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In: International Population Conference / Congres International de la Population, Montreal 1993, 24 August - 1st September. Volume 1, [compiled by] International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]. Liege, Belgium, IUSSP, 1993. 593-603.Using data collected in cooperation with the World Fertility Surveys (WFS) and the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) the aim was to determine the levels, age patterns, and trends of sterility in benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, Togo, and Uganda. In sub-Saharan Africa, 10 countries completed a WFS survey from 1977 to 1982. From 1986 to 1991 a DHS survey was carried out in 13 countries. In Sudan, Lesotho and Mauritania only ever married women were eligible for interview. All women (generally age 15-49) were eligible in the rest of the sub-Saharan countries. The selected samples included women who had been sexually active at least 5 years. Subsequently the levels and range patterns of sterility were estimated for each country and by produce within each country. The inhibiting effect of sterility on fertility was also assessed. Age-specific rates of sterility were estimated by the subsequently infertile estimator. At age 34, the proportions sterile reached .41 in Cameroon, .11 in Burundi, and intermediate levels in the rest of the countries. Burundi had the lowest prevalence of sterility at all ages, Cameroon had the highest up to about age 42, and at older ages Sudan and Lesotho ranked highest. In general, sterility rose moderately up to age 35 and then more rapidly after age 40. Sterility was particularly prevalent along major rivers, lakes, and coastal areas. Sterility was relatively high around Lake Victoria as well as in the Coast region of Kenya in 1977-78. Primary sterility was less than 3% in Burundi, Ghana, Kenya, Togo, and in Ondo state, Nigeria; 3-5% in Lesotho, Liberia, Mali, and Nigeria (1990), Senegal, Sudan (1989-90) and Uganda; and 5% or more in Cameroon, Nigeria (1981-82), and Sudan (1978-79). Differential disease patterns caused the most variation in age-specific rates of sterility. Under the hypothesis of Burundi levels of age specific sterility and unchanged fertility, and African woman in the age range from 20 to 44 would have an additional .5 to 2 children.
In: Brass W, Coale AJ, Demeny P, Heisel DF, Lorimer F, Romaniuk A, Van de Walle E. The demography of tropical Africa. Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 1968. 515-27.There is no information on fertility or mortality representative of numbers of Nigerian people. Vital statistics are registered in Lagos but are not representative of the country. The first census was taken in 1952-53 but contained no information of fertility and mortality. The 1962 census was invalidated. The political confusion surrounding the 1963 census will probably invalidate it. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. The 1963 census of 56 million is an overestimate, but is much larger than the other countries. According to UN estimates based on the 1953 census, the gross reproduction rate was 3.7 and the crude birth rate between 53 and 57. Age data for boys is recorded systematically as lower than those of girls of the same real age until age 15. Slower physical development and the desire to avoid taxation may account for the discrepancies. Certain tribes tend to conceal their number of children, particularly the first born. Among Moslems it is impossible to check the number of married women who are in "purdah." Migration from and to areas of Nigeria probably affected the young adult male and was not reported. The area of highest fertility was estimated to be in Western Nigeria, particularly in the Yoruba region. The eastern region includes one low-fertility area, Cameroons Province, with a gross reproduction rate under 3.
In: United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, World Fertility Survey, and International Institute for Population Studies. Regional Workshop on Techniques of Analysis of World Fertility Survey data: report and selected papers. New York, UN, 1979. 15-36. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 44)The World Fertility Survey provides data from national maternity history inquiries. Detecting trends and differentials is only as accurate as the data collected. Where evidence suggests error, the analysis may be restricted to obtaining only a measure of fertility level. The basic data is the date and order of birth of each live born child for a sample of women in the reproductive period, according to the current age of the women and their duration of marriage. The cohort marker is usually separated into 7 5-year classes determined by age at interview; sample of women is representative of the female population of childbearing age. Total births for each cohort are allocated to different periods preceding the survey date. Reading down the columns gives the births to different cohorts over different ranges in the same time interval preceding the survey. To detect omissions, check the overall sex ratio and the sex ratios by periods; examine the trends of infant mortality by cohorts and periods; an excess of male mortality over female indicates poor reporting of dead female children and/or of sex (a common omission). From data on age of mother and number of surviving children at the survey and estimates of mortality level, the numbers of births at preceding periods may be calculated.
New York, UN, 1979. 279 p. (Population studies No. 62)This report was prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat on the basis of inputs by the Division, the International Labour Organisation, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and the World Health Organization. Tables are presented for sex compositions of populations; demographic variables; percentage rates of change of unstandardized maternal mortality rates and ratios; population enumerated in the United States and born in Latin America; urban and rural population, annual rates of growth, and percentage of urban in total population, the world, the more developed and the less developed regions, 1950-75; crude death rates, by rural and urban residence, selected more developed countries; childhood mortality rates, age 1-4 years; and many others. The world population amounted to nearly 4 billion in 1975, a 60% increase over the 1950 population of 2.5 billion. The global increase is about 2%. The average death rate in developing areas has dropped from 25/1000 in 1950 to about 15/1000, a 40% decline. Estimates of birth rates in developing countries are 40-45 for 1950 and 35-40/1000 for 1975. Most of the shifts in vital trends in the less developed regions are still at an early stage or of limited geographical scope.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1978. (International Research Document No. 6) 12pCompiling population data for Afghanistan is made difficult by the nomadic population. Estimates of their numbers range from 1-2 million people, 9-14% of the total. A 1972-73 survey of the settled population accumulated data from approximately 21,000 households and 120,000 individuals. Pregnancy and marital histories were acquired from 10,000 women. The age-specific fertility rate was 8 per woman; crude birth rate, 43/1000. Estimated life expectancy for males was 34-42 years, for females, 36-41 years. The crude death rate is 28-32/1000. Of the 10,020,099 total settled population, 5,373,249 were male, 4,646,850 were female. The Afghan Family Guidance Association opened the first family planning clinic in 1968. By 1972 there were 18 clinics in operation. When surveyed, 3% of women over 15 knew about family planning, only 1/3 of these had used a family planning method. 66% males and 90% females over 15 were ever-married. About 11% of those over 6 years were literate, 18.7% males, 2.8% females.