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Your search found 8 Results

  1. 1
    101391

    Country statement submitted by the government of Lithuania.

    Lithuania

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 227-33.

    Assessment of the demographic situation in Lithuania is difficult because of interactive changes in economic and social conditions, policy, and demographic structure. The net reproduction rate until the 1990s was near one. After the 1990s, fertility declined and emigration increased. The population declined to 3,751,000 in 1993. There is an increase in the aging of population; in 1992, the proportion over 60 years of age was 16.5%. Fertility decline contributed the most to population aging, and the substantial immigration prior to 1990 slowed the aging process, whereas mortality had little impact. Net immigration prior to 1990, which was primarily within the republics of the former USSR, was about 7-9000 annually. Immigration was 21,900 in 1988 and 6,200 in 1992. Net emigration was -21,500 in 1992. Jewish emigration was high, partly because of receiving country policies. In 1990, family policy was formulated to broaden financial support for families with children. Since 1991, the health of the population has deteriorated. In 1991, the number of disabled among the working age population increased 30%. Life expectancy was 70.5 in 1992; with female life expectancy about 11 years higher. 55.3% of all mortality is attributed to cardiovascular diseases. Health care policy is being formulated according to WHO health principles and with an emphasis on life styles, environment, and primary health care issues. Short- and long-term policy measures will be in accordance with principles of equity and human justice. Programs will be monitored and evaluated.
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  2. 2
    101402

    Country statement submitted by the government of Sweden.

    Sweden

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 325-30.

    Population growth in Sweden has been unregulated. The total fertility rate of 2.1 is at replacement level and satisfactory. The aging of the population is expected to occur around 2010. Immigration in 1991 was 44,000 persons, with 18% from other Nordic countries, 61% claiming relatives in Sweden, and 35% claiming refugee status. During 1992, 60,000 refugees from the former Yugoslavia requested asylum. The large numbers of asylum-seekers has resulted in a policy shift that restricts entrants to those fulfilling the UN definitions. The immigration policy has been in effect since 1968 and was formulated without any connection to population policy. Sweden has ratified UN conventions on migrant workers and has been part of the free Nordic labor market, which allows freedom of labor migration between Scandinavian countries. 85% of Swedish mothers have worked outside the home. Family policy is supportive of the dual roles of working and child care. There is a parental insurance system which compensates for lost income for both parents while caring for a newborn child at home. Day care facilities meet demand, and there is financial support for families with children, particularly single-parent families. Consensual unions are common. Contraceptives and family planning services are readily available. Life expectancy is 74.8 years for males and 80.4 years for females. Health inequalities linked to socioeconomic groups have been addressed by the 1992 establishment of a National Institute of Public Health. Sweden has played a dominant role in international development since the 1960s. 7.0% ($165-170 million) of Sweden's total foreign aid program was directed to population issues in 1992. Strategies focus on human rights, socioeconomic factors, and unbalanced development. Many countries in Africa have received support. Women are viewed as key to development and population issues for health, ethical, social, and human rights reasons. Sweden is also concerned about the relationship between environmental degradation, natural resource depletion, and population issues.
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  3. 3
    101398

    Country statement submitted by the government of the Federation of Russia.

    Russia

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 289-302.

    The population growth rate in Russia over the past 20 years has been 5-7%/1000 annually, and the proportion of aged has increased to 19.4%. Approximately 47,500 people emigrated in 1989, 103,600 in 1990, and 43,000 in 6 months of 1992. The government is working to conform to international standards and protocols on migration. There is a slight decline in marriages, an increase in single-parent families with children, and a formal divorce rate of 2%. Only those in registered marriages are protected under the law. The birth rate declined from 2.02 in 1989 to 1.73 in 1991. Preschools, paid leave, and preferential work schedules are available as a means of balancing domestic and child care responsibilities with work load. Family policy provides for the implementation of a comprehensive program to encourage family self-reliance, social protection, and family planning within state-funded and privately-funded organizations. Abortion is the most commonly used method of fertility regulation, and there were 3.6 million abortions in 1991 and 1.8 million births. The abortion rate of 100.3/1000 reproductive age women is considered high. Life expectancy is 63.5 years for men and 74.3 years for women. A decree passed in June 1992 placed priority on UN goals of child survival, and services were expanded to include perinatal units in hospitals, allowances for pregnant women receiving prenatal care, and sufficient maternity leave, particularly for those with at risk pregnancies or births. Standards were also established for ensuring survival of those exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident. 33% of deaths are due to accidents, poisonings, and injuries. 30% of disability among the working age population is due to respiratory diseases. Infectious disease morbidity is high. 4.4% of the total population receives out-patient psychiatric help at specialized clinics for disorders such as alcoholism (80% of patients). 15% of the urban population live in an environment meeting international standards of health for air pollution. In the recent past, fund limitations have constrained participation in international events. Russia is interested in receiving bilateral and multilateral technical assistance in drawing up population policies suitable to its new circumstances. In order to institute modern data collection and analysis techniques, a micro census is planned for 1994 and a regular census for 1999.
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  4. 4
    101395

    Country statement submitted by the government of Poland.

    Poland

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 261-71.

    Economic changes in Poland have restricted social welfare development and services. Population has been below replacement level since 1989, and life expectancy has declined with a relatively high infant mortality. There is considerable emigration of the young and skilled, and 2.5 million were unemployed in 1992. There will be an increase in the population aged 45-64 years and among pensioners. Although there is no formal population policy, the government has aimed to reach replacement level fertility, to improve the quality of life, to balance the distribution of the population, and to formulate better international agreements on economic migration into and out of Poland. There is public concern about uncontrolled immigration from countries of the former Soviet Union, since Poland is a transit stop for refugees on their way to Germany or Scandinavia. Preferential treatment is been given to Polish migrants in the former Soviet Union. Illegal foreign labor has increased, and crime is a problem. There are plans for policy reform and for the establishment of an Immigration Office. Marriage is declining, and cohabitation is increasing. The birth rate declined from 19.7/1000 in 1983 to 14.3 in 1991. 8% of total births were to juveniles, 6% were born out of wedlock, and 8% were low birth weight. Contraception is available through pharmacies; sterilization is not performed, and abortion regulations are under debate. Unfavorable lifestyles and health behaviors contribute to a poor health situation and an increase in male mortality in all age groups. Circulatory system diseases are a primary cause of death, followed by cancers, injuries, and poisoning. Infant mortality was 15.0/1000 live births in 1991, mostly due to perinatal complications (50%) and developmental defects (27%). Hepatitis B infection is high in Poland, with 30 cases/1000; tuberculosis is declining, but was still high at 42.3/100,000 in 1990 and accounted for 40% of all infectious disease mortality. HIV infections numbered 1996 cases by 1991. Life expectancy is 66.1 years for males and 75.3 years for females. The Polish health strategy conforms to WHO directives and emphasizes general health promotion and at-risk populations. Poland is particularly concerned about population problems in the Eastern and Central European region and in countries of the former Soviet Republic.
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  5. 5
    101387

    Country statement submitted by the government of Ireland.

    Ireland

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 195-7.

    Ireland's government considers that population size, growth, and structure are reflected in policies to secure a reasonable standard of living and to guarantee rights in the case of unemployment, disability, sickness, or old age. In 1992, legislation established family planning services through health services. Guidelines have been issued on sex and family life education. The Health Department has a comprehensive health promotion program for improving health status, for targeting specific groups and illnesses, and encouraging healthier life styles. Maternity benefits to those with insurable employment are available for 70% of wages, and tax benefits are available to low-income earners. Ireland supports the full and equal participation of women in the development process and agrees with the European Community's guidelines on family planning programs. A first-time contribution to the UN Population Fund was made in 1993, and further contributions are under consideration.
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  6. 6
    101386

    Country statement submitted by the government of Hungary.

    Hungary

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 187-93.

    Hungary has both below replacement fertility and high mortality. There has been a deterioration in the stability of families, with a high divorce rate. Population policy is aimed toward reducing the population decline and providing a more favorable age structure. The objective is to reduce mortality, increase fertility, and strengthen material and social conditions of families. Due to resource limitations, the government will rely on the moral renewal of society. An Office of Refugee Affairs was established in 1989. In 1991, there were 75,000 refugees or displaced persons, including ethnic Hungarians. Many new arrivals are from the former Yugoslavia. Marriage and remarriage have declined since the mid-1970s. There is postponement of marriage and first and second births. 87% of children are born to married women. Family policy, since 1992, provides for free prenatal care and pregnancy allowances, at the same time regulating abortion. Social allowances are given to families with children for child raising. Male mortality is particularly high among those aged 30-59 years. High mortality was attributed to life style risk factors and mental hygiene, level of health care, and the role of environmental factors. Hungary is very interested in international cooperation within the European Community and gives support to population activities.
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  7. 7
    101380

    Country statement submitted by the government of Finland.

    Finland

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 147-52.

    In the 20 years following World War II, Finland's population growth declined markedly. Recent increases confirm fertility at 1.79 for 1991, which is higher than it has been since 1970. Fertility is expected to increase until 2010. The country is very homogenous: the largest minority are Swedes, who comprised 6% of the population in 1991, and Lappish people. There are integrated labor markets between Sweden, Finland, Norway, and Denmark. Migrants with Finnish origins from the former Soviet Union have increased. Refugees numbered 6000 in 1993. Finnish family policy strives to secure close and firm human relationships for children and family members, to improve economic conditions for families, and to secure the preconditions for balanced population development. Family type does not determine the nature of family support. Parental leave amounts to 263 week days and is 66% of annual income. Child home care for children under 3 years of age and municipal day care are provided. Men's life expectancy was 71.4 years in 1991; women's was 79.3 years. Infant mortality was low at 6/1000 in 1991. Cardiovascular diseases are a primary cause of death; declines have occurred in this disease group since 1970. Accidents and suicide are very high in Finland compared to other Nordic countries. Lower social classes have a higher mortality rate. Future emphasis will be on outpatient treatment, promotion of health prevention, and a balance between health care and illness treatment. Finland's position is that rapid population growth is related to poverty and slow socioeconomic development. Increased levels of education and gender equality are viewed as necessary for poverty alleviation. Improvements in basic health care also contribute to social development and thus slower growth. International funding has increased and was 85 million in 1991. Development and population related aid will be reduced in 1993 to 0.4% of the gross national product.
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  8. 8
    101372

    Country statement submitted by the government of Austria.

    Austria

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 61-6.

    About 7% of the total population of 7.9 million in Austria are international migrants, mostly from the former Yugoslavia and Turkey. Austria has also received displaced persons and illegal immigrants. OECD has recommended that Austria and other European countries contribute at least 1% of public development aid to population related projects. Austria has been increasing its contributions to reach this recommendation as one means of responding to migration pressure. A comprehensive foreigner and immigration policy has been devised which distinguishes between refugees and asylum seekers and displaced persons and other immigrants. Legal settlement is dependent on the socioeconomic capacity of Austria. Austria has also been active internationally in conferences and agreements. Migratory gains between 1981 and 1991 have contributed to a population growth of 3.2%. Smaller birth rates have contributed to an increased older population aged over 60 years (20.3% in 1991; 6.8% aged 75 years and older). In 1987, the total fertility rate was 1.43 children and the net reproduction rate was 0.68. Family policy has redistributed income to favor low-income families and granted generous maternity leave. The general policy direction is for further increased education about contraception and expansion of services for young people. Free condom distribution is currently being piloted in schools. Life expectancy has been increasing and in 1991 was 72.6 years for males and 79.2 years for females, mostly due to reduced mortality among the aged.
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