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The world population plan of action and the Mexico draft recommendations: analytical comparisons and index.
[Unpublished] 1984 Jul 23. 136 p. (ESA/P/WP/85)This document, prepared primarily for use within the UN Secretariat, systematically compares the recommendtions of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) and the Mexico Draft recommendations for the implementation of the WPPA. There are 109 recommendations in the WPPA, and 85 in the Mexico Draft; they are compared using a 2-column format. An index provides cross referencing. Topics covered include the family and the staus of women, population characteristics (addressing, in particular, the implications of the increasing proportion of young persons in populations of developing countries), and the links between morbidity and mortality and family planning. For example, the WPPA notes that "mortality reduction may be a prerequisite to a decline in fertility." In light of this, the Mexico Draft recommends that governments take immediate action to increase infant survival by expanding the use of oral rehydration therapy, immunization, and the promotion of breast feeding. In addition, nutrient supplements and appropriate day-care facilities should be provided for nursing mothers in the labor force. Other areas addressed include the need to promote the development of management in all fields related to population. This need can be met with a worldwide system of institutions designed totrain personnel. Present educational institutions should expand their curricula to include the study of population dynamics and policy. Developing countries should be provided with technical equipment and financial support to improve library facilities, computer services, data-gathring, and analysis. While international cooperation is considered crucial to the implementation of the WPPA, national governments are urged to make the attainment of self-reliance in the management of their population programs a high priorit. In recognition of the diversity of national goals, no recommendations are made regarding a world family-size norm.
In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 22-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)Peru's 1985 population of 19,698,000 is projected to grow to 41,006,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 40.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.6% were over the age of 60. 25.2% and 11.5% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 26.0 to 11.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 58.6 to 72.0 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 10.7 to 6.4, while infant mortality will decline from 99.0 to 47.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 5.0 to 2.3, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 36.7 to 18.2. The 1986 contraceptive prevalence rate was 45.8, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 22.7 years. Urban population will increase from 67.4% in 1985 to 84.0% overall by the year 2025. Immigration and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, mortality, fertility, and spatial distribution are not. Peru has an explicit population policy. The 1985 National Population and socioeconomic development, responsible parenthood, significant reductions in morbidity and mortality, and improved spatial distribution of the population. Greater efforts have been made since 1986 to reduce the fertility rate. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 87-8.Solid population research, including regional and national surveys on fertility, mortality, and migration, has provided a foundation for development planning in the Ivory Coast. The population growth rate has risen from 3.6/year in the 1965-75 period to 4.3%/year since 1975. The birth rate is over 50/1000 and the fertility rate is 17/1000. The overall rate of population growth has been intensified by immigration, which has increased from 75,000 individuals/year in 1965-75 to a current level of 94,000 individuals/year. If current trends continue, aliens will comprise 30% of the country's population by 1990. Another trend has been widespread rural-urban migration. The rate of population growth in rural areas of the Ivory Coast was 1.8% in 1975-80, while that in urban areas was 8.8%. Rural development has been severely affected by a shortage of young men in the north and the savannah. The city of Abidjan holds 20% of the country's total population and half of the urban population. Another salient demographic feature is the young age profile of the population: 43% of current inhabitants are under 15 years of age. Improvements in the physical, social, economic, and psychological well-being of the Ivory Coast population require continued attention to modification of existing demographic trends through research-based population planning.
China: long-term development issues and options. The report of a mission sent to China by the World Bank.
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985. xiii, 183 p. (World Bank Country Economic Report)This report summarizes the conclusions of a World Bank study undertaken in 1984 to identify the key development issues China is expected to face in the next 20 years. Among the areas addressed by chapters in this monograph are agricultural prospects, energy development, spatial issues, international economic strategy, managing industrial technology, human development, mobilizing financial resources, and development management. China's economic prospects are viewed as dependinding upon success in mobilizing and effectively using all available resources, especially people. This in turn will depend on sucess in reforming the system of economic management, including progress in 3 areas: 1) greater use of market regulation to stimulate innovation and efficiency; 2) stronger planning, combining indirect with direct economic control; and 3) modification and extension of social institutions and policies to maintain the fairness in distribution that is basic to socialism in the face of the greater inequality and instability that may result from market regulation and indirect controls. Over the next 2 decades, China can be expected to become a middle-income country. The government has set the goal of quadrupling the gross value of industrial and agricultural output between 1980 and 2000 and increasing per capita income from US$300 to $800. China's size and past emphasis on local self-sufficiency offer opportunities for enormous economic gains through increased specialization and trade among localities. Increased rural-urban migration seems probable and desirable, although an increase in urban services and infrastructure will be required. The expected slow rate of population increase is an important foundation for China's favorable economic growth prospects. On the other hand, it may not be desirable to hold fertility below the replacement level for very long, given the effects this would have on the population's age structure. The increase in the proportion of elderly people will be a serious social issue in the next century, and reforms of the social security system need to be considered.