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Washington, D.C., World Bank, Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Board, 2006 Mar.  p.Over 900,000 people in peri-urban areas (called Ger districts) in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolio lack basic infrastructure services. Since 1997, the World Bank has supported the Government of Mongolia to improve services to Ger dwellers. A 2004 social assessment revealed that on-site sanitation is very high on the list of priorities for residents in the Ger areas. The Government of Mongolia is now addressing this problem supported by a grant from the Japan Social Development Fund (JSDF). As an initial step in advancing sanitation and hygiene in the Ger areas, the World Bank has provided technical assistance to the Mongolian Government through the Sanitation, Hygiene and Wastewater Support Service (SWAT). The technical work and consultations were a first step to pave the way for a more holistic approach to improving sanitation in Ulaanbaatar's urban periphery. (excerpt)
WHO training course for TB consultants: RPM Plus drug management sessions in Sondalo, Italy. Trip report: May 17-20, 2006.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2006 May 29. 33 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PD-ACH-499; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)WHO, Stop-TB Partners, and NGOs that support country programs for DOTS implementation and expansion require capable consultants in assessing the capacity of countries to manage TB pharmaceuticals in their programs, developing interventions, and providing direct technical assistance to improve availability and accessibility of quality TB medicines. Beginning in 2001, RPM Plus, in addition to its own formal courses on pharmaceutical management for tuberculosis, has contributed modules and facilitated sessions on specific aspects of pharmaceutical management to the WHO Courses for TB Consultants in Sondalo. The WHO TB Course for TB Consultants was developed and initiated in 2001 by the WHO-Collaborating Centre for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, the S. Maugeri Foundation, the Morelli Hospital, and TB CTA. The main goal of the course is to increase the pool of international level TB consultants. As of December 2005, over 150 international TB consultants have participated in the training, a majority of whom have already been employed in consultancy activities by the WHO and international donors. In 2006 fiscal year RPM Plus received funds from USAID to continue supporting the Sondalo Course, which will allow RPM Plus to facilitate sessions on pharmaceutical management for TB at four courses in May, June, July, and October of 2006. (excerpt)
Status of family planning activities and involvement of international agencies in the Caribbean region [chart].
[Unpublished] 1970. 1 p.Add to my documents.
N.Y., United Nations, 1971. 69 pThe mission has concluded that it is highly desirable to establish a new facility within the United Nations system, which, for the purpose of the present report, is designated as "World Population Institute". The extent of our investigations was necessarily limited by the need to submit a report within three months. Within this period it was essential to discover what was being thought and done on the subject of population by the United Nations and the specialized agencies most concerned; by a cross-section of Governments with varying interests and experiences; by academic institutions, foundations and international non-governmental organizations associated with those Governments and with the United Nations agencies in studies and action. Clearly, we could not visit all the countries we would have liked to contact, nor could we carry out a comprehensive inventory of all national and multinational training and research facilities. Nevertheless, the mission feels that its sample was indicative of the entire range of attitudes and stages of programmes designed to illuminate population questions, formulate policies or carry out actions designed to influence fertility. Moreover, all the members of the mission have had previous wide experience in the international field; and we believe that, thanks to the excellent arrangements made for us in the countries visited and the warm assistance everywhere given to us, we have in fact had sufficient exposure to relevant views and facts to enable us to discharge our tasks. (excerpt)
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, FHI, 2001.  p. (FHI Research Briefs on Female Condom No. 3)Like the male condom, the female condom is approved to be used only once. However, establishing the safety of reusing the device could increase access in resource-poor countries. Although reuse of the female condom is discouraged, this practice has been reported in a number of countries. On June 2000, a consultation of experts convened by WHO and the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) concluded that data were insufficient to advise on the safety of reuse. In view of the potential risks during washing or subsequent use, the consultation recommended that all female condoms be disinfected before washing. A draft protocol for disinfecting, washing, drying, storing and re-lubricating the female condom was developed and is being evaluated. This paper provides a brief literature review on the structural integrity of the female condom as well as on its safety and cases of re-infection.
New York, New York, Population Council, . 68 p.The introduction to this 1996 annual report of the Population Council (PC) 1) identifies its purpose as seeking to improve well-being and reproductive health and to achieve a balance between population and natural resources and 2) describes the work of its Center for Biomedical Research, Policy Research Division, International Programs Division, Distinguished Colleagues, Corporate Affairs Division, and Office of Development. The report continues with a list of the Board of Trustees and Officers and memorial tributes to a past chair of the Board and the 1996 chair who both died in 1996. The President's message notes that PC research helps to debunk the myths that 1) fertility decline means population decline; 2) family planning (FP) equals population control; and 3) programs addressing reproductive health, adolescent well-being, and women's status are of little global importance. PC research is pioneering ways to study reproductive decision-making and improve the quality and outreach of FP programs integrated with reproductive health services. To forward the ultimate goal of improving the quality of people's lives, the PC is also promoting measures to create conditions favorable to small families and is addressing population momentum by encouraging women to delay marriage and space births. The bulk of the report then covers PC efforts to move the new population policy/FP paradigm (integrating reproductive health and FP services, improving quality of care, meeting the needs of individuals instead of demographic goals, and expanding population policy to include measures to improve women' status) from the realm of words to action through basic and applied research activities. The report ends with by listing current PC publications, fellows, awards and contracts, staff and consultants, advisory and collaborative bodies, and PC offices and by presenting a financial report.
CARE Vietnam's action research approach to HIV / AIDS, results, and ramifications for future policy and programming.
In: Resource material on HIV / AIDS in Vietnam, [compiled by] Care International in Vietnam. Hanoi, Viet Nam, CARE International in Vietnam, . 66-74.As part of its mission to assist disadvantaged segments of Vietnamese society in their efforts to achieve economic and social well-being, CARE Viet Nam has outlined innovative, culture-sensitive guidelines for combatting acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). CARE's AIDS strategy includes four elements: 1) advice, advocacy, and consultation among nongovernmental organizations, national and provincial governments, and regional CAREs; 2) information, education, and communication projects involving in-depth audience analyses and use of key informants; 3) direct assistance projects in which CARE conducts the research, disseminates results, and transfers expertise to local partners through training activities; and 4) indirect assistance by sharing libraries, access to donors, and information. In its AIDS activities, CARE has targeted young men 14-28 years of age, women, and health professionals/decision makers. CARE's approach is based on action research in which monitoring, reflecting, and evaluating are used to respond to changing environments. At the same time, CARE has struggled to avoid moving too far ahead of social norms, being too non-Vietnamese, or appearing to take the lead away from the government. Two CARE research projects--peer education for commercial sex workers and a book of oral histories of six people with AIDS--are nearing completion. Activities planned for 1995 include production of a televised soap opera with an AIDS education theme, business skills training for commercial sex workers, training in assertiveness and sexual negotiation for women, and the development of "condom coffee shops" for young people.
[Resolution No.] 48/134. National institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights [20 December 1993].
RESOLUTIONS AND DECISIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY DURING ITS FORTY-EIGHTH SESSION. 1994; 1:252-3.On December 20, 1993, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution praising and encouraging the development of national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights and outlining ways in which the UN can contribute to this effort. The resolution opens by recalling relevant resolutions concerning such national institutions and emphasizing the importance of the international human rights instruments. The UN Centre for Human Rights of the Secretariat is asked to continue to provide advisory services and technical assistance as well as information and education to national institutions. The Centre is also asked to establish (if requested) centers to train national institutions in human rights documentation and activities.
New York, New York, United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division, 1995. vii, 63 p. (No. ST/ESA/SER.R/143)This report details the experiences gained by the UN as it provided technical assistance for the establishment of national demographic training and research centers in Botswana, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, the Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The first chapter discusses how the needs assessments were conducted from a regional/country-specific historical perspective and the early initiative to develop the required human resources. Chapter 2 covers project design, including the identification of objectives, institutionalization, and the gaining of support from governments and universities. The third chapter describes project activities in the realms of teaching, research, in-service training, consultancy and advisory services, and the organization of workshops and seminars. Chapter 4 looks at the different inputs needed for national-level management at various stages of project implementation and the procedures used for project management under technical assistance. The fifth chapter discusses the use of international personnel during the initiation of each project and the gradual training and recruitment of national staff. This chapter also provides information on the project budget which was comprised of a section covered by international assistance and one which relied on local counterpart contributions. Chapter 6 talks about the preparation of projects for self-sufficiency and continuity through the training of national staff; the institutionalization of project activities; and the acquisition of library and teaching materials, equipment, and computers. The seventh chapter recites the difficulties faced during project implementation in areas such as project design, institutionalization, the development of national staff, logistics, and financial support. The final chapter assesses the impact of the projects on country development and concludes that they have been extremely useful in enhancing the socioeconomic development of each country and in increasing awareness of population issues. Extensive appendices to this report include 1) the questionnaire used to collect data for the report; 2) a list of contributors; 3) project objectives for each country; 4) course titles; 5) contents of various training programs; and 6) the recommendations of the 1988 Consultative Meeting on Substantive Issues of Demographic Training Projects in sub-Saharan Africa.
First professional meeting for TSS / CST advisors on population IEC and population education. 17-21 October, 1994, UNFPA / UNESCO, Paris. [Proceedings].
[Unpublished] 1994.  p.In October 1994, UNFPA technical support services (TSS) and country support team (CST) advisors attended a meeting on population IEC (information, education, and communication) in Paris, France, to become updated on IEC and population education. The notebook provided to all participants contains the meeting agenda. The agenda had sessions on the latest trends in population IEC, applying research effectively in IEC and population education, the program approach (implications for IEC), implications of UNFPA support to family planning/IEC, counseling skills training and interpersonal communication, application of knowledge and policies in the area of youth, male involvement in reproductive health, reconceptualization of population education, gender issues and girls education, participatory approaches and community involvement, innovative methodologies for school-based population education, and new information technologies. The notebook also has a list of participants categorized by CST team, TSS team, UNFPA headquarters, and consultants/resource persons. The bulk of the notebook is composed of resource papers addressing topics of the various sessions and related IEC/population education issues.
Report on WHO's first course to train consultants for Management of Childhood Illness, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, November 13 to December 2, 1995.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995.  p. (Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 HT 53 014; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)The World Health Organization's Division of Diarrheal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control (WHO-CDR) and its partners have prepared the Management of Childhood Illness course, which trains health workers in optimal outpatient management of the leading causes of child death: pneumonia, diarrhea, malnutrition, measles, and malaria. During November 13-24, 1995, WHO-CDR held a training course in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, for consultants in Management of Childhood Illness. Following the course, a subset of the consultants participated in a series of workshops on preparations for introducing the course and adapting it to correspond to national policies. WHO-CDR has officially released the materials for training in integrated outpatient management of childhood illness. They include the training materials for participants, the Course Director's Guide, the Facilitator's Guides, three videos, a paper entitled Where Referral Is Not Possible, the Adaptation Guide, and a document entitled Initial Planning by Countries for Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. Preparation needs for use of the course include adaptation of the course to correspond to national policies, organization of training sites, and training of highly qualified facilitators. Complementary training materials are needed for health workers with less formal education, for instruction in inpatient management, and for training private-for-profit health workers. Training must correspond to system-wide changes (e.g., in drug supply and in supervision). The project must extend to the home and community to improve the care for sick children. Training specialists, communications specialists, public health managers, policy makers, and parents of sick children need to be included so as to expand understanding of and support for the initiative in order to complete the unfinished tasks.
Nairobi, Kenya, CAFS, . , 13, iv p.A total of 260,112 persons of nine categories of key population were tested serologically for AIDS by the Quarantine Service in Guangdong Province and 16 cases were found HIV-positive (one of whom was confirmed), of whom 6 were foreigners and 10 were Chinese returning from overseas. (excerpt)
[Program review and strategy development report: Paraguay] Informe de revision de programa y desarrollo de estrategias: Paraguay.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1993. vi, 51 p.The conclusions and recommendations are reported of a 1991 UN Population Fund mission to Paraguay to assist the government in establishing a coherent and comprehensive framework for a national population program. The program review and strategy report analyzes the current status and needs of the population program, evaluates the achievements of past population activities in Paraguay, and recommends future actions in terms of a general national population strategy. The major factor influencing Paraguayan society at the time of the mission was intense political activity surrounding Paraguay's emergence from over a half century of dictatorship. Under the circumstances, immediate reforms were stressed and more intermediate and long-range objectives and strategies were difficult to define. General agreement was observed, however, on the need for some kind of population program. The first of 3 chapters of the report discusses population and development in Paraguay as a context for program activities. Demographic trends and economic and social conditions are briefly reviewed. The second chapter presents an analysis of the national population program. It examines the place of population factors in development plans and the institutional structures and administrative arrangements for development of a population policy and its integration into development planning. the execution of the national population program is examined, including a review of sources of demographic data, the maternal-child health and family planning program, IEC activities, organizations and activities involved with the role of women in population and development, and a review of past and present technical cooperation involving the UN Population fund and other foreign assistance. The third chapter proposes strategies for population activities. The first of 3 sections describes the proposed overall strategy including increasing awareness of population and development issues, promoting community participation, municipal decentralization, cooperation between the public and private sectors, intersectoral and interinstitutional coordination, and formulation of a population policy. The second section discusses sectoral strategies for population and development, gathering and analysis of population data, maternal-child health and family planning, population IEC, and women in population and development, while the final section identifies the most feasible targets for UN Population Fund assistance, stressing interventions most likely to achieve a lasting impact.
[Unpublished] . 27 p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)Health personnel in Niger report that malaria is the leading diagnosis in health facilities (1980-1984), about 380,000 cases/year), but just 19% of the population live within a 5 km radius of a health facility. A 1985 household survey reveals that 31.4% of children had a febrile illness (presumptive malaria) within the last 2 weeks and 22.1% of all child deaths were presumptive malaria related. The Government of Niger began developing a national malaria program in 1985 to reduce malaria-related deaths rather than morbidity reduction, because available data indicated that morbidity reduction was not feasible. There is no standard treatment regimen for presumptive malaria, however. Some studies indicate that an effective dose regimen is 10 mg chloroquine/kg body weight in a single dose. Some health workers use other antimalarial arbitrarily. Lack of uniformity can increase the risk of chloroquine and Fansidar resistant falciparum. Government officials are thinking about having only chloroquine available at first level facilities. It plans to set up national surveillance for chloroquine resistance. Niger has just 1 trained malariologist, indicating a need for training of more staff. To keep government costs to a minimum, it wants to set chloroquine at all points in the distribution network. The program's plan of action also includes chemoprophylaxis for pregnant women, limited vector control in Niamey, and health education stressing reducing breeding sites. A REACH consultant believes that it is possible for the program to reach its coverage targets within 5 years. Obstacles include limited access to health care, unavailable chloroquine in warehouses, and lack of untrained personnel (the main obstacle). The consultant suggests various interventions to help Niger meet its targets, e.g., periodic coverage surveys. The World Bank, WHO, the Belgian Cooperation, and USAID are either providing or planning to provide support to the malaria control programs.
African women. A review of UNFPA-supported women, population and development projects in Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Zaire, and Zambia.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991 Jan. 45 p.In the late 1980s, UNFPA-supported women, population, and development projects in 4 African countries were reviewed during their early stages of implementation. The Gabon project aimed to identify pressing needs of rural women who worked in agroindustries or participated in agricultural cooperatives so the government could know how to integrate rural women into national development and in developing programs benefiting women. It realized that providing women with information about family health and sanitation did not meet their needs unless they first had a minimum income with which to implement what they learned. The Guinea-Bissau project chose and trained 22 female rural extension workers to inform women about sanitation and maternal and child health, nutrition, and birth spacing to improve the standard of living. It also hoped to strengthen the administrative, planning, and operational capacity of the women's group of a national political party to improve maternal and child health. Yet the women's group did not have the needed knowledge and experience in project development to operate a successful extension-based program. Further, it was unrealistic to expect women to train to become extension works when the government would not hire them permanently. In Zaire, women at local multiservice women's centers in 3 rural regions imparted information and education to modify traditional beliefs and behavior norms to increase women's role in development. In Zambia, Family Health Programme workers provided integrated maternal and child health care and family planning services through local health centers countrywide. The projects used scientific field surveys and/or interviews with villagers, local leaders, and organizations to conduct needs assessments. They did not assess the institution's strengths and weaknesses to determine its ability to be a development agency. The scope of all the projects as too limited. The duties of the consultant in 2 projects were not delineated, causing some confusion.
HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1991 Dec; 17(5):25-7.The article on human entrapment in India by Maurice King is just another example of the dogmatic, simplistic and reckless way in which the white scholars of the North formulate their ideas. It is these people who are responsible for the opium wars, programs against Jews, and carpet bombing, defoliation, and massacres in Vietnam. King's idea os using UNICEF and the WHO to kill the non white children of the South is just another example of this kind of racist brutality. It is based only upon the written opinions of other white scholars. In 1991 King produced no data about human entrapment in India. King ignores the writing of non whites like Ashish Bose who presided over the International Population Conference in 1989. Other mistakes that King makes include a failure to understand the applications of immunization (EPI) and oral rehydration programs (ORT). The EPI was implemented without ever taking baseline data, so that its effectiveness is impossible to determine with any accuracy. And nowhere in the world has ORT worked as well as UNICEF claimed it would. Further proof that King advocates genocide is his labeling of the insecticide-impregnated bednets as a dangerous technology in increasing entrapment. King fails to acknowledge the overwhelming influence of white consultants on the policies and planning strategies of family planning programs in India. Their list of failures includes: the clinic and extension approach, popularization of the IUD, mass communication, target orientation, sterilization camps, and giving primacy to generalists administrators. They should be held accountable for the 406 million people added to the base population between 1961-91 It should also be noted that India had the ability absorb this large number people while still maintaining a democratic structure, gather a substantial buffer stock of food grains, consistently increasing its per capita income while decreasing its infant mortality and crude death rates, increase its life expectancy at birth and improve the level of literacy, especially for females.
[Program review and strategy development report: Tunisia] Rapport de la mission d'analyse du programme et d'elaboration de la strategie: Tunisie.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . v, 35 p.This report of the UN Population Fund's (UNFPA) program review and strategy development mission to Tunisia analyzes the current status and needs of population programs, evaluates the results of past population activities, and recommends measures to be taken by the national population strategy. The mission was in Tunisia in April 1990 to prepare recommendations in close cooperation with the Tunisian government for the 5th program of cooperation between the UNFPA and Tunisia, which will begin in 1992. The report contains chapters on Tunisia's demographic and development situation, the population policy, cooperation in the area of population by bilateral and multilateral organizations and private sector agencies, the strategy proposed for the population program, and the current and future role of the UNFPA. A final chapter containing conclusions and recommendations notes that control of population growth and reduction of regional disparities are central concerns of Tunisia's development policy. Family planning remains the principal component of the population policy. The population and family planning program has benefited from political and legislative support and has promoted contraceptive usage, but the rate of growth remains high and the government is determined to intensify its efforts. During the next economic and social development plan covering 1992-96, increased investment in the different areas related to population and especially family planning will be needed. The mission recommended that UNFPA assistance be concentrated in decreasing order of priority on maternal health and family planning, IEC, policy development, women in development, and study and research. In the area of maternal health and family planning, health services should be supported especially in the center-west and south of the country. Closer integration of family planning and maternal-child health services is needed to further the goal of providing high quality services in all health facilities. The UNFPA should participate in introducing new contraceptive methods and in training personnel in family planning and program administration. The UNFPA should support IEC activities and population education in and out of school, especially in the center and south. Activities permitting improved comprehension of demographic variables and their relations with development and reinforcement of regional planning should be supported, in order that relations between population and development be reflected in sectorial plans and regional development programs. Technical advice should be supplied in the areas of evaluation, data processing and analysis, and publication in order that data be exploited as fully as possible. Activities promoting the integration of women in development should be promoted. The UNFPA should offer support and technical advice to develop survey and operational research skills within tunisia in the areas of population and family health.
Baltimore, Maryland, PCS, 1992. , 61,  p.This report outlines the workplan of the Johns Hopkins University/Population Communication Services (JHU/PCS) for the period of October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with USAID JHU/PCs seeks to provide technical expertise and assistance to family planning information, education and communication (IEC) programs in developing countries. The report describes the planned activities for 4 regions: Africa, Latin America, Asia, and the Near East. The report also reviews the activities according to the following categories: media/materials collection, technical services, and research evaluation. Finally, the report provides financial and administrative information. JHU/PCS will spend $11.7 million on regional and country projects. 35% of funds will support activities in Africa, 16% in Latin America, 35% in Asia, and 14% in the Near East. During the period, JHU/PCS will conduct country-need assessments in 11 countries, 63 country or regional projects, 2 international "Advances in Health Communication" workshops, and over 50 country training workshops and conferences. JHU/PCS's overall goal is to reduce fertility levels by promoting family planning and individual choice. Some of its strategies for accomplishing that goal include: 1) supporting USAID's "Big Country" Strategy; 2) improving the image of family planning and modern contraceptives; 3) marketing different types of family planning service providers; 4) reaching out to undeserved groups; 5) raising the quality standards of IEC materials; 6) upgrading the interpersonal communications skills of personnel; 7) using mass media to disseminate family planning information; 8) empowering women; 9) increasing cost-effectiveness, and 9) measuring IEC impact on behavior changes.
Social Marketing of Contraceptives. A project of Government of Pakistan and USAID. Quarterly report 18, April - June, 1990.
[Unpublished] 1990. , 25 p.This quarterly report summarizes the work of PSI Marketing Associates, a social marketing agency, in Pakistan from April-June 1990. Much of PSI's work centered around assisting The Sathi Operating Group (SOG), an organization that markets the Sathi condom. Sathi sales during the quarter totalled more than 14 million condoms. Although Sathi sales have increased significantly since last year, this trend does not indicate an increase in the demand for condoms in general. Because of a continuing short supply of Sultan, another USAID-procured condoms, Sathi has filled the existing demand. One of PSI's concerns is how to increase demand for condoms in general. PSI and SOG have completed a plan for additional mass media advertising to increase condom demand. In other activities, PSI has also: 1) assisted the Domestic Research Bureau in conducting a Contraceptive Practices Survey; 2) assisted USAID in developing a long-term contraceptive marketing strategy; 3) assisted Aftab Associates in implementing its Perpetual Trade audit of condoms; 4) updated the SMC Briefing Book; 5) obtained oral contraceptive training information from IPPF; 6) participated in conferences; 7) discussed social marketing issues with USAID officers in Washington; and 8) worked with PSI officers in Washington to draft a proposal in response to USAID's Request for Proposals for a new SMC Technical Assistance Contract in Pakistan. The report notes that violence in various parts of the Sind Province in Pakistan disrupted program activities. Appendices include the PSI/Pakistan Workplan for the April-June quarter, a Sathi Sales Report, minutes of SOG meetings, and the PSI/Pakistan Workplan for the July-September quarter.
FAMILY PLANNING WORLD. 1991 Nov-Dec; 1(2):13.Despite its seemingly conflicting goals, the Family Health Management Service (FHMS) has become an important middleman agency for contraceptives. A for-profit subsidiary of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), FHMS has established itself by helping fill the funding gap left by large international donor agencies. FHMS acts as consulting and procurement firm of contraceptives for smaller family planning programs around the world. These organizations, whether government or private, are generally too small to qualify extensive assistance from major donor groups. Although FHMS is a for-profit organization, its leadership stresses that its main goal is to make family planning knowledge and skills available to everyone. FHMS makes a determination whether the organization seeking contraceptives is a charitable or commercial enterprise. If the organization is charitable, FHMS charges only a handling fee. If the organization is commercial, FHMS adds a percentage to make the cost of the contraceptive reflect the market value. Since it begun operating in 1988, FHMS has assisted hundreds of customers. When Action Aid needed 6000 contraceptive products (a figure too small to attract funding from large donor organizations but too large to buy in the open market) for its rural development program in sierra Leone, FHMS procured them at an affordable cost. Last year, the organization spent about $1 million in procuring, shipping, and managing contraceptive sales, and netted a profit of about $45,000. All profits are channeled back to IPPF's altruistic programs.
TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE. 1989 Jan-Feb; 83(1):33-5.We prefer to use the term infant mortality rate (IMR) than infant mortality. IMR is less emotional, causes less anxiety, and implies poverty and hardship while infant mortality signifies dead children. Not all societies consider prevention of infant deaths as their 1st priority albeit still a social and emotional priority. IMR has been used for a century as a health subindex. Further many people consider the IMR as an indicator of adverse economic, nutritional, environmental, and social conditions. The IMR should be used in a more restrictive manner since children can be saved from death yet they continue to experience morbidity and live in poverty. Further those factors which cause infant deaths also affect survivors and their consequences are hard to gauge. To improve on overall health and not just reduction of infant mortality, a local and appropriate health service which the population accepts must have clear objectives and provide continuous prevention and treatment programs for all cohorts of children. Yet many developing countries which would clearly benefit from continuous child health programs do not operate such a health system. Similarly international, bilateral, and other external organizations who support child survival programs must also plan on continuous self sustaining services that are directed to the living as well as the dead. Moreover their priorities should be compatible with national priorities. In conclusion, a global or even national recession that raises absolute or relative poverty or reduces the transfer of resources which are now going to temporary vertical infant death prevention programs will most likely increase IMR and decrease infant health.
GENITOURINARY MEDICINE. 1990; 66(1):41-2.This article describes the principles and recent noteworthy events of the International Union Against the Venereal Diseases and Treponematoses (IUVDT). Founded in 1923, the organization seeks to coordinate activities on the social aspects of controlling venereal diseases. Its principle aims include: 1) assisting in the dissemination of information and facts about STDs; 2) collecting and distributing information concerning the prevention and control of STDs; 3) stimulating medical, scientific, and sociological research on STDs; 4) collecting information concerning STD worldwide prevalence trends; 5) organizing and participating in national and international conferences on STD control; 6) providing information and material for STD health education; 7) maintaining a list of IUVDT members. Since 1948, IUVDT has been an official advisory body to the World Health Organization. Every 1 or 2 years, the organization published a technical bulletin on the newer aspects of STDs. IUVDT membership costs $20 every 2 years for an individual, with a higher rate for organizations. IUVDT now holds regional branches in North America, Latin America, Europe, Africa, and South East Asia and the Western Pacific. Scheduled to take place in London on May 9-11, 1990, IUVDT's 35th General Assembly will focus on the theme of "Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the age of AIDS." At the beginning of the assembly, Dr. Detlef Petzoldt of Heidelberg will be ratified as the organization's next president, succeeding Dr. Andre Siboulet, who died on June 27, 1988.
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, UNECA, 1990 Apr. , 23 p. (RAF/88/P16)POPIN-Africa, or Population Information Network for Africa, was conceived in 1982 and designed to enable ECA (UN Economic Commission for Africa) member states to develop national information centers and infrastructures to support their policies of development planning. It allows information to be standardized and encourages formulation of sound population policies based on accurate information. POPIN-Africa is a decentralized network comprising National Population Information Centers, (NPICs), and Subregional/Sectoral Participating Centers linked by a Coordinating Unit (CU). Associated are an Advisory Committee (PAAC), a Technical Working Group (PAT), and a Working Group on Information Dissemination and Diffusion (PAWID). Major services of POPIN-Africa include documentation in the form of Country Bibliography Series, Databases, Training, a Clearinghouse, news agencies and media links for dissemination of information. Publications include African Population Profile, African Director of Demographers, Popindex-Africa, POPIN-Africa Country Bibliography Series, African Population Newsletter, POPIN-Africa Info, and Scanning Sheet.
[The role of UNFPA in the population program in Tunisia] Le role du FNUAP dans le programme population en Tunisie.
In: Medecine, sante des femmes, edited by Lilia Labidi. Tunis, Tunisia, Hopital d'Enfants, Unite de Pediatrie Preventive et Sociale, 1988. 35-7. (Premieres Journees Aziza Othmana)The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) was created almost 2 decades ago as an independent technical agency of the UN focusing on population problems defined in a broad sense. There are some 20 autonomous offices around the world whose functions are to assist national governments in population activities, especially in the area of control of demographic growth. At present there are offices in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria. The UNFPA is completely dependent on the financial contributions of member nations for funding of national population programs and activities. 2/3 of UNFPA funds are earmarked for a group of high priority nations having urgent population problems and insufficient revenues for solving problems without assistance. The main area of intervention encouraged by the UNFPA is basic health care for women and children and family planning.. Other projects promote population education, improvement of vital statistics and population data, and IEC programs especially to encourage parents in isolated areas to utilize maternal-child health and family planning services. The UNFPA is increasingly active in assisting governments in administration and financial management. A particular effort is underway in Tunisia and elsewhere to provide better health care for women and children in rural areas. Attempts are being made to train health workers locally instead of in cities in the hope of retaining their services in the rural areas. A series of recommendations made at a conference on women, population, and development held in Abu Dhabi in 1986 in the areas of health, education, employment, and research were relevant to UNFPA activities. The recommendations included providing and promoting quality health services, raising the age at marriage, training women themselves in good health and nutrition practices, requiring universal primary education, providing equal pay for equal work, and conducting research in the roles and status of women including their legal aspects.
Expanding the role of non-governmental organizations (NGO's) in national forestry programs. The report of three regional workshops in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
Washington, D.C., World Resources Institute, . 44 p.Efforts of the World Resources Institute (WRI), the World Bank, the United Nations Development Programme, and the Food and Agriculture Organization have resulted in a common framework to save tropical forests--the Tropical Forestry Action Plan. A 1st step includes national forestry sector reviews to coordinate aid agency and government involvement in identifying investment priorities and significant policy reforms to reverse deforestation and promote sustainable development and then incorporating them into their national development plans. This represents a shift from the focus of national government and aid agency forestry programs of the late 1970s, which was on commercial or industrial forestry, to forestry which provides for people's basic needs. To be successful, this plan requires the involvement of farmers and local communities. Involving NGOs and their capabilities can complement government and development assistance programs. NGOs' greatest contribution is the promotion of community based, participatory forestry programs that benefit economically or socially disadvantaged groups. WRI and the Environment Liaison Centre hosted 3 regional workshops to discuss NGOs roles in reforestation. Participants agreed that, to establish a basis for constructive collaboration, NGOs, governments, and aid agencies must mutually understand their complementary roles. Further governments and aid agencies must change policies and procedures to assist and enhance NGO involvement in policymaking and the project cycle. This includes finding new mechanisms to direct funds to NGOs, and for governments and aid agencies to respect the autonomy of the NGO and therefore enable it to achieve its goals.