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  1. 1
    272961

    Proceeding of the World Population Conference, Rome, Italy, 31 August-10 September 1954. Summary report.

    World Population Conference (1954: Rome)

    New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1955. 207 p.

    The 1954 World Population Conference was the 1st scientific conference on the problems of population to be held under the auspices of the United Nations. This document describes the organization of the conference and contains a list of the 28 meetings held, the topics of discussion of each meeting, a list of the papers contributed and their authors, and a summary report of each meeting. Annex A provides a list of the officers of the conference and members of cimmittees. Annex B lists the participants and contributors. Topics discussed include mortality trends; demographic statistics--quality, techniques of measurement and analysis; fertility trends; new census undertakings; migration; legislation, administrative programs and services for population control; population projection methods and prospects; preliterate peoples; age distribution; socioeconomic consequences of an aging population; demographic aspects of socioeconomic development; design and control of demographic field studies; agricultural and industrial development; genetics and population; research on fertility and intelligence; social implications of population changes; recruitment and training of demographic researchers and teachers; forecast for world population growth and distribution; and economic and social implications of the present population trends.
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  2. 2
    098973

    India: country statement. International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 1994.

    India. Department of Family Welfare

    New Delhi, India, Department of Family Welfare, 1994. [5], 61 p.

    The country report prepared by India for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development opens by noting that India's population has increased from 361.1 million in 1951 to 846.3 million in 1991. In describing the demographic context of this, the largest democracy in the world, information is given on the growth rate, the sex ratio, the age structure, marital status, demographic transition, internal migration, urbanization, the economically active population and the industrial structure, literacy and education, data collection and analysis, and the outlook for the future. The second section of the report discusses India's population policy, planning, and programmatic framework. Topics covered include the national perception of population issues, the evolution of the population policy, the national family welfare program (infrastructure and services; maternal and child health; information, education, and communication; and achievements), the relationship of women to population and development, the relationship of population issues and sectoral activities, the environment, adolescents and youth, and AIDS. The third section presents operational aspects of family welfare program implementation and covers political and national support, the implementation strategy, the new action plan, program achievements and constraints, monitoring and evaluation, and financial aspects. The national action plan for the future is the topic of the fourth chapter and is discussed in terms of emerging and priority concerns, the role and relevance of the World Population Plan of Action and other international instruments, international migration, science and technology, and economic stabilization, structural reforms, and international financial support. After a 24-point summary, demographic information is appended in 17 tables and charts.
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  3. 3
    072825

    Preparing migration data for subnational population projections.

    Speare A

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. vii, 46 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/127)

    Methods pertaining to the preparation of migration data for subnational population projections as of 1992 are explained. A brief review of sources of data for migration projections (censuses, surveys, and registration data) reveals that the requirements are base period estimates of the level or rate of migration between regions, estimates of the age and sex distribution of migrants, and any indicators that show likely future trends. In a discussion of the measurement of the volume of migration from census date, data on residence at a fixed prior time, estimates based on previous place of residence and duration of residence, and estimates of net migration of census survival/ratio methods are relevant. Estimates of the distribution of migrants by age and sex are explained based on different age and sex data: on place of residence at a fixed prior date, on place of previous residence and duration of residence, on age distributions from surveys, and from registers. Also explained is the use of model migration schedules when there is little or no information about age. Baseline migration projections for future estimates which are reasonable and account for variable rates of migration by region are discussed. The objectives desired are sometimes contradictory in that using a long time frame in order to average out random or abnormal fluctuations conflicts with continuing recent nonrandom or unusual changes so that emergent trends will be projected; objectives are also to use the most recent data available which account for shifts in migration patterns and to ensure convergence of migration rates toward equilibrium at some future point. Alternative strategies are provided as well as adjustments to provide consistent results. Adjustments involve the projection of numbers of migrants rather than rates, the use of out-migrant data on destination to adjust in-migration, and the scaling of in-migration to equal out-migration. Recommendations for data collection are presented. Internal migration data are best served by census data which asks the question about place of residence at a fixed prior time preceding the census and with a time interval designation that is of interest for projections. Single year of age and prior year questions and 5 years before are desired due to the need for short-range projections and planning. The 5-year prior place of residence question must be available by current region of residence and age and sex. Specific examples of multiregional projections are included.
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  4. 4
    071950

    Mexico.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 174-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Mexico's 1985 population of 78,996,000 is projected to grow to 154,085,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 42.2% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.4% were over the age of 60. 24.8% and 11.6% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 26.8 to 11.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 65.7 to 73.2 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 7.1 to 6.4, while infant mortality will decline from 53.0 to 22.2. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 4.6 to 2.3, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 33.9 to 17.7. The 1982 contraceptive prevalence rate was 48.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 20.6 years. Urban population will increase from 69.6% in 1985 to 84.4% overall by the year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, immigration, and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, fertility, and spatial distribution are not. Mexico has an explicit population policy. Integrated with development plans, policy aims to reduce population growth largely by reducing fertility. Attention is also given to adjusting spatial distribution, and improving women's status, the quality of life, and social equity. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  5. 5
    071949

    Mauritius.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 170-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Mauritius' 1985 population of 1,050,000 is projected to grow to 1,606,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 31.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.7% were over the age of 60. 21.2% and 17.8% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 19.5 to 5.9 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 66.7 to 74/2 years, the crude death rate will increase from 6.0 to 8.6, while infant mortality will decline from 28.4 to 8.5. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 2.8 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 25.5 to 14.5. The 1985 contraceptive prevalence rate was 75.0, while the 1983 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.7 years. Urban population will increase from 42.2% in 1985 to 62.7% overall by the year 2025. Insignificant immigration is considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, emigration, and spatial distribution are not. Mauritius has an explicit population policy. It aims to decrease population growth by reducing fertility. Specific efforts include providing family planning services, improving women's status, and increasing females' minimum marriage age from 15 to 18 years. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  6. 6
    070219

    Venezuela.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 206-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Venezuela's 1985 population of 17,317,000 is projected to grow to 38,000,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 39.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.3% were over the age of 60. 27.8% and 11.5% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 27.4 to 13.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 69.0 to 73.7 years, the crude death rate will increase from 5.5 to 6.3, while infant mortality will decline from 29.0 to 20.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 4.1 to 2.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 33.0 to 20.1. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 49.3, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.2 years. Urban population will increase from 87.6% in 1985 to 96.0% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, fertility and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while mortality, morbidity, high immigration, and spatial distribution are not. Venezuela does not have an explicit population policy. Fertility and health are addressed under more broad social sector policy and in the general context of family welfare. While the government does not directly intervene to affect population growth or fertility, sectoral programs and national development plans have had an impact on population dynamics. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  7. 7
    070213

    United Arab Emirates.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 182-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    The United Arab Emirates' 1985 population of 1,350,000 is projected to grow to 2,692,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 31.0% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 2.4% were over the age of 60. 24.8% and 18.6% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 23.0 to 8.6 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 69.2 to 77.6 years, the crude death rate will increase from 3.6 to 8.1, while infant mortality will decline from 32.0 to 7.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 7.2 to 3.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 26.6 to 16.8. No information is reported on the contraceptive prevalence rate, while the 1975 female mean age at 1st marriage was 18.0 years. Urban population will increase from 77.8% in 1985 to 84.9% overall by the year 2025. Mortality, morbidity, fertility, spatial distribution, and insignificant emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high population growth and immigration are not. The United Arab Emirates does not have an explicit population policy. The government is, however, intent upon reducing its heavy dependency upon immigrant workers, and will increasingly restrict immigration and migration to urban areas while encouraging continued high fertility among the native-born population. Economic development and social change are also fostered to raise the standard of living. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  8. 8
    070208

    Turkey.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 162-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Turkey's 1985 population of 50,345,000 is projected to grow to 89,646,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 36.4% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 6.4% were over the age of 60. 22.9% and 13.6% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 20.8 to 9.0 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 61.6 to 74.6 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 9.4 to 6.7, while infant mortality will decline from 92.0 to 19.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.9 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 30.2 to 16.3. The 1983 contraceptive prevalence rate was 51.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 20.7 years. Urban population will increase from 45.9% in 1985 to 69.8% overall by the year 2025. Significant immigration and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high population growth, fertility, mortality, and low emigration are not. Turkey has an explicit population policy. It aims to reduce population growth and fertility through family planning programs and family welfare provisions, reduce mortality through expanded, local-level public health services, and reduce migration to urban areas. Policy supports increased emigration. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  9. 9
    070207

    Tunisia.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 158-61. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Tunisia's 1985 population of 7,261,000 is projected to grow to 13,284,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 39.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 6.0% were over the age of 60. 22.5% and 13.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 25.3 to 10.2 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 63.1 to 75.0 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 8.4 to 5.9, while infant mortality will decline from 71.0 to 16.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 4.9 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 33.7 to 16.0. The 1983 contraceptive prevalence rate was 41.1, while the 1984 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.3 years. Urban population will increase from 53.0% in 1985 to 72.6% overall by the year 2025. Insignificant immigration is considered to be acceptable by the government, while the high population growth, mortality, fertility, low emigration, and spatial distribution are not. Tunisia has an explicit population policy. It aims to lower the birth rate and population growth, extend family health services in rural areas, improve living conditions and health care facilities for infants and small children, decrease migration to metropolitan areas, and adjust the spatial distribution pattern. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  10. 10
    070203

    Thailand.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 142-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Thailand;s 1985 population of 51,604,000 is projected to grow to 80,911,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 36.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.6% were over the age of 60. 21.0% and 15.5% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 19.9 to 7.0 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 62.7 to 74.6 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 8.0 to 7.4, while infant mortality will decline from 48.0 to 13.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.5 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 27.8 to 14.4. The 1987 contraceptive prevalence rate was 65.5, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 22.7 years. Urban population will increase from 19.8% in 1985 to 49.2% overall by the year 2025. Insignificant international migration is considered to be acceptable by the government, while high population growth, mortality, morbidity, fertility, and spatial distribution are not. Thailand has an explicit population policy. Encouraging the voluntary acceptance of family planning and the notion of a small family ideal, policy supports a reduction in the rate of population growth. Health and socioeconomic objectives as well as a balanced population distribution are also included as well as balanced population distribution are also included under the rubric of population policy. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  11. 11
    070202

    Syrian Arab Republic.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 138-41. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    The Syrian Arab Republic's 1985 population of 10,458,000 is projected to grow to 32,271,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 48.1% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.3% were over the age of 60. 30.8% and 6.5% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. THe rate of natural increase will have declined from 36.9 to 17.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 62.6 to 74.3 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 8.6 to 3.7, while infant mortality will decline from 59.0 to 15.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 7.2 to 2.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 45.5 to 21.5. The 1978 contraceptive prevalence rate was 19.8, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.5 years. Urban population will increase from 49.5% in 1985 to 72.0% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, spatial distribution, and insignificant immigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high emigration is not. The Syrian Arab Republic does not have an explicit population policy. Policies address the improvement of health, education, and cultural and housing conditions, especially in rural areas, with no governmental intervention in fertility. They aim to more effectively and efficiently channel resources to various sectors of the economy. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  12. 12
    070200

    Sweden.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 130-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Sweden's 1985 population of 8,350,000 is projected to shrink to 8,136,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 17.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 23.6% were over the age of 60. 15.6% and 30.0% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 0.3 to -2.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 76.3 to 80.6 years, the crude death rate will increase from 11.0 to 12.7, while infant mortality will decline from 7.0 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.7 to 1.8, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 11.3 to 10.4. The 1981 contraceptive prevalence rate was 78.1, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 27.6 years. Urban population will increase from 83.4% in 1985 to 90.5% overall by the year 2025. All of these indicators and trends are considered to be acceptable by the government while only spatial distribution is marginally not. Sweden does not have an explicit population policy. Population policies are part and parcel of broader socioeconomic policy, with, nonetheless, an interest in limiting future levels of immigration and adjusting urban-rural spatial imbalance. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  13. 13
    070199

    Swaziland.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 126-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Swaziland's 1985 population of 665,000 is projected to grow to 2,206,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 46.8% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.7% were over the age of 60. 35.3% and 5.7% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 32.9 to 20.4 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 53.0 to 70.3 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 14.1 to 4.9, while infant mortality will decline from 129.0 to 51.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 6.5 to 3.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 47.0 to 25.3. No information is reported on the contraceptive prevalence rate and female mean age at 1st marriage. Urban population will increase from 26.3% in 1985 to 62.6% overall by the year 2025. Immigration, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, mortality, morbidity, fertility, and urban population growth are not. Swaziland does not have an explicit population policy. Programs aimed at reducing population growth and fertility through the provision of family planning services, maternal-child health services, and socioeconomic development are, however, being promoted. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  14. 14
    070185

    Sri Lanka.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 114-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Sri Lanka's 1985 population of 16,108,000 is projected to grown to 24,449,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 34.1% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 71.1% were over the age of 60. 21.6% and 17.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 20.5 to 7.5 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 68.9 to 77.2 years, the crude death rate will increase from 6.3 to 7.2, while infant mortality will decline from 39.0 to 13.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.3 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 26.9 to 14.7. The 1987 contraceptive prevalence rate was 62.0, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.4 years. Urban population will increase from 21.1% n 1985 to 42.6% overall by he year 2025. Insignificant levels of international migration and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high population growth, mortality, morbidity, and fertility are not. Sri Lanka has an explicit population policy. It aims to reduce population growth and adjust the age structure by lowering fertility and infant and child mortality. Strengthened and expanded family planning services, financial incentives for women using IUDs, and population education are components of this approach. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  15. 15
    070184

    Spain.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 110-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Spain's 1985 population of 38,602,000 is projected to grown to 42,530,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 22.9% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.1% were over the age of 60. 16.6% and 26.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 5.6 to 0.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 75.8 to 80.3 years, the crude birth death rate will increase from 7.7 to 10.3, while infant mortality will decline from 11.0 to 6.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.8 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 13.3 to 11.0. The 1985 contraceptive prevalence rate was 59.4, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 23.1 years. Urban population will increase from 75.8% in 1985 to 88.8% overall by the year 2025. All of these indicators and trends are considered to be acceptable by the government. Spain, therefore, does not have an explicit population policy. The government considers the country's demographic situation to be stable, and deems fertility to be an individual matter. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken regarding the above-mentioned demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  16. 16
    070166

    Poland.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 30-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Poland's 1985 population of 37,203,000 is projected to grow to 45,066,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 25.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 13,8% were over the age of 60. 19.6% and 22.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 9.6 to 3.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 70.9 to 77.3 years, the crude death rate will increase from 9.6 to 9.8, while infant mortality will decline from 20.0 to 7.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 2.3 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 19.2 to 13.1. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 75.0, while the 1984 female mean age at 1st marriage was 22.8 years. Urban population will increase from 61.0% in 1985 to 71.0% overall by the year 2025. Population size and growth, fertility, immigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population age structure, mortality, morbidity, and too high emigration are not. Poland has an explicit population policy. Aiming to establish a stable population, policies control internal migration while governing efforts to improve mortality and living conditions. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  17. 17
    070161

    Panama.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 10-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Panama's 1985 population of 2,180,000 is projected to grow to 3,862,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 37.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 6.6% were over the age of 60. 23.2% and 14.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 22.6 to 9.1 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 71.0 to 74.3 years, the crude death rate will increase from 5.4 to 7.1, while infant mortality will decline from 26.0 to 17.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.5 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 28.0 to 16.1. The 1984 contraceptive prevalence rate was 58.2, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.3 years. Urban population will increase from 52.4% in 1985 to 74.3% overall by the year 2025. Growth, fertility, immigration, mortality, and morbidity are considered to be acceptable by the government, while spatial distribution is not. Panama does not have an explicit population policy. In general, it is more concerned with integrating marginal population subgroups, rectifying inadequate urban-rural spatial distribution, and reducing infant mortality. Socioeconomic policies related to demographic issues have been components of successive national development plans. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  18. 18
    070160

    Pakistan.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 6-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Pakistan's 1985 population of 103,241,000 is projected to grow to 267,089,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 44.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.4% were over the age of 60. 28.4% and 8.0% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 36.0 to 14.7 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 54.0 to 70.7 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 14.4 to 5.4, while infant mortality will decline from 120.0 to 43.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 7.0 to 2.3, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 50.3 to 20.1. The 1984/85 contraceptive prevalence rate was 7.6, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 19.8 years. Urban population will increase from 29.8% in 1985 to 56.7% overall by the year 2025. Emigration and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, mortality, fertility, and immigration are not. Pakistan has an explicit population policy. Efforts are under way to reduce illiteracy and unemployment, improve health conditions, and lower fertility through family planning programs. Such steps are fully integrated components of broader social and economic planning. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  19. 19
    065073

    [The controversies over population growth and economic development] Die Kontroversen um Bevolkerungswachstum und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung.

    Schmid J

    In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of, Springer-Verlag, 1988. 19-35.

    This paper presents a broad review of the major theoretical and political viewpoints concerning population growth and economic development. The western nations represent one side of the controversy; based on their experience with population growth in their former colonies, the western countries attempted to accelerate development by means of population control. The underlying economic reason for this approach is that excess births interfere with public and private savings and thus reduce the amount of capital available for development investment. A parallel assumption on the social side is that families had more children than they actually desired and that it was only proper to furnish families with contraceptives in order to control unwanted pregnancies. The competing point of view maintains that forcing the pace of development would unleash productive forces and stimulate better distribution of wealth by increasing social pressures on governments. The author traces the interaction between these two viewpoints and shows how the Treaty of Bucharest in 1974 marked a compromise between the two population policies and formed the basis for the activities of the population agencies of UN. The author then considers the question of whether European development can serve as a model for the present day 3rd World. The large differences between the sizes of age cohorts and the pressure that these differences exert upon internal population movements and the availability of food and housing is more important than the raw numbers alone.
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  20. 20
    039142

    Basis for the definition of the organization's action policy with respect to population matters.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]

    [Unpublished] 1984 May 8. 31 p. (CE 92/12)

    This report shows how demographic information can be analyzed and used to identify and characterize the groups assigned priority in the Regional Plan of Action and that it is necessary for the improvement of the planning and allocation of health resources so that national health plans can be adapted to encompass the entire population. In discussing the connections between health and population characteristics in the countries of the region, the report covers mortality, fertility and health, and fertility and population increase; spatial distribution and migration; and the structure of the population. Focus then moves on to health, development, and population policies and family planning. The final section of the report considers the response of the health sector to population trends and characteristics and to development-related factors. The operations of the health sector must be revised in keeping with the observed demographic situation and the projections thereof so that the goal of health for all by the year 2000 may be realized. In several countries of the region mortality remains high. In 1/3 of them, infant mortality during the period 1980-85 exceeds 60/1000 live births. If measures are not taken to reduce mortality 55% of the population of Latin America in the year 2000 will still be living in countries with life expectancies at birth of under 70 years. According to the projections, in the year 2000 the birthrate will stand at around 29/1000, with wide differences between the countries of the region, within each of them, and between socioeconomic strata. High fertility will remain a factor hostile to the health of women and children and a determinant of rapid population growth. Some governments view the present or predicted growth rates as excessive; others want to increase them; and some take no explicit position on the matter. The countries would be well advised to assign values to their birthrate, natural increase, and periods for doubling their populations in relation to their development plans and to the prospects for improving the standard of living and health of their populations. An important factor in urban growth is internal migration. These migrants, like some of those who move to other countries, may have health problems requiring special care. Regardless of a country's demographic situation, the health sector has certain responsibilities, including: the need to promote the framing and adoption of population and development policies, in whose implementation the importance of health measures is not open to question; and the need to favor the intersector coordination and articulation required to ensure that population aspects are considered in national development planning.
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  21. 21
    009997

    Comparative study on migration, urbanization and development in the ESCAP region. Country reports. 3. Migration, urbanization and development in Indonesia.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    New York, UN, 1981. 202 p. (ST/ESCAP/169)

    The UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific undertook a comparative study of migration, urbanization, and development in the region. Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand participated in the project and other countries are expected to be added in the 1980s. This monograph outlined the major features of internal migration in Indonesia as revealed by data collected prior to the census and national surveys carried out or planned for the 1980s. Chapter 1 aimed to set the scene for the migration analysis which follows by examining similarities and differences in the economic, social, and demographic variables in the urban and rural sectors of Indonesia. Chapter 2 looks at the patterns of change in population distribution in Indonesia over the past 50 years. There is an examination of the changing patterns of urban growth and urbanization over the last 1/2 century in chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the role of migration in the urbanization process. The next chapter examines some of the major sociodemographic and economic characteristics of migrants. Chapters 4 and 5 rely heavily on data which came from the 1971 census. The last chapter reviews the major problems relating to migration and urbanization in Indonesia and the policies which have followed which attempt to deal with those problems. The 1971 census was the main source of data used; however, migration data from the census suffer from shortcomings in detecting the level and nature of population mobility in Indonesia. Other limitations exist as well and these are all outlined in detail.
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  22. 22
    762112

    Senegal.

    Menes RJ

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 144 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XIX)

    This report uses available statistics to examine health conditions in Senegal and their interaction with socioeconomic development. Background data are presented, after which population, health status, nutrition, environmental health, health infrastructure, facilities, services and manpower, national health policy and planning, international organizations, and the Sahel are discussed. Diseases such as malaria, measles, tuberculosis, trachoma and venereal diseases are endemic in Senegal, and high levels of infant and childhood mortality exist throughout the country but especially in rural areas. Diarrhea, respiratory infections, and neonatal tetanus contribute to this mortality and are evidence of the poor health environment, and lack of basic services including nutrition assistance, health education, and potable water. Nutrition in Senegal appears to be good in general, but seasonal and local variations sometimes produce malnutrition. Lowered fertility rates would reduce infant and maternal mortality and morbidity and might slow the present decline in per capita food intake. At present the government of Senegal has no population policy and almost no provisions for family planning services. Health services are inadequate and inefficient, with shortages of all levels of health manpower, poor planning, and overemphasis on curative services.
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  23. 23
    732887

    Iran's population - past, present and future.

    Alizadeh M

    Teheran, Iran, Population and Manpower Bureau, Planning Division, November 1973. 75 p. (Unpublished)

    The structure and characteristics of Iran's current population are analyzed, and an attempt is made to review and analyze Iran's population evolution and determine its future trends in the light of the research studies conducted by various organizations. Until the second half of the nineteenth century there was no population census in Iran. The period after 1946 was marked by an increase in the annual population growth rate. The size and structure of the population bears a direct relationship to changes in the economic and social conditions. The population strategy of Iran is designed so as to slow down the rate of population growth by reducing the birthrate. This study demonstrated that it cannot be expected that the population growth rate will decrease to 2% annually in the next 20 years. The death rate will decrease to .8% and the birthrate will decrease to 3-3.4%. The article provides tables on the size of population, living conditions, population changes, and urbanization trends based on the projections of this study.
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