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Working with adolescent boys: programme experiences. Consolidated findings from regional surveys in Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asia, and Western Pacific.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2000.  p. (WHO/FCH/CAH/00.10)The survey and this report seek to contribute to the understanding of working with adolescent boys in health and health promotion. Pursuant to this purpose, the consultants contacted programmes working in health promotion with adolescent boys in four regions of the world. These contacts did not aspire to include all of the programmes which are working with adolescent boys in these regions, nor do they necessarily represent a random sample of those programmes. Where possible, the survey included a relatively small but representative number of organizations working with adolescent boys in other regions. The organizations were identified via colleague organizations, WHO regional and local offices, the literature review, personal contacts of the survey authors and via non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in health/health promotion. As detailed below, the survey sought to gather information in a dozen specific areas of interest by means of a questionnaire, which was translated into Spanish and Arabic. Programme staff were requested to fill out the questionnaire and return it to the consultants. (excerpt)
Forum. 2001 Jan; 15(1):10.Globally, boys face a higher risk of mortality than girls do. It is noted that despite these risks and the corresponding needs of young men, most adolescent reproductive health initiatives have not targeted adolescent boys. In this regard, the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) began an initiative in 1999 to improve programs for adolescent boys. Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, it was aimed at promoting exchanges among institutions working in this population, developing health care tools for adolescent boys and funding projects that address these needs. In addition, the IPPF/WHR established partnership with five nongovernmental organizations with an aim to support programs for the development, attitudes, and behaviors on gender and health issues. A seminar was also conducted as part of the groundwork for the development of tools for providers working with young men. Furthermore, the members created four workbooks that deal with issues concerning adolescent boys. These include: 1) Adolescent Males and Mental Health; 2) Roles for Young Men: Fatherhood and Work Roles; 3) Sexuality and Reproductive Health and Adolescent Males; and 4) Adolescent Males and Violence. Lastly, these will be published in Spanish and Portuguese and will be pilot-tested by IPPF affiliates in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru.
Rock and male roles: using technology and music to teach young men about gender roles and sexual and reproductive health. El rock y los roles masculinos: utilización de la tecnología y la música para enseñar a los hombres jóvenes acerca de los roles de género y de la salud sexual y reproductiva.
Forum. 2001 Jan; 15(1):4-5.This article concerns the "Rock and Male Roles" CD-Rom which was developed by APROFA, the affiliate of International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region in Chile. This video is a visual representation of the struggle of young men to look critically at gender and how it influences their sexual and reproductive health. Utilizing its photos, reference documents, self-tests and MTV-style music videos, it serves to interact and engage young people to explore their attitudes and behaviors about these issues. It is noted that the idea of using multimedia to educate and motivate young men about the sexual and reproductive health issues is an innovative concept that stems from the interests of the youth. Moreover, the CD offers the advantage of anonymity, as it gives young men privacy in which they can search answers at their own pace. In fact, results from a test conducted by APROFA on 400 young men, aged 15-19 at high schools in Santiago, revealed that majority of the respondents who used the CD found it useful. Finally, some respondents revealed that the CD has an impact on their personal relationships with women.
WORLDAIDS. 1993 Mar; (26):9.Sri Lanka became known as a gay paradise with the advent of tourism in the late 1970s. UNICEF estimates that up to 15,000 boys in Sri Lanka may engage in homosexual prostitution. Nearly 400,000 tourists visited Sri Lanka in 1992, 50,000 of them British. The probable increase of high risk sexual contacts between tourists and Sri Lankan youths worries the government's health department. By early 1993, there were only 22 cases of AIDS and 65 people who tested HIV positive. But the government's chief venereologist says there are around 200,000 cases of sexually transmitted diseases each year, and it is estimated that as many as 2500 Sri Lankans are HIV positive. In a population of 17 million, this figure is small, but it represents an increase of 300% in just over a year. The parallels with nearby Thailand, where HIV spread explosively, are ominous. Unfortunately, cultural taboos make sex education difficult. A UNICEF doctor described the first television commercials about AIDS as ridiculous. Ignorance about AIDS is almost total. Most boy prostitutes have heard of AIDS but few use condoms and none realize that the disease kills. Organizations like Save the Children Fund recognize the magnitude of the problem but admit that reaching the beach boys, who are financially independent, is difficult. In an attempt to attack the problem, 2 social organizations compiled a list of beach boys in Hikkaduwa, the most popular tourist resort, and invited them for counselling and voluntary AIDS testing, but no one showed up.
Emphasis. 1986 Winter; 22-4.The Adolescent Parent Program for Learning Essential Skills (APPLES), designed as a 4-part program to serve pregnant, parenting, and at-risk adolescents in McLean County, Illinois, is considered a model program because of the comprehensive manner in which it addresses the issue of adolescent pregnancy. Designed by Planned Parenthood of Mid Central Illinois (PPMCI) administrative and educational staff, APPLES develops and coordinates services to adolescent parents and provides expertise and strategies for educating at-risk adolescents. APPLES currently has the support and cooperation of 16 youth-serving agencies. 1 essential component of the APPLES program is the Home Visitor Program. Under a subcontract with the McLean County Health Department, each APPLES Home Visitors team is made up of a registered nurse and 1 social worker. The Home Visitors provide aggresive advocacy tailored to the young family's special needs, such as securing adequate housing, transportation, child care, or financial assistance. In addition, APPLES home visitors provide in-home, one-on-one education. Home Visitors assess the child's developmental progress and teach the parents what developmental skills to watch for. Antoher component of APPLES is "Time Out," a weekly peer support group that provides an opportunity for adolescent mothers to share the frustrations and triumphs of parenting. The groups are facilitated by trained volunteers, some of whom were teen mothers. Time Out is a short-term (3-4 months) empowerment/affirmation model that integrates information sharing, consciousness raising, education, and skills development. While mothers take time out for themselves, their children are cared for by trained child development volunteers who use creative play and individual assessment to develop a new activity each week for the mother and child to do at home. The Developmental Day Care component provides adolescent parents with alternatives and partial financing for child care to allow them to continue their education or job training. APPLES staff work with both care providers and young parents to locate day care facilities. ADAM is the support component for adolescent fathers. It works through the PPMCI education staff to promote awareness, education, and prevention for the at-risk adolescent population. ADAM encourages adolescent fathers to be informed of their rights as well as their responsibilities. It provides counseling and support for these young men. Brief educational/support group sessions for Grandparents Too Soon (GTS) were initiated to center on peer help in dealing with feelings, fears, and frustrations.
Emphasis. 1986 Winter; 6-7.The Planned Parenthood Southeastern Pennsylvania (PPSP) explicitly acknowledged the agency's commitment to males by expanding and altering PPSP's community image. With the agency's needs as well as grant criteria in mind, staff drafter a program proposal which would aggressively reach out to the target group. Original plans included hiring 3 staff members (clinician, educator, and outreach worker), preferably all male, who would offer medical/counseling services at 3 sites and provide educational programs in the community. A marketing campaign would augment the efforts of the outreach worker. Additional funding would depend on in-kind contributions from local advertising firms to help contain costs. The foundation responded generously and enthusiastically, providing the funding for what would eventually be known as Project MARCH (Men Acting Responsibly for Contraception and Health). Despite the slower than anticipated first year start (it took 4 months just to hire staff), PPSP reached 850 males. 145 men, most of whom were in their 20s, accounted for 195 patient visits, and 705 adolescents participated in educational programs. Foundation support remained firm for a modified 2nd-year grant, and the 1st year's experience led to an alteration of program priorities. The original goal of "educating males about their role and responsibilities in family planning, reproductive health, and sexual relationships" was retained, but now public awareness/community education was primary while medical services became secondary. Project staff learned that the medical component was attracting a much older population than anticipated; adolescent males seemed even more reluctant than anticipated to come to Planned Parenthood. At the same time, no other educational programs specifically directed toward adolescent males existed in Philadelphia. A consultant was hired who recommended the adoption of a slogan and program concept that would better communicate the message of the project to the public. The promotion of Project MARCH began, complete with logo, stationery, and new transit cards. An elaborate press kit was developed and distributed to more than 200 print and electronic media sources. A professional public relations plan was developed, complete with specific activities which would communicate the message. The response has been phenomenal. Over 1 dozen radio and television programs have featured Project MARCH and 6 newspaper articles have appeared. The long-range goal of the project is the elimination of the need for a "special" male program, ultimately achieving full integration of services for both men and women.
Billings, Montana, Planned Parenthood of Billings, 1981. 15 p.Using a population of 59 minor women who came to the Planned Parenthood Clinic of Billings, Montana in 1980 and 1981 for the first time, this paper isolates factors which are critical in the decision making process the minor experiences before coming to the clinic. In depth interviews were conducted on each adolescent ranging from 13 years to 17 years. Background information shows that: 1) 1/2 of the adolescents interviewed have parents who are divorced; 2) only 50% live with their father while 72% live with their mother; and 3) most of the parents do not have much education. Counselors can never assume that an adolescent comes from any particular kind of household. Characteristics of sexual experiences reveal that: 1) 96% of the adolescents had already had sexual intercourse before they came to the Planned Parenthood Clinic for the first time; 2) the average age of 1st sexual intercourse is 15.18; 3) for all but the 16 year age group, the greatest percentage of adolescents have intercourse for the first time during the year that they 1st come to the clinic; 4) 62% of the adolescents have intercourse with more than 1 person, and usually within a few months to 4 years before they come to Planned Parenthood; 5) most adolescents have an unpleasureable sexual experience their first time; 49% were reported as violent experiences; and 6) the significance of sex as expressed by the adolescent women is that of an expression of closeness and love for their boyfriend. When the adolescents come to the clinic for the 1st time they already know what kind of contraceptive they want to use; 88% specifically requested oral contraceptives. Data demonstrate that people or an individual person in the adolescent woman's social network play a key part in the decision of the adolescent to come to the clinic for the 1st time; the adolescent herself, the adolescent and her boyfriend, a parent, a boyfriend alone, a girlfriend, and a sibling, in this descending order, are the persons who initiate the idea. Recommendations for more effective birth control of adolescents are: 1) males should be educated to encourage and show approval towards their partner's contraceptive use; 2) educational programs for parents to deal directly with their child's sexual experiences; 3) all children in the family should be talked to about sex and birth control; and 4) adolescents who do come to clinics should be encouraged by counselors to tell their friends about their experiences there. Studies show that there are direct correlations between high self esteem and adolescent contraceptive use; counselors can link the pragmatic concerns of adolescents for future prospects with the consequences of pregnancy. This, along with workshops which help prepare mothers to talk to their daughters about sex and contraceptives, can help adolescent women get the contraceptive information they need in order to achieve their future goals by reducing the risk of pregnancy.
London, England, IPPF, 1984 May. ii, 59 p.The Bellagio consultation was held in July, 1983 on the initiative of the Programme Committee of International Medical Advisory Panel to consider more closely what the needs of adolescents are and what more should be done to meet them. Participants from several countries--within and outside of IPPF--were invited. Before the Consultation, participants exchanged information, experience and ideas in writing as a basis for their discussion. 3 topics were focused on: 1) needs and problems; 2) information, education, and counselling; and 3) reproductive health management. An action plan for the next 3 to 5 years was drawn up. It offers broad suggestions about the kind of activities that would be appropriate for family planning associations and IPPF to take. Adolescents all over the world are in need of much better education and health care related to fertility, these are not the same in each society. A comprehensive approach to adolescent needs is favored. The recommendations form part of a broad discussion about how adolescents can best be helped to behave responsibly. Adolescent fertility has implications for health, psychological, social and economic well being. General program and operational guidelines are given, as are 8 areas for action: 1) creation of awareness and advocacy; 2) youth leadership and participation in adolescent programs; 3) information and education; 4) counseling; 5) fertility-related services; 6) sharing of experience, information and resources; 7) training and skill development; and 8) research. A list of participants and background papers is given.
Shared sexual responsibility: a strategy for male involvement in United States Family Planning clinics.
In: International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Male involvement in family planning: programme initiatives. London, England, IPPF, . 167-76.Reviewed here are the efforts of the Planned Parenthood affiliates in the United States, showing that their focus is on female contraception. The author argues that if family planning is to be seen as a basic human right, then far more attention needs to be given to shared sexual responsibility. Although major strides have been made through federal grants and education programs, the history of meaningful male involvement has been a feeble one. It is argues that the alarming rate of teenage pregnancies, the falling statistics in vasectomy services across the country and the overall image of family planning programs, are indicative of the need for a new strategy. The little research data that is available shows that the earlier young men and boys are reached with accurate sexuality information, the more successful family planning and education services will be. The most successful sex education programs seem to be those which see sexuality education as a life-long process. More recently, research has concluded that programs working with parents and children are by far the most successful in ensuring ongoing dialogue and most meaningful behavior change. An important strategy for reaching males, partucularly with condoms, is to build on current strength in reaching female populations. Active promotion of vasectomy services, increased availability of comdom products suitably packaged and promoted, and attention-getting public service announcements, have combined to help change the image of a family planning program too often thought of as exclusively female. A representative sample of educational materials for men is included in the appendix.
London, IPPF, 1981 Aug. 13 p.The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) 1982-1984 Plan identifies the importance of male involvement in family planning and the problem of male opposition to family planning in many countries. The Plan calls for efforts to encourage men to accept joint responsibility for family planning and the practice of contraception. In most countries family planning programs are orientated towards women, but many family planning associations have some activities directed at men. A number of associations have developed experimental projects aimed at increasing male involvement, and these can be grouped as projects aimed at motivating male leaders, reaching men in the organized sector, promoting male family planning methods, and reaching adolescents. Each of these is reviewed. In identifying ways of increasing male involvement in family planning there are several aspects that Family Planning Associations (FPAs) might want to consider. These concern the current situation and local environment, the views of men, and the resources of the Association. Associations might want to consider the following suggestions for FPA program directions. These are arranged under the following categories: improving overall programming to include men; increasing availability of existing male methods; education program to promote male involvement; and increasing female support for male involvement in family planning. In countries where the concept of family planning is generally accepted, an "across the board" improvement in programs to increase their acceptability to men might result in increased male support for family planning. Although more governments and FPAs have made vasectomy available over the past decade, additional efforts could be made. The 4 principal objectives for education initiatives aimed at "male involvement" are identified. It is important that women educate and help their partners to participate in family planning. Family planning workers could do much to encourage women to involve their partners.
In: Bogue DJ, Oettinger K, Thompson M, Morse P. Adolescent fertility. (Proceedings of the First Inter-Hemispheric Conference on Adolescent Fertility, Airlie, Virginia, August 31-September 4, 1976). Chicago, Illinois, University of Chicago, Community and Family Study Center, 1977. 50-4.In Asia more programs on responsible parenthood, education, information and contraceptive services should be available to teenagers in view of changing sexual behavior and social norms. Adolescents have an important role to play in their communities' development. The adolescent should be encouraged to participate in the formulation of the programs, community development, or community services. Parenting, family life, or sex education can be channelled into many different areas for young people, including vocational training schemes, youth clubs and groups, service corps, leadership training, workers' unions, and other educational settings. The IPPF experience is that participation works far better than campaign gimmicks or lectures planned by adults. More study is needed.
Paper presented at the 1st Inter-Hemispheric Conference on Adolescent Fertility, Airlie House, Airlie, Virginia, August 31-September 4, 1976. 15 pThe rising expectations of young people around the world are not being met by the society's adults. There is a necessity to recognize the special needs of adolescents in the new situations. Increasing adolescent sexual activity and teenage pregnancy point out the need to provide reproductive and contraceptive information and counseling for this age group worldwide. International Planned Parenthood Federation's youth-oriented programs recognize the basic interest of youth in and right to be provided such information and services. These programs concentrate on all channels for young people, e.g., youth groups and workers' unions. Examples of such programs in Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, and Indonesia are cited.
San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.
[Unpublished] .  p.Planned Parenthood of Central Ohio provides medical, educational, and counseling services and in 1983 provided contraceptive services to more than 13,000 patients of which 5200 were aged 19 and under. Educational services were offered to many thousands of young people either through speaking engagements at schools and organizations or through special teen information telephone services. In the mid-1970s, attention was focused on the number of unintended pregnancies to adolescents and the social, economic, medical, and educational consequences. Examination of local statistics for Columbus and Franklin County revealed that the percentage of teen births was higher than the national average and that half the number were out-of-wedlock, well above average. The national estimate that 1 in 10 teenage women aged 15-19 becomes pregnant every year was found to be true for this area. The Board of Trustees of Planned Parenthood of Central Ohio determined that top priority should go to an effort to decrease the number of unintended pregnancies to young people. A special teen hotline was established, answered by trained health educators. It is available daily from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m. In addition to the telephone service begun in September 1977, a media campaign was initiated designed to educate the community on the consequences of the large numbers of teen pregnancies and to let teenagers know that confidential medical and educational services were available to them. A few boys called the hotline for information, but most seemed to believe that Planned Parenthood was concerned only with women. The attitudes expressed were that birth control was the girl's responsibility and that an unintended pregnancy did not affect the young man involved. "Phase two" of the teen effort was to direct a campaign to the adolescent boys to encourage use of the hotline and to try to change some attitudes about responsibilities. 2 television public service spots were produced depicting young men's loss of freedom. Prior to the start of the male campaign, the hotline was averaging 200-300 calls a month with 10-15 from boys. In October 1978, the 1st full month of the campaign, there were 793 total calls with 103 from boys. Calls continued to climb reaching a peak of over 1000 in January 1979, including 156 from boys. Calls to the hotline currently average about 1000 per month with about 100 from young men. In addition, many of the girls indicate that they are calling because their boyfriends want them to call. The number of births to teens dropped from 2655 in 1976 to 1942 in 1982. At least part of this drop was due to the teen campaigns.