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Private sector: Who is accountable? for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. 2018 report. Summary of recommendations.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2018. 12 p.This report presents five recommendations, which are addressed to governments, parliaments, the judiciary, the United Nations (UN) system, the UN Global Compact, the Every Woman Every Child (EWEC) partners, donors, civil society and the private sector itself. Recommendations include: 1) Access to services and the right to health. To achieve universal access to services and protect the health and related rights of women, children and adolescents, governments should regulate private as well as public sector providers. Parliaments should strengthen legislation and ensure oversight for its enforcement. The UHC2030 partnership should drive political leadership at the highest level to address private sector transparency and accountability. 2) The pharmaceutical industry and equitable access to medicines. To ensure equitable, affordable access to quality essential medicines and related health products for all women, children and adolescents, governments and parliaments should strengthen policies and regulation governing the pharmaceutical industry. 3) The food industry, obesity and NCDs. To tackle rising obesity and NCDs among women, children and adolescents, governments and parliaments should regulate the food and beverage industry, and adopt a binding global convention. Ministries of education and health should educate students and the public at large about diet and exercise, and set standards in school-based programmes. Related commitments should be included in the next G20 Summit agenda. 4) The UN Global Compact and the EWEC partners. The UN Global Compact and the EWEC partners should strengthen their monitoring and accountability standards for engagement of the business sector, with an emphasis on women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. They should advocate for accountability of the for-profit sector to be put on the global agenda for achieving UHC and the SDGs, including at the 2019 High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development and the Health Summit. The UN H6 Partnership entities and the GFF should raise accountability standards in the country programmes they support. 5) Donors and business engagement in the SDGs. Development cooperation partners should ensure that transparency and accountability standards aligned with public health are applied throughout their engagement with the for-profit sector. They should invest in national regulatory and oversight capacities, and also regulate private sector actors headquartered in their countries.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2018. 80 p.In line with the mandate from the UN Secretary-General, every year the IAP issues a report that provides an independent snapshot of progress on delivering promises to the world’s women, children and adolescents for their health and well-being. Recommendations are included on ways to help fast-track action to achieve the Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health 2016-2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals - from the specific lens of accountability, of who is responsible for delivering on promises, to whom, and how. The theme of the IAP’s 2018 report is accountability of the private sector. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development will not be achieved without the active and meaningful involvement of the private sector. Can the private sector be held accountable for protecting women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health? And if so, who is responsible for holding them to account, and what are the mechanisms for doing so? This report looks at three key areas of private sector engagement: health service delivery the pharmaceutical industry and access to medicines the food industry and its significant influence on health and nutrition, with a focus NCDs and rising obesity.
Report 2017: Transformative accountability for adolescents: Accountability for health and human rights of women, children and adolescents in the 2030 agenda.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 2017. 64 p.Adolescents, who number 1.2 billion, or 1 in 6 of the global population, are the key for progress on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Every year, 1.2 million adolescents die, often from preventable causes—such as violence, suicide, pregnancy-related complications among girls, HIV/AIDS, road injuries and drowning, as well as diseases and respiratory infections. As the report states, however, high impact, cost effective solutions to improve adolescent health can yield huge benefits and billions in savings that can place them on better tracks for life, reaping demographic dividends. The Independent Accountability Panel (IAP), under its mandate by the UN Secretary-General to assess progress on the 2016-2030 Global Strategy on Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health in the context of the SDGs from the specific lens of who is accountable to whom, and for what, launched its 2017 report. The IAP’s six recommendations are to: 1) Leverage Accountability to Achieve the Global Strategy and the SDGs, 2) Make adolescents visible and measure what matters, 3) Foster whole-of-government accountability to adolescents, 4) Make universal health coverage work for adolescents, 5) Boost accountability for investments, including for adolescent health and well-being, and 6) Unleash the power of young people, by meaningfully engaging them in decision-making, and empowering them to seize the full potential of the digital age.
Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016 2030): Adolescents’ health. Report by the Secretariat.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2016 Dec 5. 6 p. (EB140/34)Pursuant to resolution WHA69.2 this report provides an update on the current status of women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. It is aligned with the report on the Progress in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (document EB140/32). The Secretariat in its regular reporting on progress towards women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health will choose a particular theme each year, focusing on priorities identified by Member States and topics for which there is new evidence to support country-led plans. For reporting to the Seventieth World Health Assembly, adolescent's health is the theme. (Excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2016 Dec 15. 138 p.This is the first draft of the Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescents (AA-HA!): Implementation guidance . This consultation aims to gather input from a wide range of stakeholders to inform the development of the guidance. Key messages include: 1. Adolescents (aged 10-19 years) make up one-sixth of the world’s population and are extremely diverse, but share key developmental experiences, such as rapid physical growth, hormonal changes, sexual development, new and complex emotions, and an increase in intellectual capacities. 2. Adolescent health is affected by positive physical, neurological, and psychosocial development, as well as a diverse array of possible burdens, including unintentional injury, interpersonal violence, sexual and reproductive health (SRH) concerns, communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases, and mental health issues. 3. In addition, numerous important risk factors for health problems start or are consolidated during adolescence and may continue over the life course, such as tobacco use, inadequate nutrition, physical inactivity, and alcohol and drug use. 4. There are strong demographic, public health, economic, and human rights reasons to invest in the health and the development of adolescents. For example, investing in adolescent health will benefit adolescents now, adolescents in their future lives, and also the next generation. 5. Three critical, overarching concepts in adolescent health programming are universal health coverage, quality of care, and positive development. 6. The Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016-2030) takes a life-course approach that aims for the highest attainable standards of health and wellbeing -- physical, mental, and social -- at every age. It identifies 27 evidence-based adolescent health interventions. 7. The Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescents (AA-HA!) implementation guidance document has been developed to support the Global Strategy and to provide countries with a basis for developing a coherent national plan for the health of adolescents. Specifically: Section 2 reviews adolescent positive development and major disease burdens; Section 3 describes the 27 Global Strategy adolescent health interventions in detail; Section 4 outlines how a country can prioritize health interventions for its particular adolescent population; Section 5 describes important aspects of successful national adolescent health programming; and Section 6 reviews adolescent health monitoring, evaluation, and research guidelines and priorities.
The Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents' Health 2016-2030. Survive, Thrive, Transform.
[New York, New York], Every Woman Every Child, 2015.  p.The ambition of the Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health is to end preventable deaths among all women, children and adolescents, to greatly improve their health and well-being and to bring about the transformative change needed to shape a more prosperous and sustainable future. This updated Global Strategy was developed by a wide range of national, regional and global stakeholders under the umbrella of the Every Woman Every Child movement, with strong engagement from WHO and builds upon the 2010-2015 Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health. Launched by the UN Secretary-General on 26 September in New York, this updated Global Strategy, spanning the 15 years of the SDGs, provides guidance to accelerate momentum for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. It should achieve nothing less than a transformation in health and sustainable development by 2030 for all women, children and adolescents, everywhere.
Feasibility and validity of using WHO adolescent job aid algorithms by health workers for reproductive morbidities among adolescent girls in rural North India.
BMC Health Services Research. 2015 Sep 21; 15(1):400.Background: High prevalence of reproductive morbidities is seen among adolescents in India. Health workers play an important role in providing health services in the community, including the adolescent reproductive health services. A study was done to assess the feasibility of training female health workers (FHWs) in the classification and management of selected adolescent girls' reproductive health problems according to modified WHO algorithms. Methods: The study was conducted between Jan-Sept 2011 in Northern India. Thirteen FHWs were trained regarding adolescent girls' reproductive health as per WHO Adolescent Job-Aid booklet. A pre and post-test assessment of the knowledge of the FHWs was carried out. All FHWs were given five modified WHO algorithms to classify and manage common reproductive morbidities among adolescent girls. All the FHWs applied the algorithms on at least ten adolescent girls at their respective sub-centres. Simultaneously, a medical doctor independently applied the same algorithms in all girls. Classification of the condition was followed by relevant management and advice provided in the algorithm. Focus group discussion with the FHWs was carried out to receive their feedback. Results: After training the median score of the FHWs increased from 19.2 to 25.2 (p - 0.0071). Out of 144 girls examined by the FHWs 108 were classified as true positives and 30 as true negatives and agreement as measured by kappa was 0.7 (0.5-0.9). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 94.3 % (88.2-97.4), 78.9 % (63.6-88.9), 92.5 % (86.0-96.2), and 83.3 % (68.1-92.1) respectively. Discussion: A consistent and significant difference between pre and post training knowledge scores of the FHWs were observed and hence it was possible to use the modified Job Aid algorithms with ease. Limitation of this study was the munber of FHWs trained was small. Issues such as time management during routine work, timing of training, overhead cost of training etc were not taken into account. Conclusions: Training was successful in increasing the knowledge of the FHWs about adolescent girls' reproductive health issues. The FHWs were able to satisfactorily classify the common adolescent girls' problems using the modified WHO algorithms.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health, 2014.  p. (WHO/FWC/MCA/14.05)The report summarized in this document brings together all WHO guidance concerning adolescents across the full spectrum of health issues. It offers a state-of-the-art overview of four core areas for health sector action: providing health services; collecting and using the data needed to plan and monitor health sector interventions; developing and implementing health-promoting and health-protecting policies; and mobilizing and supporting other sectors. The report concludes with key actions for strengthening national health sector responses to adolescent health. The website will be the springboard for consultation with a wide range of stakeholders leading to a concerted action plan for adolescents.
Global Public Health. 2014 Jun 3; 9(6):607–619.On the twentieth anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), activists, governments and diplomats engaged in the fight for sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) are anxious to ensure that these issues are fully reflected in the development agenda to succeed the Millennium Development Goals after 2015. In inter-governmental negotiations since 1994 and particularly in the period 2012-2014, governments have shown that they have significantly expanded their understanding of a number of so-called ‘controversial’ issues in the ICPD agenda, whether safe abortion, adolescent sexual and reproductive health services, comprehensive sexuality education or sexual rights. As in the past and in spite of an increasingly complex and difficult multilateral environment, countering the highly organized conservative opposition to SRHR has required a well-planned and determined mobilization by progressive forces from North and South.
The PMNCH 2013 report. Analysing progress on commitments to the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health, 2013.  p.The main objective of this year’s report is to assess the extent to which the 293 stakeholders who have made commitments to the Global Strategy since its launch in 2010 (up to June 2013) have implemented their commitments, and the extent to which implementation is contributing to reaching the goals of the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health. It is not a comprehensive stocktaking of all that is being done at national, regional and global levels to improve women’s and children’s health. The content of the report is based on a range of information sources and data collection methods as relevant to the nature of the individual commitments and their implementation. The methods used were: a content analysis of all commitment statements from the Every Woman Every Child website; an online survey sent to commitment-makers, of which 120 fully completed the survey; detailed interviews based on semi-structured questionnaires with a selection of stakeholders; and an extensive desk review of relevant literature and databases.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2012 Apr.  p.Adolescents experience intense physical, psychological, emotional and economic changes as they make the transition from childhood to adulthood. This edition of Progress for Children sets out who adolescents are, where they live, what they do, what their problems are and how their needs are -- or are not -- being met. Understanding adolescents in all their diversity is fundamental to improving their lives.
A review of population, reproductive health, and adolescent health and development in poverty reduction strategies.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Health, Nutrition and Population Central Unit, Population and Reproductive Health Cluster, 2004 Aug.  p.This review examines how poverty reduction strategies are addressing population (Pop), reproductive health (RH), and adolescent health and development (AHD) issues. We analyzed twenty-one Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and associated documents, and conducted interviews with Health, Nutrition, and Population (HNP) staff at the World Bank involved in the poverty reduction strategy process. Based on this review, we recommend actions that the Bank, other donors, government counterparts, and civil society groups can take to better support countries to address Pop/RH/AHD issues in their poverty reduction efforts. Population, reproductive health, and adolescent health and development issues are closely interrelated in cause, consequence and policy implications. To maintain a stronger focus on these three issues, we chose not to analyze related concerns such as gender, nutrition, and education -- all essential components of the multisectoral approach advocated by the Cairo Programme of Action (ICPD, 1994). Other reviews have examined these related issues in greater depth. This paper complements a growing body of work reviewing the application of the PRS framework to poverty alleviation in low-income countries. Compared to previous health and related sector reviews, it provides a more in-depth look at Pop/RH/AHD issues, examines documents related to the PRSP such as the JSA and CAS, and incorporates interviews of key actors with Pop/RH/AHD expertise involved in the PRS process. This review is meant to complement findings from other reviews of the PRS process that focus on broader issues of relevance to all sectors. Our analysis relied on several of these relevant internal and external reviews, including in-depth reviews of gender, the health sector, nutrition, and population and development issues. (Excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2011.  p.This report catalogues, in heart-wrenching detail, the array of dangers adolescents face: the injuries that kill 400,000 of them each year; early pregnancy and childbirth, a primary cause of death for teenage girls; the pressures that keep 70 million adolescents out of school; exploitation, violent conflict and the worst kind of abuse at the hands of adults. It also examines the dangers posed by emerging trends like climate change, whose intensifying effects in many developing countries already undermine so many adolescents' well-being, and by labour trends, which reveal a profound lack of employment opportunities for young people, especially those in poor countries. Adolescence is not only a time of vulnerability, it is also an age of opportunity. This is especially true when it comes to adolescent girls. We know that the more education a girl receives, the more likely she is to postpone marriage and motherhood -- and the more likely it is that her children will be healthier and better educated. By giving all young people the tools they need to improve their own lives, and by engaging them in efforts to improve their communities, we are investing in the strength of their societies. Through a wealth of concrete examples, The State of the World's Children 2011 makes clear that sustainable progress is possible. It also draws on recent research to show that we can achieve that progress more quickly and cost-effectively by focusing first on the poorest children in the hardest-to-reach places. Such a focus on equity will help all children, including adolescents. (Excerpt)
Positive indicators of child well-being: a conceptual framework, measures, and methodological issues.
Florence, Italy, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, 2009.  p. (Innocenti Working Paper No. IWP-2009-21)This paper highlights a number of frameworks for developing indicators that examine the positive well-being of children, rather than just indicators that reflect negative behavior (like drug use, smoking, and others).
New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2008. 101 p.This publication shows how various parts of the United Nations system support youth development with a diverse range of programs covering all 15 priority areas of the World Programme of Action for Youth. Several of these priority areas relate to reproductive health and HIV, and numerous UN agencies include activities on these topics in their programming. This document includes illustrative activities for each agency, key publications, and contact information.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2008. 20 p.The first few days and weeks of life are among the most critical for child survival. Every year, an estimated 4 million children die during the first month of life. Almost all of these deaths (98%) occur in developing countries. Most neonatal deaths are due to ore-term birth, asphyxia and infections such as sepsis, tetanus and pneumonia. In 2006-2007, to support efforts by countries and regions to reduce newborn deaths, we worked to build capacity for the planning and delivery of improved newborn care services in health facilities and communities, to provide tools and guidance for extending population coverage, and to evaluate the impact of all those actions. (excerpt)
The sexual and reproductive health of young people in Latin America: Evidence from WHO case studies.
Salud Publica de Mexico. 2008 Jan-Feb; 50(1):10-16.This original article addresses the sexual and reproductive health needs of young people aged 15 to 24 in Latin America. It introduces five articles from original research projects in three countries: Argentina, Brazil, and Peru. These projects were funded by the World Health Organization. This article explains the importance of studies that address the sexual and reproductive health of young people in developing countries. It provides an overview of sexual and reproductive health issues in Latin America and a discussion these issues in the three study countries. The five articles deal with difficult and challenging issues, including: knowledge of STIs and HIV/ AIDS; pregnancy related practices; quality of care; the role of young men in couple formation, pregnancy and adoption of contraceptive practice; and, the role of obstetricians and gynecologists in public policy debate about family planning and abortion. The four articles in this special section help to improve our understanding of the factors that contribute to risky sexual behavior and negative reproductive health outcomes among youth in Latin America. The findings are useful to help inform and improve health care interventions in various contexts. (author's)
Directions in Global Health. 2007 Sep; 4(2):1-11.The health of women in the developing world is a growing priority for the global community. We are increasingly aware of women's vulnerability to AIDS and other diseases-and the cultural factors that can reduce their opportunities to live healthy lives. At the same time, there is ever-greater recognition of women's enormous influence on the health and well-being of their communities. PATH has been a front-runner in the race to offer women better health solutions since our first project, in the late 1970s-helping manufacturers in China set up facilities for producing high-quality condoms and other contraceptives. Today PATH's work extends across the spectrum of women's health. The projects highlighted in this issue of Directions range from better care for mothers and infants to new options for woman-initiated protection against HIV to programs that help give women an equal chance at a healthy life. We anticipate that over the next decade, the investment in women among PATH and organizations like us will only continue to deepen. When women are healthy, so are their families and communities-the starting point for a stronger, more stable world. (excerpt)
Handbook of supply management at first-level health care facilities. 1st version for country adaptation.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. 73 p. (WHO/HIV/2006.03)All first-level health care facilities, namely primary health care clinics and outpatient departments based in district hospitals, use medicines and related supplies. It takes a team effort to manage these supplies, involving all health care facility staff: doctors, nurses, health workers and storekeepers. This is especially true in small facilities with only one or two health workers. Each staff member should know how to manage all supplies at the health care facility correctly. Each staff member has an important role. The Handbook of Supply Management at First-Level Health Care Facilities describes all major medicines and supply management tasks, known as the standard procedures of medicines supply management at first-level health care facilities. Each chapter covers one major task, explains how the task fits into the process of maintaining a consistent supply of medicines, and recommends which standard procedures to use. Annexes at the back of the handbook contain various checklists and examples of forms which can be introduced as needed at your health care facility. This handbook is part of a package used in an integrated training and capacity-building course targeted at first-level health care facilities. It can be used in conjunction with the existing Integrated Management of Adult and Adolescent Illness (IMAI) strategy developed by WHO. It can also be used for basic training activities independent of IMAI training courses. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2007.  p.In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with the Department of Population and Family Health at Johns Hopkins University, commenced a review of interventions that aim to assist the parents of adolescents in developing countries improve adolescent health and development. Please refer to Helping parents in developing countries improve adolescents' health for additional information. This effort sought to identify such projects and this document is a summary of the information collected. The methodology employed to identify projects included a search of published studies through computerized databases including PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychARTICLES, POPLINE and the Cochrane Library, and a review of the grey literature of international intergovernmental health/development organizations such as the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), as well as non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Individuals and organizations working in the fields of adolescent reproductive health, substance abuse, violence and mental health were also contacted, in addition to a search of the internet. Whenever possible, project staff were interviewed by telephone using a standardized interview guide. Project summaries were drafted and reviewed by project staff. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2007. 37 p.One fifth of the world's population - a total of 1.2 billion people - are adolescents, and 85% of them are in the developing world. Adolescence is a time of unprecedented promise - and peril. During the second decade of life, young people can encounter a rapidly widening world of opportunities, as they gradually take on adult characteristics in size, sexual characteristics, thinking skills, identity and economic and social roles. Too often, however, the widening world also exposes adolescents to serious risks before they have adequate information, skills and experience to avoid or counteract them. Their level of maturity and social status is no match for some challenges, unless they are provided with support, information and access to resources. Without help, the consequences of health risk behaviours in adolescence can be life-threatening and life-long. Nearly two thirds of premature deaths and one third of the total disease burden in adults can be associated with conditions or behaviours that begin in youth. 1 To protect and preserve our subsequent generations, no better investment can be made in the developing world than to foster promotion of adolescent development and prevention of health risk behaviours among adolescents. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, . 44 p.This document is based on the Fund's commitment to invest in adolescents and youth and help them gain access to opportunities. For countries experiencing or about to experience the demographic transition and for countries showing a significant youth bulge, social investments in young people can help to achieve a healthy, socio-economically productive and poverty-free society. This document's primary focus is on translating the Fund's commitment to action. It is based on UNFPA's extensive experience of working for more than thirty years in the area of adolescents and youth. It does not provide all the answers, but it charts a roadmap for positioning UNFPA for action. (excerpt)
Danish Medical Bulletin. 2007 May; 54:150-152.In general, children and adolescents in the WHO European Region today have better nutrition, health and development than ever before. There are striking inequalities in health status across the 52 countries in the Region, however, with over ten-fold differences in infant and child mortality rates. Inequalities are also growing within countries, and several health threats are emerging. Against this background, the WHO Regional Office for Europe has developed a European strategy for child and adolescent health and development. The purpose of the Strategy, together with a tool kit for implementation, is to assist member states in formulating their own policies and programmes. (author's)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006.  p. (Implementing the Global Reproductive Health Strategy. Policy Brief No. 4)In 2005, there were 1.21 billion adolescents (people aged 10--19 years) in the world -- the largest-ever number in the history of mankind. Population in this age group is estimated to continue to increase until the year 2040, to finally reach 1.23 billion. Addressing the sexual and reproductive health needs and problems of adolescents is a crucial element of the WHO Global Reproductive Health Strategy. In many parts of the world the sexual and reproductive health needs of adolescents are either poorly understood or not fully appreciated. Evidence is growing that this neglect can seriously jeopardize the health and future well-being of young people. This policy brief is intended for policy-makers, programme managers and others engaged in the planning and implementation of programmes on sexual and reproductive health. It highlights what needs to be done to promote and protect the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2004.  p. (WHO/ EIP/HRH/NUR/2004.1; WHO/ FCH/ CAH/04.4)One in five people in the world today are adolescents between 10 and 19 years of age, and 85% of adolescents live in developing countries. Throughout the world, adolescence is considered to be a time of relative health and, as a result, a wide range of adolescent health issues is being neglected. In response to this need, the World Health Organization (WHO) departments of Child and Adolescent Health and Development (CAH) and Human Resources for Health (HRH) embarked on an initiative to focus on adolescent health and development by strengthening the educational preparation of nurses and midwives. Nurses and midwives are in a unique position by virtue of their education, numbers, and diversity of practice arenas to contribute to promoting the highest attainable standard of health among adolescents. Preparing providers to meet adolescents' health needs is a challenge requiring planned educational experiences within the nursing and midwifery curriculum. Integrating adolescent health and development into pre-service nursing and midwifery curricula provides the background for identifying core competencies and for the integration of essential content into curricula. This background paper and accompanying tools provide the foundation for the work of a global partnership of WHO Collaborating Centres to achieve the aims of this vital initiative. (author's)