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Programme reporting standards for sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2017. 32 p.Information about design, context, implementation, monitoring and evaluation is central to understanding the processes and impacts of sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (SRMNCAH) programmes, in support of effective replication and scale-up of these efforts. Existing reporting guidelines do not demand sufficient detail in the reporting of contextual and implementation issues. We have, therefore, developed programme reporting standards (PRS) to provide guidance for complete and accurate reporting on the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation processes of SRMNCAH programmes. The PRS can be used by SRMNCAH programme implementers and researchers. The PRS can be used prospectively to guide the reporting of a programme throughout its life cycle, or retrospectively to describe what was done, when, where, how and by whom. The PRS is intended as a guide for implementation researchers who need to document important details of implementation and context in addition to the results of their studies. The PRS is intended for programme managers and other staff or practitioners who have designed, implemented and/or evaluated SRMNCAH programmes. It can be used by governmental and nongovernmental organizations, bilateral and multilateral agencies, as well as by the private sector. The PRS is also intended as a guide for implementation researchers who need to document important details of implementation and context in addition to the results of their studies
Report 2017: Transformative accountability for adolescents: Accountability for health and human rights of women, children and adolescents in the 2030 agenda.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 2017. 64 p.Adolescents, who number 1.2 billion, or 1 in 6 of the global population, are the key for progress on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Every year, 1.2 million adolescents die, often from preventable causes—such as violence, suicide, pregnancy-related complications among girls, HIV/AIDS, road injuries and drowning, as well as diseases and respiratory infections. As the report states, however, high impact, cost effective solutions to improve adolescent health can yield huge benefits and billions in savings that can place them on better tracks for life, reaping demographic dividends. The Independent Accountability Panel (IAP), under its mandate by the UN Secretary-General to assess progress on the 2016-2030 Global Strategy on Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health in the context of the SDGs from the specific lens of who is accountable to whom, and for what, launched its 2017 report. The IAP’s six recommendations are to: 1) Leverage Accountability to Achieve the Global Strategy and the SDGs, 2) Make adolescents visible and measure what matters, 3) Foster whole-of-government accountability to adolescents, 4) Make universal health coverage work for adolescents, 5) Boost accountability for investments, including for adolescent health and well-being, and 6) Unleash the power of young people, by meaningfully engaging them in decision-making, and empowering them to seize the full potential of the digital age.
Strengthening the capacity of community health workers to deliver care for sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015. 20 p.Government institutions, United Nations agencies, and global partners have been repositioning the role that community health workers (CHWs) can play in increasing access to essential quality health services in the context of national primary health care and universal health coverage. Given the growing momentum and interest in training CHWs, the United Nations health agencies (H4+) have developed this technical brief to orient country programme managers and global partners as to key elements for strengthening the capacity of CHWs, including health system and programmatic considerations, core competencies, and evidence-informed interventions for CHWs along the SR/MNCAH continuum of care. These key elements need to be adapted and contextualized by countries to reflect the structure, gaps, and opportunities of the national primary health care system, the interaction between the health sector with other sectors, and the specific roles and competencies that CHWs already have within that system. These key elements should also guide H4+ members and partners to take a joint and harmonized approach to supporting countries in their capacity-development efforts. Annex 1 lists SR/MNCAH interventions that CHWs can perform based on the best available evidence and existing WHO guidance.
Global standards for quality health care services for adolescents. A guide to implement a standards-driven approach to improve the quality of health-care services for adolescents. Volume 4: Scoring sheets for data analysis.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 2015. 132 p.Global initiatives are urging countries to prioritize quality as a way of reinforcing human rights-based approaches to health. Yet evidence from both high- and low-income countries shows that services for adolescents are highly fragmented, poorly coordinated and uneven in quality. Pockets of excellent practice exist, but, overall, services need significant improvement and should be brought into conformity with existing guidelines. The aim of Global standards for quality health-care services for adolescents is to assist policy-makers and health service planners in improving the quality of health-care services so that adolescents find it easier to obtain the health services that they need to promote, protect and improve their health and well-being. This volume is to be used in conjunction with the monitoring tools in Volume 3. Using this data analysis method, countries can determine compliance with quality standards. How to use this volume: The scoring sheets in this volume are organized by criterion. There is a separate scoring sheet for each criterion. The total scores for all the criteria that apply to a standard are averaged to yield an overall score for that standard.
Global standards for quality health care services for adolescents. A guide to implement a standards-driven approach to improve the quality of health-care services for adolescents. Volume 3: Tools to conduct quality and coverage measurement surveys to collect data about compliance with the global standards.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 2015. 100 p.Global initiatives are urging countries to prioritize quality as a way of reinforcing human rights-based approaches to health. Yet evidence from both high- and low-income countries shows that services for adolescents are highly fragmented, poorly coordinated and uneven in quality. Pockets of excellent practice exist, but, overall, services need significant improvement and should be brought into conformity with existing guidelines. The aim of Global standards for quality health-care services for adolescents is to assist policy-makers and health service planners in improving the quality of health-care services so that adolescents find it easier to obtain the health services that they need to promote, protect and improve their health and well-being. This volume includes tools to determine whether the implementation of the standards has been achieved. These tools can be adapted for use in different contexts -be it self-assessments on a limited number of criteria, or external assessments (monitoring visits) by district managers, on a wider, or full range, of standards and criteria. The tools can be equally adapted to develop checklists for supportive supervision. The toolkit included in this volume contains seven tools to collect data about quality of care (as measured by the criteria of the standards) and two tools to gather information about coverage.
Global standards for quality health care services for adolescents. A guide to implement a standards-driven approach to improve the quality of health-care services for adolescents. Volume 2: Implementation guide.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 2015. 28 p.Global initiatives are urging countries to prioritize quality as a way of reinforcing human rights-based approaches to health. Yet evidence from both high- and low-income countries shows that services for adolescents are highly fragmented, poorly coordinated and uneven in quality. Pockets of excellent practice exist, but, overall, services need significant improvement and should be brought into conformity with existing guidelines. The aim of Global standards for quality health-care services for adolescents is to assist policy-makers and health service planners in improving the quality of health-care services so that adolescents find it easier to obtain the health services that they need to promote, protect and improve their health and well-being. This volume, the Implementation guide, provides detailed guidance on identifying what actions need to be taken to implement the standards at the national, district and facility levels. It can be used to develop checklists to assess the status of implementation.
Global standards for quality health care services for adolescents. A guide to implement a standards-driven approach to improve the quality of health-care services for adolescents. Volume 1: Standards and criteria.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 2015 40 p.Global initiatives are urging countries to prioritize quality as a way of reinforcing human rights-based approaches to health. Yet evidence from both high- and low-income countries shows that services for adolescents are highly fragmented, poorly coordinated and uneven in quality. Pockets of excellent practice exist, but, overall, services need significant improvement and should be brought into conformity with existing guidelines. The aim of Global standards for quality health-care services for adolescents is to assist policy-makers and health service planners in improving the quality of health-care services so that adolescents find it easier to obtain the health services that they need to promote, protect and improve their health and well-being. The implementation plan and the monitoring tools that accompany the standards in this document provide guidance on identifying what actions need to be taken to implement the standards and to assess whether the standards have been achieved. The primary intention of the standards is to improve the quality of care for adolescents in government healthcare services; however, they are equally applicable to facilities run by NGOs and those in the private sector. The ultimate purpose of implementing the standards is to increase adolescents’ use of services and, thus, to contribute to better health outcomes.
[Unpublished] 2016 Dec 15. 138 p.This is the first draft of the Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescents (AA-HA!): Implementation guidance . This consultation aims to gather input from a wide range of stakeholders to inform the development of the guidance. Key messages include: 1. Adolescents (aged 10-19 years) make up one-sixth of the world’s population and are extremely diverse, but share key developmental experiences, such as rapid physical growth, hormonal changes, sexual development, new and complex emotions, and an increase in intellectual capacities. 2. Adolescent health is affected by positive physical, neurological, and psychosocial development, as well as a diverse array of possible burdens, including unintentional injury, interpersonal violence, sexual and reproductive health (SRH) concerns, communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases, and mental health issues. 3. In addition, numerous important risk factors for health problems start or are consolidated during adolescence and may continue over the life course, such as tobacco use, inadequate nutrition, physical inactivity, and alcohol and drug use. 4. There are strong demographic, public health, economic, and human rights reasons to invest in the health and the development of adolescents. For example, investing in adolescent health will benefit adolescents now, adolescents in their future lives, and also the next generation. 5. Three critical, overarching concepts in adolescent health programming are universal health coverage, quality of care, and positive development. 6. The Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016-2030) takes a life-course approach that aims for the highest attainable standards of health and wellbeing -- physical, mental, and social -- at every age. It identifies 27 evidence-based adolescent health interventions. 7. The Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescents (AA-HA!) implementation guidance document has been developed to support the Global Strategy and to provide countries with a basis for developing a coherent national plan for the health of adolescents. Specifically: Section 2 reviews adolescent positive development and major disease burdens; Section 3 describes the 27 Global Strategy adolescent health interventions in detail; Section 4 outlines how a country can prioritize health interventions for its particular adolescent population; Section 5 describes important aspects of successful national adolescent health programming; and Section 6 reviews adolescent health monitoring, evaluation, and research guidelines and priorities.
Reproductive Health. 2015 Sep 18; 12(90):1-13.Background Young people make up for 24.5 % of Latin America’s population. Inadequate supply of specific and timely sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and sexuality education for young people increases their risk of sexual and reproductive ill health. Colombia is one of the few countries in Latin America that has implemented and scaled up specific and differentiated health and SRH services-termed as its Youth Friendly Health Services (YFHS) Model. Objective To provide a systematic description of the crucial factors that facilitated and hindered the scale up process of the YFHS Model in Colombia. Methods A comprehensive literature search on SRH services for young people and national efforts to improve their quality of care in Colombia and neighbouring countries was carried out along with interviews with a selection of key stakeholders. The information gathered was analysed using the World Health Organization-ExpandNet framework (WHO-ExpandNet). Results/Discussion In 7 years (2007-2013) of the implementation of the YFHS Model in Colombia more than 800 clinics nationally have been made youth friendly. By 2013, 536 municipalities in 32 departments had YFHS, resulting in coverage of 52 % of municipalities offering YHFS. The analysis using the WHO-ExpandNet framework identified five elements that enabled the scale up process: Clear policies and implementation guidelines on YFHS, clear attributes of the user organization and resource team, establishment and implementation of an inter-sectoral and interagency strategy, identification of and support to stakeholders and advocates of YFHS, and solid monitoring and evaluation. The elements that limited or slowed down the scale up effort were: Insufficient number of health personnel trained in youth health and SRH, a high turnover of health personnel, a decentralized health security system, inadequate supply of financial and human resources, and negative perceptions among community members about providing SRH information and services to young people. Conclusion Colombia’s experience shows that for large-scale implementation of youth health programmes, clear policies and implementation guidelines, support from institutional leaders and authorities who become champions of YFHS, continuous training of health personnel, and inclusion of users in the design and monitoring of these services are key.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health, 2014.  p. (WHO/FWC/MCA/14.05)The report summarized in this document brings together all WHO guidance concerning adolescents across the full spectrum of health issues. It offers a state-of-the-art overview of four core areas for health sector action: providing health services; collecting and using the data needed to plan and monitor health sector interventions; developing and implementing health-promoting and health-protecting policies; and mobilizing and supporting other sectors. The report concludes with key actions for strengthening national health sector responses to adolescent health. The website will be the springboard for consultation with a wide range of stakeholders leading to a concerted action plan for adolescents.
Making health services adolescent friendly: Developing national quality standards for adolescent friendly health services.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2012.  p.This guidebook sets out the public health rationale for making it easier for adolescents to obtain the health services that they need to protect and improve their health and well-being, including sexual and reproductive health services. It defines ‘adolescent-friendly health services’ from the perspective of quality, and provides step-by-step guidance on developing quality standards for health service provision to adolescents. Drawing upon international experience, it is also tailored to national epidemiological, social, cultural and economic realities, and provides guidance on identifying what actions need to be taken to assess whether appropriate standards have been achieved.
Investing in young people: UNFPA’s commitment to advancing the rightsof adolescents and youth in the eastern Europe and central Asia (EECA)Region.
Entre Nous. 2009; 69:4-5.Investing in young people is an investment in the future. Yet more than half of young people throughout the globe live in poverty. Impoverished youth are particularly at risk of gender discrimination, poor schooling, unemployment and poor access to health services. They are also less likely to know of, claim and exercise their rights to reproductive health information and services.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, [WHO], 2009. 48 p. (Analytic Case Studies. Initiatives to Increase the Use of Health Services by Adolescents)This case study describes how the Government of Mozambique scaled up its successful youth HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health program to a national level. Geared toward developing-country governments and nongovernmental organizations, the case study provides a technical overview of the program and its interventions, a detailed description of the scale-up process and lessons learned, and the program's achievements.
[Sanaa], Yemen, Ministry of Youth and Sports, 1998 Nov.  p.This policy discusses the National Strategy for Integrating Youth into Development for the Republic of Yemen. It states previous strategy goals and addresses the issues and problems with those and formulates suggested strategic actions that combat those issues.
Adolescents, social support and help-seeking behaviour: An international literature review and programme consultation with recommendations for action.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2007. 56 p. (WHO Discussion Papers on Adolescence)With this brief introduction and justification, this document presents: The findings from an international literature review on the topic of adolescents and help-seeking behaviour. The results of a programme consultation with 35 adolescent health programmes (including public health sector programmes, university-based adolescent health programmes and non-government organizations (NGO) working in adolescent health) from Latin America (10), the Western Pacific region (4), Asia (20), and the Middle East (1), and the results of six key informant interviews. These results are incorporated into the literature review where relevant. The complete report from this consultation of programmes is found in Appendix 1. Recommendations for action, including a brief outline for developing a set of guidelines for the rapid assessment of social supports to promote the help-seeking of adolescents. This document is part of a WHO project to identify and define evidence-based strategies for influencing adolescent help-seeking and identify research questions and activities to promote improved help-seeking behaviour by adolescents. To achieve this objective, the consultants, with WHO guidance: (1) carried out an international literature review of the topic; (2) sent 67 questionnaires and received 35 questionnaires back from adolescent health programmes on the topic of adolescents and help-seeking in the four regions; and (3) carried out key informant interviews with nine individuals (three in Latin America, three in the Pacific region and three in South Asia). The consultants also developed short case studies of illustrative approaches in promoting help-seeking behaviour. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2007.  p.In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with the Department of Population and Family Health at Johns Hopkins University, commenced a review of interventions that aim to assist the parents of adolescents in developing countries improve adolescent health and development. Please refer to Helping parents in developing countries improve adolescents' health for additional information. This effort sought to identify such projects and this document is a summary of the information collected. The methodology employed to identify projects included a search of published studies through computerized databases including PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychARTICLES, POPLINE and the Cochrane Library, and a review of the grey literature of international intergovernmental health/development organizations such as the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), as well as non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Individuals and organizations working in the fields of adolescent reproductive health, substance abuse, violence and mental health were also contacted, in addition to a search of the internet. Whenever possible, project staff were interviewed by telephone using a standardized interview guide. Project summaries were drafted and reviewed by project staff. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2007. 37 p.One fifth of the world's population - a total of 1.2 billion people - are adolescents, and 85% of them are in the developing world. Adolescence is a time of unprecedented promise - and peril. During the second decade of life, young people can encounter a rapidly widening world of opportunities, as they gradually take on adult characteristics in size, sexual characteristics, thinking skills, identity and economic and social roles. Too often, however, the widening world also exposes adolescents to serious risks before they have adequate information, skills and experience to avoid or counteract them. Their level of maturity and social status is no match for some challenges, unless they are provided with support, information and access to resources. Without help, the consequences of health risk behaviours in adolescence can be life-threatening and life-long. Nearly two thirds of premature deaths and one third of the total disease burden in adults can be associated with conditions or behaviours that begin in youth. 1 To protect and preserve our subsequent generations, no better investment can be made in the developing world than to foster promotion of adolescent development and prevention of health risk behaviours among adolescents. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, . 44 p.This document is based on the Fund's commitment to invest in adolescents and youth and help them gain access to opportunities. For countries experiencing or about to experience the demographic transition and for countries showing a significant youth bulge, social investments in young people can help to achieve a healthy, socio-economically productive and poverty-free society. This document's primary focus is on translating the Fund's commitment to action. It is based on UNFPA's extensive experience of working for more than thirty years in the area of adolescents and youth. It does not provide all the answers, but it charts a roadmap for positioning UNFPA for action. (excerpt)
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, Family Health International [FHI], Interagency Youth Working Group, 2007 Mar. 4 p. (YouthLens on Reproductive Health and HIV / AIDS No. 21)Young people, especially those who are sexually active, need access to a variety of reproductive health (RH) and HIV services, including contraception, HIV counseling and testing, testing and treatment for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), pre- and postnatal care, and postabortion care. Frequently youth seek services only when there is an acute illness or problem - such as a symptomatic STI or pregnancy - and do not typically seek preventive services, such as contraception to avoid pregnancy. Also, health facilities serving youth sometimes offer one primary service or have separate units providing different types of services. In either situation, to provide comprehensive care, a provider may need to refer clients between contraceptive and HIV/STI services. As a result, although many young people are at risk of both pregnancy and HIV/STIs, they may receive only one service while related sexual health needs are not addressed. An integrated approach can make a variety of services available during the same hours, at the same facility, or from the same provider. While such integration seems appealing, more analysis was needed to address whether this was feasible, what needs were unmet, and what kinds of models might work best. (excerpt)
Guidelines for adaptation of the WHO Orientation Programme on Adolescent Health for Health Care Providers in Europe and Central Asia.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], Division for Arab States, Europe and Central Asia, 2006. 25 p.The Orientation Programme on Adolescent Health for Health Care Providers (OP) was developed by the Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, WHO in 2003. The aim of the OP is to orient health care providers to the special characteristics of adolescence and to appropriate approaches in addressing some adolescent-specific health needs and problems. The OP aims to strengthen the abilities of the health care providers to respond to adolescents more effectively and with greater sensitivity. The OP can significantly contribute to building national and regional capacity on adolescent health and development. (excerpt)
[Brussels, Belgium], EC / UNFPA Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia, . 15 p.The EC/UNFPA Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia (RHI) covers seven countries in South and South East Asia. It targets populations with very diverse reproductive health (RH) needs and, therefore, uses a wealth of different approaches. Altogether, the RHI consists of 42 projects, with more than 90 stakeholders. In addition, networks set up by individual projects enlist the collaboration of at least 100 community-based organisations (CBOs). For each country programme, a "country focus" was selected, taking into account the country's most urgent RH needs, the comparative advantage of civil society organisations and the recommendations of UNFPA, which were endorsed by the local advisory group, where existing. As a result three different country focus areas were defined. In Bangladesh, the five projects aim to improve the quality of RH care, in particular that of clinic-based RH services. The programmes in Cambodia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Sri Lanka and Viet Nam all focus on providing reproductive and sexual health (R&SH) information and services to young people and adolescents. The projects in Nepal and Pakistan concentrate on strengthening community based RH information and services. This report summaries a selection of some of the lessons learned, best practices and success stories resulting from the experience of over three years of implementation of the RHI in the seven countries. (excerpt)
Notes from the Field. 2001 Mar; (1): p..IPPF/WHR Evaluation Officer Rebecca was in Nicaragua February 11 - 17, 2001 to provide technical assistance for the UNFPA/UNFIP project, Sexual and Reproductive Health for Adolescents -- A Three Country Approach: Haiti, Nicaragua and Ecuador. "The great thing about this project is that it integrates the concept of adolescent SRH into the municipal governments' role in their communities and really institutionalizes an adolescent perspective. Working with local partners and the local municipal governments -- giving them a stake, a sense of ownership -- greatly increases the chance of this project carrying on after the initial funding ends. "This trip was interesting because we got to see a lot of the country in our visits to two of the participating municipalities. Jalapa is about six hours north of Managua. We had to leave our hotel at five o'clock in the morning. The country is still recovering from [Hurricane] Mitch [which struck Nicaragua in 1998]. The roads are really bumpy. While many towns that we passed through are made up of small adobe huts with a water pump in the center of town where people line up to get their water, we also passed towns with small concrete houses built with funds from international relief efforts after the hurricane. One village had a series of concrete UNICEF latrines." (excerpt)
Adolescent and Youth Sexual and Reproductive Health: Charting Directions for a Second Generation of Programming. A report on a workshop of the UNFPA in collaboration with the Population Council, 1--3 May 2002, New York.
New York, New York, Population Council, 2003.  p.The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), in collaboration with the Population Council, convened a three-day workshop that took place 1--3 May 2002 at the Population Council's headquarters in New York. The workshop provided an opportunity to review research and programs in the area of adolescent reproductive health and development (the "first generation") and to think critically about key lessons learned from this work as we move forward into the "second generation" of work with this important population. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions from that workshop. For the purposes of this executive summary, we are gathering key points into two clusters: those that underscore principles of program planning, design, and evaluation, and those that highlight neglected subjects or subgroups on the adolescent agenda. Where possible, reference is made to the sections of the report as well as the background paper where the reader may find more detailed descriptions. (excerpt)
Adolescence Education Newsletter. 2004 Dec; 7(2):19-20.For three years (2001-2003), the approach was pilot-tested in two sites (Kamasakit, Dallah Township and Sarmalauk, Nyaungdone Township), giving rise to a number of communityoperated youth centres. The lessons from these pilot tests were described in a new publication by the UNFPA Country Technical Services Team in Bangkok: The crucial support of community leaders was key to the community-based approach. Advocacy was carried out in the initial stage of implementation with activities targeting both national and local leaders and influencers. Activities were implemented regularly in the form of meetings, orientation and training sessions, participatory training workshops and site visits from high-level officials. (excerpt)
Adolescence Education Newsletter. 2005 Jun; 8(1):8.The regional project is jointly funded by UNFPA and UNICEF (with a budget of US $1,063,500) and implemented by SPC for an initial period of two years (2005 to 2006) in 14 Pacific Island countries: Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tokelau, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. The sexual behaviour of adolescents is changing rapidly in Pacific Island countries. As more adolescents become sexually active at increasingly early ages, they face greater risks of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS. This youth vulnerability in the Pacific is exacerbated by alcohol and drug abuse, sexual violence, mental health problems, suicidal tendencies, and delinquency. These problems are further compounded by increasing youth unemployment and parent-child generation gaps. Changing behaviour and practices among adolescents calls for concerted action to protect their physical and psycho-social well-being. (excerpt)