the decline of fertility rates and increased life expectancy resulting in marked changes in the age structure. The most significant principle emerging from this paper is that changes taking place in demographic processes should be recognized as powerful determinants of relevance in the formulation of social and economic policy and plans in every major area of national concern.
In: Watson, W.B., ed. Family planning in the developing world: a review of programs. New York, Population Council, 1977. p. 54-55The government of Honduras included a population policy in its National Development Plan for the period 1974-1979. This policy will be implemented by providing information regarding responsible parenthood, by using natural and technical resources to produce a well-nourished and creative population, and by applying the principles of voluntary participation in family planning programs. The 2 family planning programs in Honduras are the government maternal and child health program and the Family Planning Association of Honduras program. The government program, initiated in 1968, operates 34 clinics which offer family planning along with prenatal and postnatal care, child care, and nutrition education services. The Family Planning Association, established in 1961, operates 2 clinics and served 42,000 people during 1975. 9000 of this group were 1st acceptors. Oral contraceptives were chosen by 80% of the new acceptors; 13% chose IUDs and 5% chose injectables. The Association's information and education activities included conferences, talks, courses, seminars, and home visits. Additionally, the Association is operating a demonstration community-based distribution program with financial assistance from the International Planned Parenthood Federation. 40 workers in each of 2 cities provide contraceptives in their own neighborhoods.
IPPA-News Letter, No. 1. September 1977. p. 2-3.There are 5 important aspects related to family planning (FP) in Indonesia: 1) The large population. It is the 5th largest country in the world in terms of population. 2) The rapid increase in population (2.4%/annum). 3) The uneven distribution - most live in Java and Bali where land area is only 8% of total. 4) Age composition - 45% of the population is under age 15. 5) Mobility - there is little mobility and communication despite urbanization. In 1957 the IPPA cautiously began counseling. In 1968 the Suharto administration declared FP a national program. In 1970 the National FP Coordinating Body was established to oversee action of government institutions and private organizations with the goal of bringing down population increase from 2.4 to 1.2 by the year 2000. The 1st 5-year program (from 1969 to 1974) included Bali and Java, the 2nd (1974-1979) added 10 other provinces, and the 3rd will include the remaining 11 provinces.
New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, Medical Division, September 1975. 49 pThis is a compilation of family planning services provided by associations operating in the Western Hemisphere Region. Separate tables are compiled for 1973 and 1974. A list of each family planning program included in the study is appended to the report. The report does not guarantee the completeness or accuracy of the data; problems with reliability of data point up the necessity for a system of standardized record-keeping. Tables cover program input in the form of clinical facilities, medical and paramedical services, and the delivery of contraceptive methods by family planning programs and community-based distribution systems. Charts on program output include information on acceptor characteristics, numbers of new and continuing acceptors, numbers of voluntary sterilizations, and percentages of other methods in use.
Geneva, ILO, 1973. 163 pThe survey attempts to answer specific questions about rapid population growth and labor problems and does not address the question of why the world's population is expanding as it is and what should be done about it. It is in effect a summary of the literature on the subject available in 1973, but is not based on ILO research underway as part of the World Employment Programme. The views expressed are not necessarily those of the ILO. The 1st 4 chapters provide a general background of conditions in developing countries with particular reference to fertility and mortality, economic development, social awareness and reaction of the population to their problems, and international efforts to aid such countries. Specific problems addressed include education, training for rural and industrial development, employment and unemployment both rural and urban, worker income and income distribution, social security provisions, and expansion of welfare services. The survey was undertaken at the request of the 51st Session of the International Labour Conference and was prepared by Robert Plant with the financial support of the U.N. Fund for Population Activities.
Singapore, 1972 (xi). 60 pThis report presents a detailed analysis of the demographic situation in Singapore, tracing trends in birthrates, fertility rates, and population growth. Family planning services available during 1970 are thoroughly explored, including their funding, birth control methods, and organization and administration. Detailed analyses are given of acceptors of birth control methods by method accepted as well as by acceptor characteristics such as age, parity, education, and race. The Family Planning and Population Board recruited 162,485 acceptors between 1966 and 1970. During that period there was a dramatic decline in the crude birthrate, which was 28.6/1000 in 1966 and 22.1/1000 in 1970. Fertility continued to decline in all age groups and in all ethnic groups during 1970.
Country Profiles. 1972 Oct; 19.The estimated population of Iran in 1972 was 31,000,000, with an estimated rate of natural increase of 3.2% per year. In 1966 61% of the population lived in rural areas, male literacy was 41% and female literacy 18%. Coitus interruptus is the most common form of contraception used in Iran, followed by condoms. Because of the rapid rate of population growth, the government has taken a strong stand in support of family planning. The Ministry of Health coordinates family planning activities through the Family Planning Division. Contraceptive supplies are delivered free of charge through clinics. The national family planning program also is involved in postpartum programs, training of auxiliary personnel, communication and motivation for family planning population education, evaluation and research. The overall goal of the program is to reduce the growth rate of 2.4% by 1978, and to 1% by 1990.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Population, Health and Nutrition Dept., 1982 Oct. 46 p. (PHN Technical Notes RES 3)This paper uses data from the World Bank and UNFPA sponsored survey on the determinants of fertility decline in Sri Lanka. The multivariate analysis shows that whereas the traditionally strong influences on fertility, and hence contraceptive use, such as education, age, and labor force participation still exist among the older women, changes in the nature of delivery of family planning services are making these socioeconomic factors less salient among younger women, as well as among subgroups of older women. (author's)