Important: The POPLINE website will retire on September 1, 2019. Click here to read about the transition.

Your search found 17 Results

  1. 1
    326018

    Putting young people into national poverty reduction strategies: a guide to statistics on young people in poverty.

    Curtain R

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], [2008]. 35 p.

    Many national poverty reduction strategies overlook the needs of young people. Even where national strategies do have a youth focus, the analysis of their situation is limited because little or no reference is made to readily available data. For those advocating on behalf of young people in poverty, considerable scope exists to make use of simple but reputable statistics to mount a strong case for Governments and civil society to allocate more resources in addressing poverty among this major population group. The purpose of this guide is to show how relevant statistics on young people in poverty can be easily sourced for use in developing national poverty reduction strategies. The guide shows how to use accessible databases on the Internet to provide individual countries with sophisticated statistical profile of young people in poverty. (excerpt)
    Add to my documents.
  2. 2
    104206

    World population 1994. [Wallchart].

    United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, Dept. for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Population Division, 1994 Aug. [2] p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/142)

    This wall chart tabulates data from the medium variant of the UN population estimates and projections as revised in 1994. Figures are given for the world as a whole and for more developed, less developed, and least developed areas. Data are also provided for regions and for individual countries within those regions. The mid-year population is shown in thousands for 1994, 2015, and 2050. Figures are then detailed for percentage annual growth rate, crude birth rate, crude death rate, total fertility rate, life expectancy at birth, and infant mortality rate for 1990-95. Age distribution (under age 15 years and 65 years or older) and density data are also provided for mid-1994. In addition to the main table, a listing is given of the 10 largest countries in 1994, and bar graphs show world population in millions for 1950-2050 as well as the average annual increase in millions for 1950-2050.
    Add to my documents.
  3. 3
    074860

    World population projections, 1989-90 edition: short-and long-term estimates.

    Bulatao RA; Bos E; Stephens PW; Vu MT

    Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990. lxxiii, 421 p.

    The World Bank's Population and Human Resources Department regularly publishes a set of world population projections based on its data files. This 1989-90 report has projections for the world and for regions, income groups of countries, and 187 countries. World Bank staff made projections to the point where populations reach stability. In almost all cases, they made only 1 projection. Projection tables for 1985-2030 exist for each country's population. Each country also has tables on birth rate, death rate, net migration, natural increase, population growth, total fertility rate, life expectancy, infant mortality rate, and dependency ratio. The report shows that from 1985-90 population growth was 1.74%, and projected 1990 world population size was 5.3 billion. By 2025, 84.1% of the world's population will be living in developing countries. 58% of the population now lives in Asia. The population of Africa is growing faster than that of Asia, however, (3 vs. 1.9%). By 2000, the population of Africa will be second only to that of Asia, yet in 1989-1990, it is behind that of Asia, Europe and the USSR, and the Americas. The current dependency ratio (67) is expected to decline to 53 by 2025. The highest current dependency ratio belongs to Kenya (120). In developed countries with aging populations, the dependency ratio will rise from 50-58. China will most likely to continue to be the most populous country for about 200 years. India will continue to contribute more to population growth than any other country in the world. Yet the Federal Republic of Germany loses 100,000 people yearly. Total fertility rates are the greatest in Rwanda, the Yemen Arab Republic, Kenya, Malawi, and the Ivory Coast (all >7.2). Afghanistan and 3 western African countries have the shortest life expectancies (about 40 years). These trends illustrate the need to alter population growth.
    Add to my documents.
  4. 4
    072825

    Preparing migration data for subnational population projections.

    Speare A

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. vii, 46 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/127)

    Methods pertaining to the preparation of migration data for subnational population projections as of 1992 are explained. A brief review of sources of data for migration projections (censuses, surveys, and registration data) reveals that the requirements are base period estimates of the level or rate of migration between regions, estimates of the age and sex distribution of migrants, and any indicators that show likely future trends. In a discussion of the measurement of the volume of migration from census date, data on residence at a fixed prior time, estimates based on previous place of residence and duration of residence, and estimates of net migration of census survival/ratio methods are relevant. Estimates of the distribution of migrants by age and sex are explained based on different age and sex data: on place of residence at a fixed prior date, on place of previous residence and duration of residence, on age distributions from surveys, and from registers. Also explained is the use of model migration schedules when there is little or no information about age. Baseline migration projections for future estimates which are reasonable and account for variable rates of migration by region are discussed. The objectives desired are sometimes contradictory in that using a long time frame in order to average out random or abnormal fluctuations conflicts with continuing recent nonrandom or unusual changes so that emergent trends will be projected; objectives are also to use the most recent data available which account for shifts in migration patterns and to ensure convergence of migration rates toward equilibrium at some future point. Alternative strategies are provided as well as adjustments to provide consistent results. Adjustments involve the projection of numbers of migrants rather than rates, the use of out-migrant data on destination to adjust in-migration, and the scaling of in-migration to equal out-migration. Recommendations for data collection are presented. Internal migration data are best served by census data which asks the question about place of residence at a fixed prior time preceding the census and with a time interval designation that is of interest for projections. Single year of age and prior year questions and 5 years before are desired due to the need for short-range projections and planning. The 5-year prior place of residence question must be available by current region of residence and age and sex. Specific examples of multiregional projections are included.
    Add to my documents.
  5. 5
    069874

    Use and interpretation of pediatric anthropometry in epidemiologic studies.

    Sullivan K; Gorstein J; Trowbridge F; Yip R

    [Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the Society for Epidemiologic Research 24th Annual Meeting, Buffalo, New York, June 11-14, 1991. 12, [18] p.

    Health workers use anthropometry to determine the nutritional status of children. The accepted international growth reference curves provide the bases for the indices which include weight for height (W/H), height for age (H/A) and weight for age (W/A). Health workers must interpret these indices with caution, however. For example, W/H and H/A represent different physiological and biological processes while W/A combines the 2 processes. Further Z-scores, percentiles, or percent of median may be used as the scale for the indices and each scale has different statistical features. Specifically, Z-scores and percentiles acknowledge smoothed normalized distributions around the median, but the percent-of-median ignores the distribution around the median. Some researchers suggest using Z-scores rather than percentiles or percent-of-median since statisticians can interpret them more clearly and can calculate the proportion of children in the reference population who fall above or below a cut off point more easily. This cutoff should be only used to screen children who are likely to be malnourished since not all children below a cutoff are indeed malnourished. Some researchers have identified a leading limitation of the CDC/WHO based indices. A disjunction exists where the 2 smoothed based curves based on a population of <36 month old children from Ohio (longitudinal data) and another population of 2-18 year old children (cross sectional health surveys) meet. Further there is a reduction in age specific prevalences at 24 months. Thus some researchers recommend that anthropometry data be presented on an age specific basis, if age information is accurate. They further suggest that, if comparing data from different geographic areas, researchers should standardize age to have a summary measure. If age is not known the W/H summary measure should include 2 groups: <85 cm and =or+ 85 cm.
    Add to my documents.
  6. 6
    060979

    Stable population age distributions.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. xiii, 420 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/98)

    2 groups expressed a need for this 2nd edition volume of stable population age distributions. Easily accessible information on the effect of demographic changes upon age distributions and dependency burdens is needed by planners of developing countries, while demographers are interested in construction demographic parameters under conditions of deficient data. A set of model stable age distributions, a series of intrinsic growth rates from 0-4%, intrinsic birth and death rates, percentages of populations in the 15-59 age groups, and child, elderly, and total dependency rates are therefore presented in this volume for the Latin American, Chilean, South Asian, Far East Asian, and General patterns of mortality. The Latin American pattern exhibits high mortality in the infant, childhood, and young adult years, with lower levels in the older ages. The Chilean pattern is one of extremely high infant mortality relative to general childhood mortality, while the South Asian pattern shows extremely high mortality under age 15 and over age 55. Low mortality is evidenced in the prime ages. The Far Eastern pattern exhibits relatively low mortality at younger ages, with high death rates at older ages. The General pattern is an average of these 4. Rates are defined, then calculated in an improved manner. UN model life table characteristics are also discussed and presented in an easier-to-read format. 420 pages of tables constitute the bulk of the volume.
    Add to my documents.
  7. 7
    067006

    Recent findings on the consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries.

    Horlacher DE; Heligman L

    In: Consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. Proceedings of the United Nations / Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques Expert Group Meeting, New York, 23-26 August 1988. New York, New York, Taylor and Francis, 1991. 345-77.

    Drawing from recent studies concerning the consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries, this paper argues against the common notion that population growth stands as a major obstacle for economic development in developing countries, emphasizing the complexity of demographic and economic interrelations. The studies discussed were presented at the UN Expert Group Meeting on Consequences of Rapid Population Growth in Developing Countries. The 1st section of the paper examines the prospects for continued population growth and its implication for the age structure of developing countries. Considering historical and current data, the 2nd section discusses inter country relations between population and economic growth rates, and how population growth affects such inter-country economic relations. The 3rd section examines the following sectoral issues: employment, savings rates, income distribution, and investment. While the 4th section considers the impact of population growth on resources and the environment, the 5th and 6th sections consider possible benefits of population growth. These possible benefits include bringing about economies of scale and hastening technical and institutional change. The 7th section examines the impact of population growth on kinship structures, and the 8th section considers a methodology for quantifying externalities resulting from population growth. Finally, the last section presents the conclusions of the UN Expert Group Meeting.
    Add to my documents.
  8. 8
    066515

    A new analysis of United Nations mortality statistics.

    Reading VM; Weale RA

    MECHANISMS OF AGEING AND DEVELOPMENT. 1991 Jan; 57(1):25-48.

    Demographic data published by the UN in 1987 are analyzed in terms of the Gompertz function. Projections for maximum lifespans are obtained, with the data broadly divisible into 3 clusters. These are attributable not only to the influence of high infant mortality, but suggest constitutional and/or environmental variations among members of the clusters. The difference between lifespan and life expectancy is estimated analytically. A comparison with earlier analysis supports the view that there are important differences between the life expectancies of the sexes.
    Add to my documents.
  9. 9
    065073

    [The controversies over population growth and economic development] Die Kontroversen um Bevolkerungswachstum und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung.

    Schmid J

    In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of, Springer-Verlag, 1988. 19-35.

    This paper presents a broad review of the major theoretical and political viewpoints concerning population growth and economic development. The western nations represent one side of the controversy; based on their experience with population growth in their former colonies, the western countries attempted to accelerate development by means of population control. The underlying economic reason for this approach is that excess births interfere with public and private savings and thus reduce the amount of capital available for development investment. A parallel assumption on the social side is that families had more children than they actually desired and that it was only proper to furnish families with contraceptives in order to control unwanted pregnancies. The competing point of view maintains that forcing the pace of development would unleash productive forces and stimulate better distribution of wealth by increasing social pressures on governments. The author traces the interaction between these two viewpoints and shows how the Treaty of Bucharest in 1974 marked a compromise between the two population policies and formed the basis for the activities of the population agencies of UN. The author then considers the question of whether European development can serve as a model for the present day 3rd World. The large differences between the sizes of age cohorts and the pressure that these differences exert upon internal population movements and the availability of food and housing is more important than the raw numbers alone.
    Add to my documents.
  10. 10
    267631

    Action by the United Nations to implement the recommendations of the World Population Conference, 1974: monitoring of population trends and policies.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Council. Population Commission

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1984 Dec. 10. 15 p. (E/CN.9/1984/2/Add.1)

    Pursuant to the recommendation of the World Population Plan of Action adopted in 1974, which was reaffirmed by the International Conference on Population in 1984, the United Nations has been undertaking a biennial review of population trends and policies. At the 22nd session of the Population Commission, held in January 1984, the Commission requested the Secretary-General to prepare an addendum to the concise report on monitoring of population trends and policies for the 23rd session, bearing in mind the relatively short time span since the preparation of the last such report. The purpose of the present document is to provide the Population Commission with such information to facilitate its deliberation on the agenda item. Analyses show that the gradual slow-down of global population growth is still holding with the present rate estimated at 1.65%/year, down from 2% during the 1960s. Declines have occurred in both the developed and the developing countries. Regional diversity of population trends have been so large that an overall global assessment seems almost irrelevant for policy consideration at national levels. The future population growth rate is expected to decline slower than it did in the past 15 years unless population policies change significantly. During the 1980-85 period the working age population (15-64 years) in the developing countries is estimated to have increased, on the average, at an annual rate of 2.8%, the elderly population (60 and over) at 3% and women in the reproductive ages (15-49 years) at 2.9%. The most urgent problem for many developing countries is perhaps the continuing very rapid increase of the working age population. The aging of the population, which bears significant policy implications, is among the most salient features of population change in the world, except for Africa. Fertility rates in most developed countries continue to fluctuate at low levels. No current data on developing country rates are available. An overall improvement in mortality in most countries is noted. A high rate of urban population growth in developing countries is a tremendous problem facing these countries. International migration, social and economic implications, demographic perceptions and governmental policies are summarized. National sovereignty, human rights, cultural values and peace are stressed as important factors in population policies. Women's status is discussed as playing a role in population change.
    Add to my documents.
  11. 11
    026268

    Concise report on the world population situation in 1983: conditions, trends, prospects, policies.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, United Nations, 1984. 108 p. (Population Studies, No. 85; ST/ESA/SER.A/85)

    The 3 parts of this report on world, regional, and international developments in the field of population, present a summary of levels, trends, and prospects in mortality, fertility, nuptiality, international migration, population growth, age structure, and urbanization; consider some important issues in the interrelationships between economic, social, and demographic variables, with special emphasis on the problems of food supply and employment; and deal with the policies and perceptions of governments on population matters. The 1st part of the report is based primarily on data compiled by the UN Population Division. The 2nd part is based on information provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO), as well as that compiled by the Population Division. The final part is based on information in the policy data bank maintained by the Population Division, including responses to the UN Fourth Population Inquiry among Governments. In 1975-80 the expectation of life at birth for the world was estimated at 57.2 years for both sexes combined. The corresponding figure for the developed and developing regions was 71.9 and 54.7 years, respectively. In 1975-80 the birthrate of the world was estimated at 28.9/1000 population and the gross reproduction rate was 1.91. These figures reflect considerable decline from the levels attained 25 years earlier: a crude birthrate of 38/1000 population and a gross reproduction rate of 2.44. World population grew from 2504 million in 1950 to 4453 million in 1983. Of the additional 1949 million people, 1645 million, or 84%, accrued to the less developed countries. The impact of population growth on economic development and social progress is not well understood. The governments of some developing countries still officially welcome a rapid rate of population growth. Many other governments see cause for concern in the need for the large increases in social expenditure, particularly for health and education, that accompany a young and growing population. Planners are concerned that the rapidly growing supply of labor, compounded by a trend toward rapid urbanization, may exceed that which the job market is likely to absorb. In the developed regions the prospect of a declining, or an aging, population is also cause for apprehension. There is a dearth of knowledge as to the impact of policies for altering the consequences of these trends. Many policies have been tried, in both developed and developing countries, to influence population growth and distribution, but the consequences of such policies have been difficult to assess. Frequently this problem arises because their primary objectives are not demographic in character.
    Add to my documents.
  12. 12
    016502

    Fresh thinking on fertility.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    Populi. 1983; 10(1):13-35.

    Levels and trends of fertility throughout the world during the 1970s are assessed in an effort to show how certain factors, modifications of which are directly or indirectly specified in the World Population Plan of Action as development goals, affected fertility and conditions of the family during the past decade. The demographic factors considered include age structure, marriage age, marital status, types of marital unions, and infant and early childhood mortality. The social, economic, and other factors include rural-urban residence, women's work, familial roles and family structure, social development, and health and contraceptive practice. Recent data indicate that the rate at which children are born into the world as a whole has continued its slow decline. During 1975-80 there were, on the average, 29 live births/1000 population at mid year. During the preceding 5-year period, there occurred annually about 32 live births/1000 population. This change represents a decline of 3 births/1000 population worldwide and approximately 14 million fewer births over a period of 5 years. This change in the global picture largely reflects the precipitous downward course that appears to have characterized China's crude birthrate. There are marked differences in fertility levels between developing and developed regions. In developing countries, births occurred on the average at the rate of 33/1000 population during 1975-80, compared with only about 16/1000 in the developed nations. Levels of the crude birthrate varied even more among individual countries. The changes in levels and trends of fertility may be attributed to many of the factors noted in the Plan of Action as requiring national and international efforts at improvement. The populations of the less developed and more developed regions as a whole aged somewhat during the decade of the 1970s. In both regions, the number of women in the reproductive ages increased relative to the size of the total population, but the change was more marked in the less developed regions. Recommendations in the Plan of Action as to establishment of an appropriate minimum age at 1st marriage subsume existence of too low an age at 1st marriage mainly in certain developing countries. The Plan of Action calls for the reduction of infant mortality as a goal in itself using a variety of means. Achievement of this goal might also affect fertility. Recent findings concerning the influence of social, economic, and other factors upon fertility levels and change are summarized, with focus on topics highlighted in the World Population Plan of Action.
    Add to my documents.
  13. 13
    803811

    World population: the present and future crisis.

    Piotrow PT

    New York, Foreign Policy Association, 1980 Oct. 80 p. (Headline Series 251)

    World population will be facing serious problems in the 1980s and 1990s as a result of 2 population trends which are presently dominating the demographic scene. The number of young people aged 15-30 in developing countries is increasing rapidly and they will be soon asserting themselves politically, economically, and socially. The 2nd trend which exists is the disparity between high population growth in the impoverished developing countries and the lower rates in the affluent industrial countries. This century's population growth has occurred primarily in the developing world and is the result of lower death rates rather than higher birthrates. The situation is attributable to demographic transition; however, the major demographic questions of how quickly birthrates will fall and how wide the gap will be before birthrates follow the classic transition remain unanswered. 3 approaches to help answer these and other demographic questions are: 1) demographic approach; 2) historical approach; and 3) observation of recent events. These various approaches are given attention in this monograph. The consequences of too rapid population growth can be seen in the low food supplies which exist leaving many in developing countries undernourished, in a decline in the quality of life, in the reduction of the potential capacity to produce what is necessary (diminished land resources, pollution of water and air), in the increases in the price of energy and natural resources, in the difficulties in acquiring employment opportunities, and in burgeoning urban growth (which puts a serious strain on housing, transportation, etc.). Family planning was adopted in various countries in the world despite government policies to counter this. While there is recognition of the need for measures to be taken to reduce fertility, the question of how to accomplish this still remains. A brief overview of developing country adoption of family policies is included. What become clear is that family planning programs do make a difference in birthrate reduction and in population growth control. An effective, extensive family planning/population program exists in the People's Republic of China; Indonesia, Colombia, Tunisia, and Mauritius are other countries with successful programs. Various socioeconomic factors influence fertility and they include: literacy and education, urbanization, improvement in the status of women, health, family or community structure, development (modernization), and even the lack of development. Population and development will be greatly affected in the future by the quality and depth of leadership. Government leadership and the private sector, donor agencies, as well as international leadership, especially that of the UNFPA, will be critical. Also included here are discussion questions and reading references for those who are interested.
    Add to my documents.
  14. 14
    671069

    Projection of world population (distinguishing more developed and less developed areas at present).

    Vavra Z

    In: United Nations. Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs. Proceedings of the World Population Conference, Belgrade, 30 August-10 September 1965. Vol. 2. Selected papers and summaries: fertility, family planning, mortality. New York, UN, 1967. 49-53. (E/CONF.41/3)

    U.N. world population projections place the world population in the year 2000 at anywhere between 6000 million and 7400 million. The less developed areas of the world are growing more rapidly than the developed areas. This will mean that the developed areas, which accounted for nearly 1/3 of the world population in 1960, will only account for less than 1/4 by the end of the century. The annual rate of increase suggests that the tempo of growth may be slowing slightly. The developing areas are still growing at twice the rate of the developed areas. Tables present these population projections and various projections on age structure of future populations. The world population, especially that in the developed countries, is aging, with all the concomitant social changes which that occurrence entails. The general problem of population growth must be handled within a context of socioeconomic developmental planning for each nation.
    Add to my documents.
  15. 15
    795762

    World population trends and policies: 1977 monitoring report. Vol. 1. Population trends.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, UN, 1979. 279 p. (Population studies No. 62)

    This report was prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat on the basis of inputs by the Division, the International Labour Organisation, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and the World Health Organization. Tables are presented for sex compositions of populations; demographic variables; percentage rates of change of unstandardized maternal mortality rates and ratios; population enumerated in the United States and born in Latin America; urban and rural population, annual rates of growth, and percentage of urban in total population, the world, the more developed and the less developed regions, 1950-75; crude death rates, by rural and urban residence, selected more developed countries; childhood mortality rates, age 1-4 years; and many others. The world population amounted to nearly 4 billion in 1975, a 60% increase over the 1950 population of 2.5 billion. The global increase is about 2%. The average death rate in developing areas has dropped from 25/1000 in 1950 to about 15/1000, a 40% decline. Estimates of birth rates in developing countries are 40-45 for 1950 and 35-40/1000 for 1975. Most of the shifts in vital trends in the less developed regions are still at an early stage or of limited geographical scope.
    Add to my documents.
  16. 16
    019819

    Demographic-economic model building for Japan.

    Ogawa N; Sadahiro A; Kondo M; Ezaki M

    In: United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Modelling economic and demographic development. New York, United Nations, 1983. 117-223. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 54)

    This study uses a longterm demographic-economic model to analyze the effects of the rapid aging of the Japanese population on various aspects of the economy and government programs. It is assumed that the quantitative analysis of the interrelationships between age-structural changes and the socioeconomic system provides a useful basis for Japanese government planners to formulate policy measures to cope with problems arising in connection with an aging population. The study draws on population, economic, and social security submodels in a series of simulation experiments. In the Standard Case, the total fertility rate falls due to economic progress and the rising age at 1st marriage, mortality improves as a result of increased per capita medical expenditures, and population grows at a diminishing rate after peaking at 131.3 million in 2007. The model further projects an increase in the percentage of the population age 65 years and over from 9.1% in 1980 to 23.9% in 2021 and a corresponding decrease in the population ages 15-64 years from 67.4% to 61.8%, Per capita real GNP is projected to continue to rise in the 1980-2025 period. However, the decreasing growth rate of the labor force, increasing financial resources for social security programs, and decline in the average hours worked by those in the labor force are expected to produce an economic slow-down, particularly in the early part of the 21st century. 5 policy measures are proposed to cope with this lowered rate of economic growth: 1) acceleration of the speed of technological progress to compensate for the shortage of young workers; 2) extension of retirement age to ease financial pressures on public pension schemes and retain the economic contributions of aged workers; 3) updating of the skills of aged workers through government vocational retraining programs; 4) the modification of public pension schemes to make benefit provision more selective, and adjustment of the amount of benefits paid out by extending the pensionable age for each scheme; and 5) review of the effectiveness and efficiency of various public medical plans, with attention to unnecessary use of medical services and improvement of preventive interventions.
    Add to my documents.
  17. 17
    268337

    Population growth: a global problem.

    Rosenfield A

    In: Current problems in obstetrics and gynecology, Vol. 5, No. 6, edited by John M. Leventhal. Chicago, Illinois, Year Book Medical Publishers, 1982. 4-41.

    This article addresses the medical aspects of population growth, with specific focus on a demographic overview, population policies, family planning programs, and population issues in the US. The dimensions of the population problem and their implications for social and economic development are reviewed. The world's response to these issues is discussed, followed by an assessment of what has been accomplished, particularly as it relates to the record of national family planning programs in developing countries. The impact of population growth on such issues as education, available farm land, deforestation, and urban growth are discussed. Urban populations are growing at an unprecedented rate, posing urgent problems for action. From a public health perspective, data are reviewed which demonstrate that having children at short intervals (2 years) or at unfavorable maternal ages (18 or 35) and/or parity (4) has a negative impact on maternal, infant and childhood morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Increasing the age of marriage, delaying the 1st birth, changing and improving the status of women, increasing educational levels and improving living conditions in general also are important in reducing population growth. Probably the most important, but most controversial intervention, has been the development of national family planning programs aimed at increasing the public's access to modern contraceptive and sterilization methods. India was the 1st country to declare a formal population policy (in the 1950s) with the goal of reducing population growth. Currently, close to 35 countries have formal policies. The planned parenthood movement, with central support from the London office of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), has played a most important role in making family planning services available. 2 population issues in the US today are reviewed briefly in the final section: teenage pregnancy and the changing age structure.
    Add to my documents.