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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Trends in infant nutrition in Saudi Arabia: compliance with WHO recommendations.

    El Mouzan MI; Al Omar AA; Al Salloum AA; Al Herbish AS; Qurachi MM

    Annals of Saudi Medicine. 2009 Jan-Feb; 29(1):20-3.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life. Our objective was to evaluate trends in infant nutrition in Saudi Arabia and the degree of compliance with WHO recommendations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A nationwide nutritional survey of a sample of Saudi households was selected by the multistage probability sampling procedure. A validated questionnaire was administered to mothers of children less than 3 years of age. RESULTS: Of 5339 children in the sample, 4889 received breast milk at birth indicating a prevalence of initiation of 91.6%. Initiation of breastfeeding was delayed beyond 6 hours after birth in 28.1% of the infants. Bottle feeding was introduced by 1 month of age to 2174/4260 (51.4%) and to 3831/4260 (90%) by 6 months of age. The majority of infants 3870/4787 (80.8%) were introduced to "solid foods" between 4 to 6 months of age and whole milk feedings were given to 40% of children younger than 12 months of age. CONCLUSIONS: The current practice of feeding of Saudi infants is very far from compliance with even the most conservative WHO recommendations of exclusive breastfeeding for 4 to 6 months. The high prevalence of breastfeeding initiation at birth indicates the willingness of Saudi mothers to breastfeed. However, early introduction of complementary feedings reduced the period of exclusive breastfeeding. Research in infant nutrition should be a public health priority to improve the rate of breastfeeding and to minimize other inappropriate practices.
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  2. 2

    Iran's population - past, present and future.

    Alizadeh M

    Teheran, Iran, Population and Manpower Bureau, Planning Division, November 1973. 75 p. (Unpublished)

    The structure and characteristics of Iran's current population are analyzed, and an attempt is made to review and analyze Iran's population evolution and determine its future trends in the light of the research studies conducted by various organizations. Until the second half of the nineteenth century there was no population census in Iran. The period after 1946 was marked by an increase in the annual population growth rate. The size and structure of the population bears a direct relationship to changes in the economic and social conditions. The population strategy of Iran is designed so as to slow down the rate of population growth by reducing the birthrate. This study demonstrated that it cannot be expected that the population growth rate will decrease to 2% annually in the next 20 years. The death rate will decrease to .8% and the birthrate will decrease to 3-3.4%. The article provides tables on the size of population, living conditions, population changes, and urbanization trends based on the projections of this study.
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  3. 3

    Population and labour.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, ILO, 1973. 163 p

    The survey attempts to answer specific questions about rapid population growth and labor problems and does not address the question of why the world's population is expanding as it is and what should be done about it. It is in effect a summary of the literature on the subject available in 1973, but is not based on ILO research underway as part of the World Employment Programme. The views expressed are not necessarily those of the ILO. The 1st 4 chapters provide a general background of conditions in developing countries with particular reference to fertility and mortality, economic development, social awareness and reaction of the population to their problems, and international efforts to aid such countries. Specific problems addressed include education, training for rural and industrial development, employment and unemployment both rural and urban, worker income and income distribution, social security provisions, and expansion of welfare services. The survey was undertaken at the request of the 51st Session of the International Labour Conference and was prepared by Robert Plant with the financial support of the U.N. Fund for Population Activities.
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  4. 4

    Iran (Profile).

    Friesen JK; Moore RV

    Country Profiles. 1972 Oct; 19.

    The estimated population of Iran in 1972 was 31,000,000, with an estimated rate of natural increase of 3.2% per year. In 1966 61% of the population lived in rural areas, male literacy was 41% and female literacy 18%. Coitus interruptus is the most common form of contraception used in Iran, followed by condoms. Because of the rapid rate of population growth, the government has taken a strong stand in support of family planning. The Ministry of Health coordinates family planning activities through the Family Planning Division. Contraceptive supplies are delivered free of charge through clinics. The national family planning program also is involved in postpartum programs, training of auxiliary personnel, communication and motivation for family planning population education, evaluation and research. The overall goal of the program is to reduce the growth rate of 2.4% by 1978, and to 1% by 1990.
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  5. 5

    Long acting steroid formulations.

    Rudel HW; Kincl FA

    In: Diczfalusy, E. and Borel, U., eds. Control of human fertility. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Nobel Symposium, Sodergarn, Lidingo, Sweden, May 27-29, 1970. New York, Wiley, 1971. 39-51.

    A drug delivery system providing for a controlled release of progestogen and affecting ovulation and steroidogenesis minimally would deal effectively with some of the problems associated with contraception. 2 systems being developed which fit these criteria are the primary topics of discourse in this article. In 1 system an implant consists of a polymer membrane of polydimethylsiloxane (PDS) and contains the progestogen in crystalline form. Major problems with the PDS implants include a lack of intraindividual constance of release and interindividual variation in the slope of the decay in release. In the second system the implant consists of a lipid-steroid membrane containing a steroid. In this implant the concentration of the steroid in the membrane and the nature of the lipid phase may be important in determining the pattern of release. In vivo metabolic studies with lipid-steroid pellets are limited, but the patterns of output may be similar to those seen with PDS implants. Because of rate problems, a shorter regime slow-release implant seems more feasible than a longer lasting system. Surgical difficulties associated with the implantation and removal of the PDS implant make the choice of a lipid-steroid micropellet preparation more feasible for a short-term regimen. The discussion, following the main body of the article, focuses primarily on problems associated with implants.
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