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  1. 1

    World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision, Highlights and Advance Tables.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division, 2012. 118 p. (Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.228)

    The 2012 Revision is the twenty-third round of official United Nations population estimates and projections, prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. The 2012 Revision builds on the previous revision by incorporating the results of the 2010 round of national population censuses as well as findings from recent specialized demographic surveys that have been carried out around the world. These sources provide both demographic and other information to assess the progress made in achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The comprehensive review of past worldwide demographic trends and future prospects presented in the 2012 Revision provides the population basis for the assessment of those goals. The results of the 2012 Revision incorporate the findings of the most recent national population censuses, including from the 2010 round of censuses, and of numerous specialized population surveys carried out around the world. The 2012 Revision provides the demographic data and indicators to assess trends at the global, regional and national levels and to calculate many other key indicators commonly used by the United Nations system.
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  2. 2

    Putting young people into national poverty reduction strategies: a guide to statistics on young people in poverty.

    Curtain R

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], [2008]. 35 p.

    Many national poverty reduction strategies overlook the needs of young people. Even where national strategies do have a youth focus, the analysis of their situation is limited because little or no reference is made to readily available data. For those advocating on behalf of young people in poverty, considerable scope exists to make use of simple but reputable statistics to mount a strong case for Governments and civil society to allocate more resources in addressing poverty among this major population group. The purpose of this guide is to show how relevant statistics on young people in poverty can be easily sourced for use in developing national poverty reduction strategies. The guide shows how to use accessible databases on the Internet to provide individual countries with sophisticated statistical profile of young people in poverty. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    UNICEF executive director appreciates Viet Nam's achievements on child protection.

    Vietnam Population News. 2007 Apr-Jun; (43):3-6.

    On 5 May 2007, Madame Le Thi Thu, Minister-Chair-woman of VCPFC, and heads of ministries and sectors warmly welcomed Ms. Ann M. Veneman, UNICEF's Executive Director. At the meeting, Madame Thu gave a brief on Viet Nam's achievements in child care, education and protection during the past few years and future work orientation. Children's living standards have been unceasingly improved, children's rights have been step by step met in terms of physical, intellectual, spiritual and morality. She hoped to receive the efficient support of UNICEF. Ms. Ann M. Veneman is impressed by Viet Nam's achievements. She said that UNICEF would have focus to HIV/AIDS, childhood injury, and under-five underweight. She recommended Viet Nam to pay more attention to causes of those issues, especially setting up databases and provide data/indicators that can be compared with other countries in the region. During her visit, Ms. Ann M. Veneman also met with Government officials to discuss about related matters. She said Viet Nam is likely to be one of the countries to reach the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets, with some of these targets ahead of 2015. Despite the significant progress achieved, there remain challenges, such as disparity between the rich and poor, impacts of HIV on children and protecting children from injury and harm. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Population changes, international competitiveness and growth.

    Boeri T

    Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):185-192.

    I was asked by the organizers of this international conference to discuss, in my presentation, the effects of ageing on competitiveness. I will start by arguing that the key economic issue involved by ageing is growth rather than competitiveness per se, as ageing may reduce the growth potential of nations. I will however point out that there is nothing unavoidable about this effect of ageing on growth. Reforming pensions and labour market institutions in order to better exploit returns from experience, it is possible to counteract the effects of a declining workforce on growth and sustain a relatively high rate of capital accumulation even under older societies. But there are strong political obstacles to these reforms. These political obstacles should be fully understood, it is still a matter of positive economics, and possibly counteracted (the domain of normative economics). (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    From Rome 1954 to Rome 2005 and beyond. Introductory remarks on the past and future of population problems.

    Golini A

    Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):49-68.

    50 years on, Rome is once again at the centre of the scientific, and therefore political, debate on population problems. It is a great pleasure and a great honour to introduce here, in this prestigious Academy together with a small but highly qualified scientific and technical/political community, a Conference in order to discuss population problems with a holistic approach. An Irish colleague wrote to congratulate me on this initiative, highlighting how it will once again make it possible to discuss substantial population-related problems on an international level. Indeed when examining political and operative directives, this subject has been frequently neglected in the recent sessions of the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, whose once large number of experts participation is gradually falling. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Report of the conference.

    Golini A; Basili M

    Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):27-48.

    The International Conference Trends and Problems of the World Population in the 21st Century. 50 years since Rome 1954, was held in Rome, under the High Patronage of the President of the Italian Republic, at the "Accademia dei Lincei" on the 26th and 27th of May 2005 and at University of Rome "La Sapienza" on the 28th of May 2005. Organized by the Accademia dei Lincei, the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and its Department of Demograpy, the Conference was financially supported by the Banca d' Italia and the Compagnia di San Paolo. After the five fundamental United Nations Conferences on Population - held in Rome in 1954 and in Belgrade in 1965, and the following, intergovernmental, held in Bucarest in 1974, Mexico City in 1984 and in Cairo in 1994 - this Conference has been a new, important occasion for the analysis and the debate on population problems bringing them back to Rome after the first pionieristic, merely academic, Conference organized by the United Nations in Rome in September 1954. At that time in Rome the debate highlighted trends and problems that would have characterized the world population during the second half of the 20th century and that have contributed in defining the population policy carried out by the UN and by the single countries. This time, once again in Rome, the aim has been to identify trends and problems that are likely to affect the world population in the first half of the 21st century and to provide cues able to define and build population policies. In one word to revitalize the debate on population issues which have been, for some time, languishing both in the UN and in many countries. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Population division, department of economic and social affairs, United Nations, MORTPAK for windows version 4.0.

    Al-Yaman F

    Journal of Population Research. 2004 Nov; [4] p..

    The United Nations has released Version 4.0 of its demographic software package MORTPAK. Although MORTPAK 4.0 is designed primarily to estimate mortality, it includes population projections, life tables and stable-population construction, graduation of mortality data, indirect mortality estimations, indirect fertility estimations, and other indirect procedures for evaluating age distributions and the completeness of censuses. For a more comprehensive analysis of mortality however, it is recommended that both the MORTPAK 4.0 package and the US Bureau of the Census spreadsheets (PAS) be used. MORTPAK 4.0 takes advantage of a Windows user interface. While previous DOS versions have been used by demographers since the 1980s, data entry is now on worksheets that resemble spreadsheets, but do not have the functionality of a full spreadsheet. After a new MORTPAK worksheet has been opened, data prepared on a spreadsheet can be pasted into it and the selected application run from dropdown menus. After a selected MORTPAK application has been run, the results can be copied and pasted back into a spreadsheet for further calculation or for creating graphs. The graphing capabilities of MORTPAK itself are still not well developed. MORTPAK output now takes two forms: one recognizable to users of older versions is called document output and is ready for exporting to a Word document in rich text format; the second is placed onto the worksheet and can be copied into a spreadsheet. MORTPAK 4.0 can import data from previous versions of MORTPAK. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    World population prospects: the 2002 revision. Volume III: Analytical report.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2004. [345] p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/233)

    This volume presents the analytical report for World Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision, the official United Nations population estimates and projections. The analytical report is the third volume of a three-volume set; the earlier two published volumes provide the comprehensive tables and the sex and age distribution of the population of all countries of the world. A CD-Rom containing the results of the 2002 Revision population estimates and projections is also available for purchase. A description of these data sets contained in each and an order form appear at the end of this volume. The 2002 Revision is the eighteenth round of global demographic estimates and projections undertaken by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. Between 1951 and 2000, following an early attempt in the 1940s, 17 revisions of population estimates and projections were published: in 1951, 1954, 1957, 1963, 1968, 1973, 1978, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1998 and 2000. This analytical report employs a different format than previous reports. In particular, the first five chapters, provide succinct and easy accessible summaries of the main demographic tendencies covered. More detailed analytical tables are given in the annex. Chapter VI, on the demographic impact of HIV/AIDS, provides more details than the other chapters because of the importance of its subject. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    Epidemiology of measles in the central region of Ghana: a five-year case review in three district hospitals.

    Bosu WK; Odoom S; Deiter P; Essel-Ahun M

    East African Medical Journal. 2003 Jun; 80(6):312-317.

    Objective: As part of a national accelerated campaign to eliminate measles, we conducted a study, to define the epidemiology of measles in the Central Region. Design: A descriptive survey was carried out on retrospective cases of measles. Setting: Patients were drawn from the three district hospitals (Assin, Asikuma and Winneba Hospitals) with the highest number of reported cases in the region. Subjects: Records of outpatient and inpatient measles patients attending the selected health facilities between 1996 and 2000. Data on reported measles eases in all health facilities in the three study, districts were also analysed. Main outcome measures: The distribution of measles eases in person (age and sex), time (weekly, or monthly, trends) anti place (residence), the relative frequency, of eases, and the outcome of treatment. Results: There was an overall decline in reported eases of measles between 1996 and 2000 both in absolute terms and relative to other diseases. Females constituted 48%- 52% of the reported 1508 eases in the hospitals. The median age of patients was 36 months. Eleven percent of eases were aged under nine months; 66% under five years and 96% under 15 years. With some minor variations between districts, the highest and lowest transmission occurred in March and September respectively. Within hospitals, there were sporadic outbreaks with up to 34 weekly eases. Conclusion: In Ghana, children aged nine months to 14 years could be appropriately targeted for supplementary, measles immunization campaigns. The best period for the campaigns is during the low transmission months of August to October. Retrospective surveillance can expediently inform decisions about the timing and target age groups for such campaigns. (author's)
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  10. 10

    1993 demographic yearbook. 45th. 1993 annuaire demographique.

    United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Statistical Division

    New York, New York, United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Statistical Division, 1995. x, 1,032 p. (No. ST/ESA/STAT/SER.R/24)

    This is a comprehensive collection of international demographic statistics published annually by the United Nations. "The tables in this issue of the Yearbook are presented in two parts, the basic tables followed by the tables devoted to population censuses, the special topic in this issue. The first part contains tables giving a world summary of basic demographic statistics, followed by tables presenting statistics on the size, distribution and trends in population, natality, foetal mortality, infant and maternal mortality, general mortality, nuptiality and divorce. In the second part, this issue of the Yearbook serves to update the census information featured in the 1988 issue. Census data on demographic and social characteristics include population by single years of age and sex, national and/or ethnic composition, language and religion. Tables showing data on geographical characteristics include information on major civil divisions and localities by size-class. Educational characteristics include population data on literacy, educational attainment and school attendance. In many of the tables, data are shown by urban/rural residence."
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  11. 11

    Country statement submitted by the government of Malta.


    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 235-9.

    Population is expected to increase at a rate of 0.5% annually in Malta. Population aging will continue as a result of increased life expectancy and declining fertility. In 1989, the birth rate was 15.1/1000. Excess population in Malta has found release through migration, and only 22% returned during the period 1946-74. Migration and emigration were balanced between 1974 and 1987. Since then, an increase in emigration has added to population aging. In 1990, the population pyramid indicated an unstable population. 24.3% are aged 30-44 years, 30.7% aged under 20 years, and 14.7% aged over 60 years. People aged 20-60 years comprised the largest population group (54.6%). By 2020, the elderly will comprise 23.3% of total population. Expenditures on services and social security for the elderly have increased since 1987 in accordance with government policy on increased social spending. The second phase of the demographic transition began after 1942 with a decline in infant mortality. The third phase began in the mid-1950s with a stabilization of the crude mortality rate and a decline in the birth rate. Responsible parenthood was encouraged in 1956 and thereafter, because of government concerns about future economic and social conditions and population density. The largest drop in the crude birth rate (33-16.3) occurred between 1950 and 1970. The final transition occurred after 1970 and was characterized by low birth and death rates.
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  12. 12

    Statement submitted by the European Association for Population Studies (EAPS).

    European Association for Population Studies

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 383-9.

    The European Association of Population Studies (EAPS) was founded in 1993 to disseminate information and organize workshops with affiliated individuals and institutions. The priority topics are international migration, fertility and the family, health and mortality, population growth and age structure, and international cooperation. Within each of these broad areas, workshops and conferences have taken place, and proceedings have been published. This article summarizes the nature of conferences held in each of the five topic areas. For example, joint institutional responsibility among Dutch and European groups, including EAPS, resulted in a 1991 international symposium on the demographic consequences of international migration. In 1985, a symposium was held in Belgium on one parent families. In 1989, a workshop was held on female labor market behavior and fertility. In 1990, a workshop was held on mortality and health care systems in developed countries. Methods of European mortality analysis were discussed at a 1990 international seminar in Lithuania. The impact of policies without explicit demographic goals was discussed at an international conference held in Germany in 1986. Kinship and aging research were discussed in 1988 in Hungary. A workshop was held in Germany in 1993 on pension, health care, labor market, and birth control policies. Data comparability issues in Europe were reviewed in 1991. The first European Population Conference was held in 1987 in Finland; the second was held in 1991 in France.
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  13. 13

    Country statement submitted by the government of Slovakia.


    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 311-6.

    The population of Slovakia was 5,268,935 in 1991, of which 25.3% were aged under 14 years, 59.9% aged 15-59 years, and 14.8% aged 60 years and older (retirement). Demographic changes include population aging and urbanization. Marriage is declining, and 4% of the population is divorced. The time span for first marriages has narrowed to 18-22 years for women and 21-25 years for men. The number of premarital pregnancies has risen. Marriages among pregnant women have doubled (44% of all marriages). Single-parent families with children account for 10.4% of all households, of which 80% are headed by women. Between 1955 and 1990, the population increased by 41%, the birth rate declined by 43.2%, and the death rate increased by 17%. The aging of the population is expected to be more intense after 2005. Slovakia is aware of UN conventions and protocols on migration and expects migrants to stay only temporarily. Humanitarian centers and private homes are used for housing refugees. Illegal immigration involves primarily Turkish citizens of Kurdish origins. Life expectancy is 67 years for men and 75 years for women. Mortality is high among the working age population. Mortality distributed by age is as follows: 53.6% among persons 70 years and older, 22.3% among persons aged 60-69 years, 21.8% among people aged 15-60 years, and 1.8% for those aged under one year.
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  14. 14

    [Statement of the Bahamas]


    [Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994. [3] p.

    In its statement to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, the Bahamas presented the following description of itself. It is an archipelago of over 700 islands covering 80,000 miles of ocean, with a total land area of 5,382 square miles. 22 islands are inhabited, but the bulk of the population resides on 14. The population grew from 209.5 thousand in 1980 to 255.1 in 1990, with 67% residing on the capital island of New Providence. Population growth is expected to continue at an annual rate of 1.9%. Tourism, the main economic activity, has stagnated, and new ways of stimulating economic growth are being sought. The Bahamas has the following population and development concerns: 1) the delivery of services to all of the islands; 2) the growing trend towards single-parent families and the capacity of these families to provide for their support; 3) the need for accessible and affordable health care, disease prevention, and health promotion measures; 4) the effects of an unrelenting flow of undocumented migrants on the socioeconomic structure of the nation; 5) providing quality education to insure human resource development; and 6) improving the status of women, children, and the elderly. The Bahamas urges the nations of the world to work together to enhance the health of our people; to improve the lives of our children; to halt the destruction of our environment; and to implement rational, equitable, and appropriate population policies.
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  15. 15

    [The Permanent Household Survey: provisional results, 1985] Enquete Permanente Aupres des Menages: resultats provisoires 1985

    Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique

    Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique, 1985. 76 p.

    This preliminary statistical report provides an overview of selected key economic and social indicators drawn from a data collection system recently implemented in the Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast's Direction de la Statistique and the World Bank's Development Research Department are collaborating, under the auspices of the Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study, to interview 160 households per month on a continuous basis for 10 months out of the year. Data are collected concerning population size, age structure, sex distribution, family size, nationality, proportion of female heads of household, fertility, migration, health, education, type of residence, occupations, employment status, financial assistance among family members, and consumption. Annual statistical reports based on each round of the survey are to be published, along with brief semiannual updates.
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  16. 16

    The world population plan of action and the Mexico draft recommendations: analytical comparisons and index.

    United Nations. Department of Internation Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    [Unpublished] 1984 Jul 23. 136 p. (ESA/P/WP/85)

    This document, prepared primarily for use within the UN Secretariat, systematically compares the recommendtions of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) and the Mexico Draft recommendations for the implementation of the WPPA. There are 109 recommendations in the WPPA, and 85 in the Mexico Draft; they are compared using a 2-column format. An index provides cross referencing. Topics covered include the family and the staus of women, population characteristics (addressing, in particular, the implications of the increasing proportion of young persons in populations of developing countries), and the links between morbidity and mortality and family planning. For example, the WPPA notes that "mortality reduction may be a prerequisite to a decline in fertility." In light of this, the Mexico Draft recommends that governments take immediate action to increase infant survival by expanding the use of oral rehydration therapy, immunization, and the promotion of breast feeding. In addition, nutrient supplements and appropriate day-care facilities should be provided for nursing mothers in the labor force. Other areas addressed include the need to promote the development of management in all fields related to population. This need can be met with a worldwide system of institutions designed totrain personnel. Present educational institutions should expand their curricula to include the study of population dynamics and policy. Developing countries should be provided with technical equipment and financial support to improve library facilities, computer services, data-gathring, and analysis. While international cooperation is considered crucial to the implementation of the WPPA, national governments are urged to make the attainment of self-reliance in the management of their population programs a high priorit. In recognition of the diversity of national goals, no recommendations are made regarding a world family-size norm.
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  17. 17

    Proceeding of the World Population Conference, Rome, Italy, 31 August-10 September 1954. Summary report.

    World Population Conference (1954: Rome)

    New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1955. 207 p.

    The 1954 World Population Conference was the 1st scientific conference on the problems of population to be held under the auspices of the United Nations. This document describes the organization of the conference and contains a list of the 28 meetings held, the topics of discussion of each meeting, a list of the papers contributed and their authors, and a summary report of each meeting. Annex A provides a list of the officers of the conference and members of cimmittees. Annex B lists the participants and contributors. Topics discussed include mortality trends; demographic statistics--quality, techniques of measurement and analysis; fertility trends; new census undertakings; migration; legislation, administrative programs and services for population control; population projection methods and prospects; preliterate peoples; age distribution; socioeconomic consequences of an aging population; demographic aspects of socioeconomic development; design and control of demographic field studies; agricultural and industrial development; genetics and population; research on fertility and intelligence; social implications of population changes; recruitment and training of demographic researchers and teachers; forecast for world population growth and distribution; and economic and social implications of the present population trends.
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  18. 18

    World population prospects: the 2000 revision. Volume II: The sex and age distribution of the world population.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2001. xii, 919 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/199)

    This book presents the distribution by age-group and sex of the population of countries and areas of the world with more than 140,000 inhabitants in 2000. It provides population age and sex distributions for the period 1950-2050 and for three projection variants. These data are part of the results of the 2000 Revision of the official UN population estimates and projections prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the UN Secretariat. The tables presenting the sex and age distributions are accompanied by text discussing the highlights of the results. Organized into three parts, this book is the 17th round of global demographic estimates and projections undertaken by the Population Division. Part one covers the highlights of the 2000 Revision, and part two contains a description of data sources used and methods applied in revising estimates. Finally, part three provides annex tables focusing on population by sex and age for the world, major areas, regions and special groups and population by sex and age for countries and areas.
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  19. 19

    European Population Conference. Proceedings. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland. Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe; Council of Europe; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1994. 429 p.

    This volume contains country statements and statements by international and nongovernmental organizations for the 1993 European Population Conference that was jointly organized by the UN Economic Commission for Europe (ECC), the Council of Europe (CE), and the UN Population Fund (UNFPA). The conference aimed to review, examine, and analyze key population-related issues in the region's countries, to evaluate the implementation of population-related policies, and to prepare a set of recommendations on key population-related issues and policies. The five conference priorities were international migration, fertility and the family, health and mortality, population growth and age structure, and international cooperation in the field of population. Conference attendants included representatives from European countries, Argentina, Australia, Egypt, the Holy See, Japan, New Zealand, UN agencies, and 61 nongovernmental organizations. European countries and the world face the challenges of population growth, population impact on the environment, unsustainable modes of production and consumption, and human survival. Countries are inextricably linked, and international cooperation and solidarity are necessary. Developing countries, with the highest rates of population growth, are faced with generating adequate levels of sustainable economic and social development and with devoting sufficient resources to enable demographic transition. Europe's challenges include international migration and continuation of support in development and population programs for countries undergoing political and economic transition. Old national and ethnic rivalries have surfaced and now facilitate armed conflicts and serious political crises. Changes have occurred in fertility, the status of women, and the family. AIDS and drug abuse are causes for concern. This volume identifies 15 recommendations.
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  20. 20

    World population policies. Volume III: Oman to Zimbabwe.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. vi, 264 p. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    This report is the third part of a series published by the UN which provides comparable, up-to-date information on the population policies of 170 countries in alphabetical order. This volume covers Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, the Republic of Korea, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, the USSR, the United Arab Emirates, the UK, Tanzania, the US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. For each country, an overview is given of the government's perceptions and policies in relation to such factors as population growth and age distribution, mortality and morbidity, fertility and the family, international migration, spatial distribution and urbanization, and women's status. Relevant demographic indicators are provided, and institutional arrangements for the formulation and implementation of the policies are described.
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  21. 21

    Country statement submitted by the government of Lithuania.


    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 227-33.

    Assessment of the demographic situation in Lithuania is difficult because of interactive changes in economic and social conditions, policy, and demographic structure. The net reproduction rate until the 1990s was near one. After the 1990s, fertility declined and emigration increased. The population declined to 3,751,000 in 1993. There is an increase in the aging of population; in 1992, the proportion over 60 years of age was 16.5%. Fertility decline contributed the most to population aging, and the substantial immigration prior to 1990 slowed the aging process, whereas mortality had little impact. Net immigration prior to 1990, which was primarily within the republics of the former USSR, was about 7-9000 annually. Immigration was 21,900 in 1988 and 6,200 in 1992. Net emigration was -21,500 in 1992. Jewish emigration was high, partly because of receiving country policies. In 1990, family policy was formulated to broaden financial support for families with children. Since 1991, the health of the population has deteriorated. In 1991, the number of disabled among the working age population increased 30%. Life expectancy was 70.5 in 1992; with female life expectancy about 11 years higher. 55.3% of all mortality is attributed to cardiovascular diseases. Health care policy is being formulated according to WHO health principles and with an emphasis on life styles, environment, and primary health care issues. Short- and long-term policy measures will be in accordance with principles of equity and human justice. Programs will be monitored and evaluated.
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  22. 22

    Country statement submitted by the government of Ukraine.


    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 355-8.

    The population of the Ukraine in 1993 was 52.2 million. The basic tenets of a population policy have been under consideration since independence in 1991. Development of a population policy is considered integral to social and economic policy, and the policy will be concerned with the rights of individuals and married couples in determining and planning family size. In 1991, deaths exceeded births. Population has been at or below replacement level for a number of years. The proportion of men aged over 65 years and women aged over 55 years has increased to 21.7% of total population, and in six regions the proportion has been over 25%. The Chernobyl accident and its consequences, including air and soil contamination, are preeminent concerns. A Ukrainian national register monitors the health of the victims of Chernobyl. In 1991, an environmental protection act was passed to protect the health of expectant mothers and children. A migration service is planned for regulating migration and dealing with the repatriation of deported population groups. Financial difficulties have hampered greater involvement in international efforts. In fact, financial and technical assistance would be welcomed in the effort to adopt a national system of statistics in accordance with internationally accepted accounting and statistical practices.
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  23. 23

    Country statement submitted by the government of Sweden.


    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 325-30.

    Population growth in Sweden has been unregulated. The total fertility rate of 2.1 is at replacement level and satisfactory. The aging of the population is expected to occur around 2010. Immigration in 1991 was 44,000 persons, with 18% from other Nordic countries, 61% claiming relatives in Sweden, and 35% claiming refugee status. During 1992, 60,000 refugees from the former Yugoslavia requested asylum. The large numbers of asylum-seekers has resulted in a policy shift that restricts entrants to those fulfilling the UN definitions. The immigration policy has been in effect since 1968 and was formulated without any connection to population policy. Sweden has ratified UN conventions on migrant workers and has been part of the free Nordic labor market, which allows freedom of labor migration between Scandinavian countries. 85% of Swedish mothers have worked outside the home. Family policy is supportive of the dual roles of working and child care. There is a parental insurance system which compensates for lost income for both parents while caring for a newborn child at home. Day care facilities meet demand, and there is financial support for families with children, particularly single-parent families. Consensual unions are common. Contraceptives and family planning services are readily available. Life expectancy is 74.8 years for males and 80.4 years for females. Health inequalities linked to socioeconomic groups have been addressed by the 1992 establishment of a National Institute of Public Health. Sweden has played a dominant role in international development since the 1960s. 7.0% ($165-170 million) of Sweden's total foreign aid program was directed to population issues in 1992. Strategies focus on human rights, socioeconomic factors, and unbalanced development. Many countries in Africa have received support. Women are viewed as key to development and population issues for health, ethical, social, and human rights reasons. Sweden is also concerned about the relationship between environmental degradation, natural resource depletion, and population issues.
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  24. 24

    Country statement submitted by the government of the Federation of Russia.


    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 289-302.

    The population growth rate in Russia over the past 20 years has been 5-7%/1000 annually, and the proportion of aged has increased to 19.4%. Approximately 47,500 people emigrated in 1989, 103,600 in 1990, and 43,000 in 6 months of 1992. The government is working to conform to international standards and protocols on migration. There is a slight decline in marriages, an increase in single-parent families with children, and a formal divorce rate of 2%. Only those in registered marriages are protected under the law. The birth rate declined from 2.02 in 1989 to 1.73 in 1991. Preschools, paid leave, and preferential work schedules are available as a means of balancing domestic and child care responsibilities with work load. Family policy provides for the implementation of a comprehensive program to encourage family self-reliance, social protection, and family planning within state-funded and privately-funded organizations. Abortion is the most commonly used method of fertility regulation, and there were 3.6 million abortions in 1991 and 1.8 million births. The abortion rate of 100.3/1000 reproductive age women is considered high. Life expectancy is 63.5 years for men and 74.3 years for women. A decree passed in June 1992 placed priority on UN goals of child survival, and services were expanded to include perinatal units in hospitals, allowances for pregnant women receiving prenatal care, and sufficient maternity leave, particularly for those with at risk pregnancies or births. Standards were also established for ensuring survival of those exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident. 33% of deaths are due to accidents, poisonings, and injuries. 30% of disability among the working age population is due to respiratory diseases. Infectious disease morbidity is high. 4.4% of the total population receives out-patient psychiatric help at specialized clinics for disorders such as alcoholism (80% of patients). 15% of the urban population live in an environment meeting international standards of health for air pollution. In the recent past, fund limitations have constrained participation in international events. Russia is interested in receiving bilateral and multilateral technical assistance in drawing up population policies suitable to its new circumstances. In order to institute modern data collection and analysis techniques, a micro census is planned for 1994 and a regular census for 1999.
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  25. 25

    Country statement submitted by the government of Poland.


    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 261-71.

    Economic changes in Poland have restricted social welfare development and services. Population has been below replacement level since 1989, and life expectancy has declined with a relatively high infant mortality. There is considerable emigration of the young and skilled, and 2.5 million were unemployed in 1992. There will be an increase in the population aged 45-64 years and among pensioners. Although there is no formal population policy, the government has aimed to reach replacement level fertility, to improve the quality of life, to balance the distribution of the population, and to formulate better international agreements on economic migration into and out of Poland. There is public concern about uncontrolled immigration from countries of the former Soviet Union, since Poland is a transit stop for refugees on their way to Germany or Scandinavia. Preferential treatment is been given to Polish migrants in the former Soviet Union. Illegal foreign labor has increased, and crime is a problem. There are plans for policy reform and for the establishment of an Immigration Office. Marriage is declining, and cohabitation is increasing. The birth rate declined from 19.7/1000 in 1983 to 14.3 in 1991. 8% of total births were to juveniles, 6% were born out of wedlock, and 8% were low birth weight. Contraception is available through pharmacies; sterilization is not performed, and abortion regulations are under debate. Unfavorable lifestyles and health behaviors contribute to a poor health situation and an increase in male mortality in all age groups. Circulatory system diseases are a primary cause of death, followed by cancers, injuries, and poisoning. Infant mortality was 15.0/1000 live births in 1991, mostly due to perinatal complications (50%) and developmental defects (27%). Hepatitis B infection is high in Poland, with 30 cases/1000; tuberculosis is declining, but was still high at 42.3/100,000 in 1990 and accounted for 40% of all infectious disease mortality. HIV infections numbered 1996 cases by 1991. Life expectancy is 66.1 years for males and 75.3 years for females. The Polish health strategy conforms to WHO directives and emphasizes general health promotion and at-risk populations. Poland is particularly concerned about population problems in the Eastern and Central European region and in countries of the former Soviet Republic.
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