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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2007. 55 p.The concepts and principles in this document build on the World Health Organization's active ageing policy framework, which calls on policy-makers, practitioners, nongovernmental organizations and civil society to optimize opportunities for health, participation and security in order to enhance quality of life for people as they age. This requires a comprehensive approach that takes into account the gendered nature of the life course. This report endeavors to provide information on ageing women in both developing and developed countries; however, data is often scant in many areas of the developing world. Some implications and directions for policy and practice based on the evidence and known best practices are included in this report. These are intended to stimulate discussion and lead to specific recommendations and action plans. The report provides an overall framework for taking action that is useful in all settings. Specific responses in policy, practice and research is undoubtedly best left to policy-makers, experts and older people in individual countries and regions, since they best understand the political, economic and social context within which decisions must be made. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2003 Jul 19; 362(9379):198-204.Background: Antibiotics are an important part of WHO’s strategy to eliminate trachoma as a blinding disease by 2020. At present, who needs to be treated is unclear. We aimed to establish the burden of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis in three trachomaendemic communities in Tanzania and The Gambia with real-time quantitative PCR. Methods: Conjunctival swabs were obtained at examination from 3146 individuals. Swabs were first tested by the qualitative Amplicor PCR, which is known to be highly sensitive. In positive samples, the number of copies of omp1 (a single-copy C trachomatis gene) was measured by quantitative PCR. Findings: Children had the highest ocular loads of C trachomatis, although the amount of pooling in young age groups was less striking at the site with the lowest trachoma frequency. Individuals with intense inflammatory trachoma had higher loads than did those with other conjunctival signs. At the site with the highest prevalence of trachoma, 48 of 93 (52%) individuals with conjunctival scarring but no sign of active disease were positive for ocular chlamydiae. Interpretation: Children younger than 10 years old, and those with intense inflammatory trachoma, probably represent the major source of ocular C trachomatis infection in endemic communities. Success of antibiotic distribution programmes could depend on these groups receiving effective treatment. (author's)
Journal of Viral Hepatitis. 2003 Mar; 10(2):141-149.Hepatitis B (HB) is thought to be an expanding health problem in Russia. The incidence of infection was estimated from mandatorily reported HB cases in St Petersburg. The two-sided t-test for independent samples and the LOESS (locally-weighted regression) smoother were used to compare the age at infection for symptomatic, asymptomatic and chronic infections, by gender. The force of infection was estimated from seroprevalence data (907 sera taken in 1999) using a newly developed nonparametric method based on local polynomials, as well as an earlier method based on isotonic regression and kernel smoothers. With the local polynomial method, pointwise confidence intervals (95%) were constructed by bootstrapping. On average, men contracted HB infection at a significantly younger age than women (in 1999, 21.8 vs 22.7 years, respectively). The overall male to female ratio was 1.92. In 1999 the overall incidence almost doubled compared with the preceding years and tripled among the age groups with highest incidence (15–29-year olds: 85% of cases in 1999). The incidence increase was associated with a lower average age at infection (24.1 years in 1994 vs 22.1 years in 1999). The age and gender-specific force of infection estimates generally confirmed the incidence estimates and emphasized the usefulness of local polynomials to do this. Hence HB transmission in St Petersburg occurs mainly in young adults. The dramatic increase of infections in 1999 was probably due to injecting drug use. Without intervention, HB virus is expected to continue to spread rapidly with a greater proportion of female infections caused by sexual transmission. These trends may also provide an indication for HIV transmission. (author's)
China: long-term development issues and options. The report of a mission sent to China by the World Bank.
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985. xiii, 183 p. (World Bank Country Economic Report)This report summarizes the conclusions of a World Bank study undertaken in 1984 to identify the key development issues China is expected to face in the next 20 years. Among the areas addressed by chapters in this monograph are agricultural prospects, energy development, spatial issues, international economic strategy, managing industrial technology, human development, mobilizing financial resources, and development management. China's economic prospects are viewed as dependinding upon success in mobilizing and effectively using all available resources, especially people. This in turn will depend on sucess in reforming the system of economic management, including progress in 3 areas: 1) greater use of market regulation to stimulate innovation and efficiency; 2) stronger planning, combining indirect with direct economic control; and 3) modification and extension of social institutions and policies to maintain the fairness in distribution that is basic to socialism in the face of the greater inequality and instability that may result from market regulation and indirect controls. Over the next 2 decades, China can be expected to become a middle-income country. The government has set the goal of quadrupling the gross value of industrial and agricultural output between 1980 and 2000 and increasing per capita income from US$300 to $800. China's size and past emphasis on local self-sufficiency offer opportunities for enormous economic gains through increased specialization and trade among localities. Increased rural-urban migration seems probable and desirable, although an increase in urban services and infrastructure will be required. The expected slow rate of population increase is an important foundation for China's favorable economic growth prospects. On the other hand, it may not be desirable to hold fertility below the replacement level for very long, given the effects this would have on the population's age structure. The increase in the proportion of elderly people will be a serious social issue in the next century, and reforms of the social security system need to be considered.